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Full text of "The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine"

AMERICA 



1 

•se (two years), 
'crtiSettM for 
vear). 




SEPTEMBER, 1914 



^ 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 



A Liberal Education . - 

The Mechanical Mind 

Self Unfoldment - 

General Suggestions for September Program, 

Work Done by Kindergartners 

Proposed Constitution for Mother's Circle or Club 

Little Plays and Little Pieces for Little People 

A Picture Lesson 

A Hard Task - 

"Come Along," Study Picture 

Mother Play Picture .... 

Standards for Kindergarten Training 

Block Building, Detroit Public Schools 

Barnyard Illustration - 

The Greeting ... . 

Nero, Rollo and Puss - 

A Finger Play - - - 

Straight Line Cutting 

Patterns for Doll's House . . . . 

Toy Making in the Kindergarten 

A Few Wise Thoughts on Discipline 

The Committee of the Whole 

Montessori and the Kindergarten 

First Grade Construction Work 

Book Notes - 

Suggestive Gift and Occupation Lessons for Primary 

Suggestions for Blackboard Drawing 

Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers 

Rural School Improvement 

Kindergarten Progress - - - - - 

Kindergarten Appreciation ... 



Alexander Meiklejohn 
Dr. John Greer Hibhen 
Dr. W. N. Hailmann 
"Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 



Mary E. Cotting 
Albert Sprout 
Meyer Von Bremen 

Luella A. Palmer 



Bertha Johnston 
Susan Plessner Pollock 
Carrie L. Wagner 
Carrie L. Wagner 
John T. Dunlop 
John T. "Dunlop 

Bertha Johnston 
Elizheth Harrison 



and Rural Teachen 

Laura %ountree Smith 
Grace Do<w 



2 
3 
5 
6 
8 
12 
13 
14 
14 
15 
16-17 
18 
20 
20 
21 
22 
23 
23 
24 
25 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 35 
30 



31 
32 
33 
33 
34 



Volume XXVII. No. I 



$1.00 per Year, IB cents per Cop? 



■ 



* 



WOMAN'S MAGAZINE 



-LISHED monthly at Cincinnati, O., 49 Bjdmann 
Building. Contains articles of literary value to the 
general reader as well as the club woman. Full reports 
of National and State Conventions of important organ- 
izations appear during the year, and letters from club 
presidents and chairwomen of committees give des- 
criptions of the work being accomplished by the Gen- 
eral Federation of Women's Clubs; Suffrage Associa- 
tions: The Women's Christian Temperance UnioD; Pa- 
triotic Societies and miscellaneous clubs. Terms, $1.50 
per year, payable in advance. 



Address 



M. B. CORWIN, Pub.,«£5E*£* 



Knows no Competitor. Published for 4 1 Years. Carefully edited 



•THE- 



NATIONAL HUMANE JOURNAL 

"THE MAGAZINE WITH A MISSION" 

Representing 

The Anti-Cruelty and Humane Societies of the United States 

•'Speaks for those who cannot speak 
for themselves" 

Subscription price, one dollar per year, ten cents per copy. 

SPECIAL LOW RATES 

TO ADVERTISERS OF 
Notions, Novelties, Pest Cards, Specialties, 

Supplies, General Mail Order and Agents' Goods 

FOR THE NEXT THIRTY DAYS 

160 N. Fifth Avenue, CHICAGO, ILL. 



THE LITERARY INSTITUTE 

The Dennison. COLUMBUS, OHIO 

PRODUCTIONS AT POPULAR PRICES 

Address, Speeches, Orations, Debates, Oulines, Programs, 

Sermons, Lectures, Essays, Poems, Sketches, 

Articles, Stories. 

The Oldest and Best Literary Agency in the United States 

Write us your needs and ask for particulars. 




SOMETHING TO DO 

A MAGAZINE 
For Primary and Elementary teachers. It furnishes 25 kinds of 
useful and instructive things to do every month. Pronounced the 
most remarkable magazine of its kind ever produced. Edited by 
Henry Turner Bailey on the same high plane as the School Arts 
Magazine. 

SOMETHING TO DO--$1.00 A YEAR 

School Arts Publishing Company 

BOSTON, MASS. 



Have You A Quarter To Invest? 



Would you send 25 cents away if 
you knew you would get back $15.00 
In a short time?' If you are a teacher 
you need to know the main points 
in present history quite as much as 
past history or arithmetic or lang- 
uage. If you are a citizen of a great 
country you need to be intelligent 
about the condition of the country. 
It is worth while to be considered 
intelligent— brighter than the ordi- 
nary person. Can you figure what 
it would be worth to you next -year 
to be more intelligent? It will be 
worth $25.00 to you the poorest year 
you ever will see. 25 cents will bring 
The World's Chronicle Weekly, for 13 
weeks Send for it tod<iy. This is one 
of the things an ambitious person 
ought to do. Thirteen weeks will 
show its real value to you. One man 
had to attend a meeting and on the 
way read the Chronicle. At that 
meeting he found the knowledge 
just gained was new to the others 
and marked him as a superior per- 
son. It meant much more to him 
than $25.00 — how much more, he has 
not figured out yet. Why be ignor- 
ant of the most vital matters when 
so small a sum places them within 
your reach. The articles are written 
so you can understand them readily, 
and they put you in Jline for ad- 
vancement.: 

On trial 13 weeks, 25 cents. 10r send 
$1.00 for a full year. 

THE WORLD'S CHRONICLE, 542 S. 
DEARBORN STREET. CHICAGO 



i 







BOWLDEN BELLS 

FOR SCHOOLS 

From $8.00 to $25 00 

FOR CHURCHES 

From $25.00 to $125.00 

Write for free 

catalogue. 

flMERIGnN BELL St 

FOUNDRY CO. 

Northville, Mich. 



WHITE MOUNTAIN 
=EDUCAT0R^ 



LANCASTER. N. H. 

A new periodical devoted to 
Interests of education in Vermont 
and New Hampshire and all New 
England. 

Circulation extending through 
South and West. 

Terms: $1.00 a year. 

Advertising rates on application. 



THE KINDERGARTEN 

By SUSAN E. BLOW 

PATTY S. HILL 
ELIZABETH HARRISON 

This Report of the Committee of Nine- 
teen of the International Kindergarten 
Union should be carefully studied by 
every kindergartner who purposes to 
keep abreast of the times. 
$1.25 postpaid. Address, 

J. H. Shulta Co., Manistee. Mich. 



: 



RELIABLE KINDERQARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



Class Rooms and 
Students' Residence 



GERTRUDE BOUSE, 

54 Scott St., Chicago. 



Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Coarse (two years), 

and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificate* for 

Home-making Course, non-professional (one year). 

• %+*r%^r%^%, **'*%'*'%''*%<'%'%'%%'%%<'%%<'%'*'%'%'• 

Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University O-f 
Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise. 

For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, M Scott St. 



NATIONAL 

KINDERGARTEN 

COLLEGE 

ELIZABETH HARRISON, Pres. 

Summer School June 1 6 to Aug. 8 

Kindergarten Course 

All Kindergarten subjects. Montes- 
sori Methods. Art. Folk Dancing. 

Primary Course 

Primary Methods. Montessori Me- 
thods. Art. Folk Dancing. 

Credits applied on Regular Courses 

For full information address 

Box 600, 2944 M ichigan Blvd. 

CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

2108 CONNECTICUT AVE. 

Kindergarten and Primary Courses 
A limited number of resident pupils 

MISS HARRIET NIEL 

Successor to Miss LAURA FISHER 

Training School for Kindergartners 

Normal Course two years. Graduate 

and Special Courses. 
319 Marlborough st. Boston. Mass. 

EVERY KINDERGARTNER 

Who can read and play simple music 

correctly, can add to her usefulness 

and income. 

For particulars write to 

MRS. ANNA HEUERMANN HAMILTON 

FULTON, MISSOURI 
Author of First Piano Lessons at Home 



Kindergarten Teachers and Students 

will be interested in my investigation and study of 
the MONTESSORI METHOD IN ROME, and my 
practical adaptation of the Method to the American 
School for little children. I will be glad to send il- 
lustrated pamphlet on request. 
Mrs. J. Scott Anderson, Directoress,TorresdaIe House 

Training course begins October 1st. 

AMERICAN MONTESSORI TEACHER-TRAINING SCHOOL 

Torresdalfi, Philadelphia, Pa. 



•-PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL: 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

S09 S. 'Wabash Ave., opp. Audito- 
rium. CHICAGO. 

Post-Graduate, Home-Making, Primary 
and Playground courses. Special cour- 
ses by University Professors. Includes 
opportunity to become familiar with 
Social Settlement Movement at Chica- 
go Commons. 
For circulars and information address, 

BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER. Supt. 
West Chicago, 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 

students. 

Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Hlginbotham, Pres. 
Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vlce-Pre*. 
SAKAH E. HANSON, Principal. 
Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago Universities. 
For particulars address E*a B. Whit- 
more, (Kupt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich. 
ave., Chicago. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, V? 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 

Two years' training In Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Pottt- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 

MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 
Two years normal course accredited 
by State Board of Regents. 
SUMMER COURSES 
May be taken for Kindergarten Train- 
ing School and University credit. 
New York University, 
University Heights 

July 1, August 11 

For information address 

MISS HARRIETTE M.MILLS, Frtnejpsi 

New York University 
Washington Square, New York City. 



Connecticut froebel Normal 

Kindergarten Primary Training School 
Academic, kindergarten, primary and 
playground courses, Boarding and day 
school. Extensive facilities for thor- 
ough and quick work. 14th year. Book- 
lets. State certificates. Address. 

MARY C. MILLS. Principal. 

181 West avenue. Bridgeport, Coma. 



GRAND RAPIDS KINDERGAR- 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 
MAY L. OGILBY. Registrar 

New Quarters, - 508 Fountain St. 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 

Two Tears' Coarse of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WTLLETTE A. ALLEN. Principal, 
«» Peaehtree Street. ATLANTA, QA. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 1914 

1516 Columbia Road, N. W. WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The eitixenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollock, Principal 

Teachers' Training- Course — Two Years 

Summer Training Classes at Mt. Ghatauqua -Mountain Lake Park- 
Garrett Co., Maryland 



The Elizabeth K. Matthews Kin- 
dergarten Training School 

Lucretia Court, . Portland, Ore. 

Regular course two years. Theory and 
practice in private, public and settle- 
ment kindergartens. 
For circulars address 

MISS ELIZABETH K. MATTHEWS 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



THE NEW YORK 

KINDERGARTEN 
ASSOCIATION 



THE- 



WILL OPEN A 



OCTOBER 1st, 1914 

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

MISS LAURA FISHER 

NORMAL COURSE, TWO YEARS 

OBSERVATION AND PRACTICE TEACHING IN 

THE KINDERGARTENS OF THE ASSOCIATION 

For Circulars address 

524 W. 42nd St., New York City 



Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 23rd Year 

froebel School of Kindergarten 

TJnrmnl f!ln<a«A« boston, mass 

.mormai Classes P1EBCE B fa LDING 

COPLEY SQ. 

Prepares for Kindergarten. Primary and 
Playground positions. Theory and practice 
strong. Special work under "best educators. 
Graduates are holdiug valuable positions. 
Circulars. 



Kindergarten Norma! Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

HORTBNSB M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

•he Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 



Normal Training School 

Two Taars' Course. Terms, $100 per year. 
Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

BnUNOFIBIJ) — LONOMEADOff, MASS. 



Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association. 
Two Years' Course. For particulars ad. 
dress 



MISS ELLA C. 
86 Delaware Avenue 



ELDER 

Buffalo. IM. Y. 



sellers College 

OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for all grades 
of teaching. Two. Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This College specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary atid Intermediate 
Grade Teaching, 
Special classes in Public School Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art. and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

aiZA A. MAKER, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 



TWO YEARS' COURSE 

Instruction in Primary Methods. 

STUDENTS' RESIDENCE. 

SARA K. LIPPINCOTT/ . . . 
SUSAN C. BAKER \ "inc. pals 

2108 Conn. Ave . Washington, D. C. 



Mice Hart'c TRAINING SCHOOL 

111133 SSUSi 3 For Kindergartners 
3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Practice Kinder- 
gartens. Opens October 1st. 1M4. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 

The Pines. Rutledge. Pa. 



■CLEVELAND- 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kinderg-arten Colleg-e 

2050 East 96th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 

Founded in 1S94 
Course of study under direction of Eliz- 
abeth Harrison, covers t w o years in 
Cleveland, leading to Senior and Nor- 
mal Courses in the National Kinder- 
garten College. 

MISS NETTA FARRIS, Principal 




Law froek! Kindergarten 
Training School and School 
of Culture for Young Ladies 

Forty Practice Schools. 
Medical Supervision. 
Certificate and Diploma 
Courses. 
2313 ASHLAND AVE. 
TOLEDO, OHIO 



Ethical Culture School 

Central Park WeKt and 63d St. 



mal Training Department 

Prof. Patty S. Hill, of Teachers College. 

Educational Advisor and Instructor 

in Kindergarten Theory. 

Two years' Kindergarten course. Af- 
ternoon courses in Primary methods 
for Kindergarten teachers, leading to a 
Kindergarten-Primary diploma 
For particulars address 

CATHERINE J. TRACY 

Principal 




Offers unusual advantages for Graduate 

S ndj'. 

SEASON OF 1914-1915 

PUBLIC LECTURES 

Subject 

MOTHERS' MEETINGS AND VISITPiG 

Miss Fannicbelle Curtis, Director 0! Public School 

Kindergartens. 

GRADUATE COURSES 

DANTE'S DIVINE COMEDY 
GAMES KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

KINDERGARTEN GIFTS PROGRAM MAKING 

LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN 
TUITION FREE Apply lor Prospectus to 

MISS LAURA FISHER 

Director Department of GRADUATE STWDY 
524 jr. 42nd Street, NEIC YOKK CITY 

Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 



Child Welfare course one year. 
Regular course two years. 
Full course three years. 
Address 

LUCY WHEELOCK 

IOO Riverway, BOSTON 



Pratt Institute 

School of Kindergarten Training 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Normal Courses for Kindergarten, two 
years. Special Courses for Teachers 
and Mothers. Plays with Kindergar- 
ten and Supplementary Materials. 
Kindergarten Games. Outdoor Sports. 
Tennis and Swimming. Gardening. 
Nature Study. Music, Voice and Pi- 
ano. Literature for Children. Sto- 
ry-telling. Educational Subjects. Psy- 
chology and Child Study. Practice 
Teaching and Observation in the Kin- 
dergartens of Greater New York 

ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Fall term opens Sept. 23, 1914 



AGENCIES FOR KINDERGARTNERS AND PRIMARY TEACHERS 

THIS list of Teachers' Agencies is published for the benefit of our subscribers. It includes only those who claim to be able 

to secure positions for Kindergartners or Primary Teachers. We advise those in need of positions to write one or more 

of these agencies for particulars. Even though now employed you may be able to secure a position in a larger or better school. 



The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teachers, Tutois and 
School*. No. 120 Boylston street. 



1HE REED TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Can place Kindergarten and Primary 
Teachers in New York, New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania at good salaries. 

H. E. REED, Manager, Syracuse, N. Y. 
641 Univtrsity Block. 



THE PRATT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Recommends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and'other. teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 
70 Fifth Avenue New York 



MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

Station A. Spokane, Wash. 
We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of Primary and Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 



REGISTER WITH US. 

We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt., 
Principals, Teachers of Science, Math- 
ematics and Language. 

OHIO VALLEY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

A. J. JOELY, Mgr. MENTOR., KY. 

ALBANY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Provides public and private schools 
with competent teachers. 

Assists teachers and kindergartners 
in obtaining positions. 

81 Chapel Street. ALBANY. N Y. 



THIS IS THE TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR OF 

The ClARK TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Which proves conclusively its 

standing. Try them. Address, 

Steinway Hall. Chicago: Lincoln, Neb. 

Spokane, Wash. 



THE 



THWESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 



310-311 PfiOVTDENCE BUILDING 



DULUTH. MINN. 



RELIABLE TEACHERS' A6ENCY 

Trained Primary and Kindergarten 
Teachers needed. Good positions. Per- 
manent membership. Write to-day. 
612-613 Majestic Building, 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 



INTERSTATE Teachers' Agency 

5'il-503 Livingston Building. Rochester, 
N. Y. Gives special attention to plac- 
ing Kindergarten and Primary Teach- 
ers in all parts of the United States. 
T. H. ARMSTRONG, Proprietor. 



SOUTHERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

COLUMBIA, S C. 

There is an increasing demand for Pri- 
mary Teachers and Kindergartners 
throughout the South. Our agency is 
one of the largest and best known in 
this splendid territory for teachers. Ask 
for booklet, A PLAN. 
W. H. JONES, Manager and Proprietor. 



WESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY §^ a 8 

We wantKindergarten, Primary, Rural 
and otherteachers for regular or special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit- 
erature and enroll for the coming year. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manag-er, 



The JMngle Teachers' Agency 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

A Placing Agency for Teachers. Estab 

lished 20 years. Register for Western 

Kindergarten-Primary positions. Send 

for circular 



DEWBERRY 
SCHOOL 
AGENCY 

1892-1914 



CPECIALLY trained Kindergarten and Primary 
^ teachers in demand in the best schools through- 
out the South and Southwest. Teachers interested 
should get in touch with us. 

Address, R. A. CLAYTON, Manager. 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 



HIGHEST SALARIES-BEST OPPORTUNITIES ^T^&l?^ 

need KINDERGARTEN, PRIMARY and other t-achers for private and public schools. 
Write for "POSITION AND PROMOTION PROBLEMS SOLVED." No Regis- 
tration fee. WESTERN REFERENCE & BOND ASSOCIATION, 

667 Scarrett Building, KANSAS CITY, Mo. 



WESTERN POSITIONS FOR TEACHERS 

We are the agency for securing positions for Teachers in Colorado. Oklahoma 
South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, California, Nebraska, Nevada. 
Arizona Montana, Kansas, Idaho, Utah, North Dakota, and New Mexico. 
Write us to-day, for our Free Booklet, showing how we place most of our teach- 
ers outright. Our Booklet, "Mow to Apply for a School and ;>ecure Promotion" with 
Laws of Certification of Teachers of Western States, free to members or sent 
prepaid for Fifty cents in stamps. Money refunded if not satisfied. 






Kindergartners and Primary Teachers 

Are in constant demand in the South at 
good salaries. We can place both. 

The Teachers 3 Exchange 

P. O. Box 283, Nashville, Tenn. 



QUR OPPORTUNITIES for placing 
Kindergarten and Primary Teachers 
exceed our supply. No charge until you 
accept position. 

Lewis Teachers' Agency 

41 Lyman Block, M usketfon, Mich. 



Sabins' Educational Exchange 

(Inc.) DES MOINES, IOWA. 

Wants to hear from kindergarten or 

primary teachers desiring places west 

of Mississippi river. Write fully. Will 

answer frankly. 



AN AGENCY SSSfflSfft 

its influence If it merely hears of va- 
cancies and tells TLjAT is some- 
you about them ■ !"/"* 9 thing, 
but if it is asked to recommend ateach- 

youtha d t RECOMMENDS 

is more. Ours recommends. 

The School Bulletin Atfency 

C. W. BARDEEN. Syracuse, N. Y. 



E PLACE 



Many Primary 
Teachers each 
year. Some Kindergartners. No charge 
until teacher is located by us. Send for 
registration blank. A. H. Campbell, 

American Teachers' Ag-ency 

Myrick Building, Springfield, Mass. 

A PI AN Whereby the Teacher 
r-\ i B_j-tiM is brought in touch 
with opportunity at that critical mo- 
ment when each is in search of the oth- 
er, is set forth in our forty-page booklet 
telling all about the South as a field for 
Primary and Kindergarten teachers. 
Get it. 



Columbia, S. C. 



The South and West 

Offer good opportunities for Primary 
and Kindergarten teachers. For infor- 
mation write CLAUDE J. BELL, 

Bell Teachers' Ag-ency. 

Nashville, Tenn. 



'S 



AGENCY 



GEARY, OKLAHOMA 

Only Competent Teachers Enrolled. 
WRITE US YOUR WANTS 



CENTRAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

A good medium for trained primary 
teachers to use in securing promotion. 
Write to-day. E. C. ROGERS. Mtfr. 



#■ J t- 



& ,Vv 









P. <X"rin. \sj ^ 



8$ 






i\ 




w 



LANGUAGE SUGGESTIONS. Let the children tell in their own way what they see in the pic- 
ture, AND SOMETHING ABOUT THE OBJECTS THAT INTEREST THEM. — Marguerite B. SuttOU. 




THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY- 



MAGAZINE 



Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c, and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J, H. SHULTS, Manager. 




SEPTEMBER, 1914. 

EDITORIAL NOTES 

"Es fer war, I call it murder; 
There yer hev it, plain and flat. 
I don't need to go no furder 
Than my testayment fer that." 



Oh judgments! thou art flown to brutish beasts; 
and men have lost their reason." 



We are pleased to continue the department by 
Grace Dow. It has been an inspiration to rural 
teachers. 



An excellent series entitled "Toy Making in the 
Kindergarten," by John Y. Dunlop, of Glasgow, Scot- 
land, is begun in this issue. 



We are pleased to present another article, from the 
pen of Dr. W. N. Hailmann in this issue. Dr. Hail- 
mann has recently moved to California. 



We feel certain that the picture study series, by 
Mary E. Cotting, begun in this issue, will prove help- 
ful to all trainers of little children. 



We are re-publishing in this issue helpful articles 
by Lillian Claxton North, on Clay Modeling. They 
will be concluded in the October number. 



We purpose to give in each issue this year a full 
page illustration for little children, by Marguerite 
B. Sutton, of Dansville, New York, relating to langu- 
age and story lessons. 



We give in this issue a portion of a most excellent 
address, by Luella A. Palmer entitled, "Standards 
for Kindergarten Training." The remainder of the 
address will appear next month. 



The article on Mother's Meetings, by Dr. Jenny 
B. Merrill, which appears in this issue, should be 
carefully read and studied by every Kindergartner. 
Her valuable program suggestions are continued. 



In these troublesome times of war between many 
nations, what must be the attitude of the teacher hav- 
ing pupils of foreign parentage within her room; 
certainly one of neutrality as regards the interests 
of the nations involved, but incidentally a horror of 



VOL. XXVII— No. 1 

form may be inculcated 



war and strife of every 

and a love of peace and good will fostered. 



We shall be glad to hear from our subscribers as 
to whether or not they would like us to continue the 
small pictures which appeared with each issue of 
our magazine last year. Were you able to make 
practical use of these? Have you any preference as 
to subject? Just consider this a personal invitation 
to you, to express your preference in the matter. 



Miss Bertha Johnston, editor of the Committee of 
the Whole, earnestly solicits correspondence from 
kindergartners primary and rural teachers relative 
to any problems which confront them in their work 
with little children. All communications will be 
answered in her department without charge, in the 
hope that in this way the department may become 
more and more helpful to kindergartners and primary 
teachers. 



Primary teachers, and teachers in ungraded 
schools should seize every opportunity to become fam- 
iliar with kindergarten methods. Without this knowl- 
edge it is impossible to do the best work in your 
schools. Make it a point to read everything you can 
find on the subjects, and if possible, take a course in 
some good training school. The expenditure both as 
to time and funds can, in our opinion, be made most 
profitable. 



Is it possible for any kindergartner and primary 
teacher, in fact any one in any calling or profession, to 
make a real success of their work unless they have 
learned to love it? Is it not true of every really 
successful person that they have found pleasure, real 
enjoyment, in their work? Then let us learn to love 
teaching or plan to quit it. We can not do our best by 
the children, we can not do as well by the children 
as they deserve unless in the main our labor is one of 
love. Of course, there will be times when discourage- 
ment and discontent seem to overwhelm us, but in the 
main, if we are to really do God's work with these 
precious souls it must be a labor of love, and it can 
be if we so will. While teaching many lessons, let us 
learn this for ourselves, 



-E 



3- 



THE K1NDERGARTEN=PR3MARY MAGAZINE HE 




$ 



CURRENT EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT 

FROM SUCCESSFUL AMERICAN EDUCATORS 



« 



ffi 



A LIBERAL EDUCATION. 

D.e Alexander Meiklejohn 
president of amherst college 

Excerpt from address delivered at I. K. U. con- 
vention, Springfield: 

The liberal college stands for a definite educational 
principle. The liberal element throughout its en- 
tire scheme of education is threatened; we have a 
fight on our hands, but if we do our duty we will 
fight the battle and so win. The critics say: The 
old New England college was founded for the pur- 
pose of training ministers; the early settlers wanted 
men to fill the pulpit and the liberal college grew 
out of that demand for religious leadership. The 
critics also argue from statistics to prove their point. 
Amherst was founded largely for the training of 
ministers and last year less than 2 per cent of our 
graduates were preparing for the ministry. , Fifty 
per cent went into business and 65 per cent into 
business and law combined. 

This being so, the critics say, What do you want 
of your old college now? York work has disap- 
peared. Now the ministers are trained in the the- 
ological schools. The time has come, so is the cry, 
for the professional schools. The day of the old 
school has gone by. 

The worst of this is that these specious pleaders 
have gotten the ear of our students as they come 
into college without faith in the old training; they 
come with faith in athletics, social activities, etc., 
but they come wthout faith in liberal training and 
if this continues the day of the old college is done. 
But the old liberal college built up the civilization 
of New England and woe to New England when 
the liberal college goes. 

But was the old New England college for the 
training of ministers? It trained for four profes- 
sions — the teacher, lawyer, physician and minister; 
also the business man often went there for training. 
Was it a limited, narrow school? No, it was not, 
for the New England college did not prepare the 
minister to preach merely, to shut himself up in 
his church. No, the minister was prepared by the 
college to be' the leader and man of ideas who 
could take a proposition, understand and analyze it. 
And the function of the liberal college today is just 
that, to train for leadership whatever the profession 
and to know, analyze, gain ideas. It is our gospel 
today that our common life together cannot be lived 
successfully unless we are trained to understand 
and to think correctly; this is the principle on which 
our society depends. The gospel is that knowledge 
pays in human living. Men have no doubt now 
that knowledge pays in special callings and the ut- 



most pains are taken in preparation for special call- 
ings. The creed of the liberal college is that in the 
human life, as a whole, knowledge pays. 

There are those who prefer that their boys should 
not know much about religion even while they were 
most desirous that they thoroughly understand busi- 
ness. Other fathers want their boys to be trained 
in special work, but not awakened to the claims of 
sociology. But the liberal college stands today just 
as it has and will on the fundamental belief that if 
men understand, they can live better and can build 
better; that if they understand human living they 
can think, choose and live better. We stand for the 
study of human experiences as a whole. Proceeding 
to the question why knowledge is not sought after, 
President Meiklejohn stated that, as the boy in the 
story told his father: "Thinking ain't no good," it 
is often because a misapprehension in regard to it 
exists. 

How many people in our communities believe 
that? They want to do and have us do things, but 
they have no faith in thinking, or, in other words, 
"Thinking ain't no good." To use a popular figure 
of the football field, people too often believe that 
thinking has only one leg to stand on. As in the 
game you can hold the fellow if you catch him 
with one leg, so just that trick is played on the 
intellectual processes. 

How does thinking come? Only as men come to 
a difficulty and then find a way out of the difficulty. 
With your difficulty before you, you find out what 
is the matter. You discover a new principle. Peo- 
ple regard thinking as ending in a book, but there 
is one place in the world where you cannot find 
knowledge, and that is in the book. Your writer 
has another task than that of writing his book; he 
must take you back to the situation. Only as man 
learns to explain his experiences, only as man works 
out a situation does knowledge do its work. With 
that as the test, we are ready to let the liberal col- 
lege come up for examination. Has the liberal col- 
lege in the history of our country justified itself? 

Do our boys as they come out of our college 
justify it by their lives? If they do not live better 
lives, then let the liberal college go. I, for one, 
have no desire to spend much time in it. I be- 
lieve that just as far as we teachers can give to 
boys and girls an appreciation of their lives, an un- 
derstanding of their experience and a knowledge 
of their conditions and make them understand, then 
they will be better and will live better. I preach 
your gospel to the college and I in turn ask you to 
start your pupils along the line of educational work 
with some bits of faith in intellectual training. 
Boys come out of our schools with but little faith 
in thinking and if you can give them faith in 
knowledge and insight then this that you do will 
be equal to anything which you can do for the 
training of your children. 



THE*KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



THE MECHANICAL MIND. 

Dr. John Greer Hibben 
president of princeton university 

"Whatever may be the method employed in the 
various stages of education, whether in the kin- 
dergarten, the secondary school or the college, 
there is always one and the same end — the awak- 
ening of the mind. To make' work play, and play 
work, to lead the child unconsciously into the sur- 
prise of discovery, to simulate the intellectual cur- 
iosity and interests of the youth, to train the 
powers of observation, to co-ordinate the hand 
and eye in the various tasks of skill and precision, 
these and all other educational devices whatsoever 
are merely means and should never be regarded as 
ends in themselves. They have value only so far 
as they tend to communicate the spirit of life to the 
operations of the mind power of reason. An edu- 
cational method which fails to realize this supreme 
end cannot justify itself. It may give to the mind 
a certain mechanical facility, but it is incapable of 
developing it as a living organism. 

"All theories of education may be divided into 
two classes — those which create this living mind 
and those which produce what may be characterized 
as the mechanical mind. It may be said that this 
phrase — 'the mechanical mind' is a contradiction in 
terms, because it is of the essential nature of the 
mind that it should be instinct with life. The pity 
of it is that we may so train the mind that it no 
longer functions as a living thing, but its activities 
deteriorate into the operations of a mere machine. 

"It is the characteristic feature of a machine that 
it is capable of turning out a certain product ac- 
cording to an exact program. The machine itself 
may be admirably adapted to a particular series of 
operations, but because it is a machine it possesses 
no power of expressing itself beyond the restricted 
routine that has been designed for it. It may ac- 
complish its particular task supremely well, but it 
is helpless in the face of emergency. Nor can 
it avail itself of the passing opportunity. What 
the machine does is something which has been 
thought out by others and wrought into its own 
mechanism. It has no power of initiative, and no 
life within itself. A spirit outside must give it 
energy and driving power. 

"We draw the distinction between various articles 
which are machine made and those which are hand- 
made. The superiority of the latter consists in the 
fact that the hand has been guided by the brain, 
which, because it is free, gives to the hand the 
freedom of life. It is a sad state of affairs, how- 
ever, when even the' product of the hand itself must 
be confessed to be machine made; for the hand 
is merely a machine when the brain which controls 
it works only in a mechanical way. Consequently 
the work of the hand, the letter, the poem, the 
painting, the statue, whatever it may be, bears the 
unmistakable marks of a mechanical origin. 



"The mind is exposed to a peculiar danger in its 
development, owing to the fact that there is a 
certain economy of the mental processes which tends 
to make all the habitual activities of the mind me- 
chanical and automatic, as in walking, the playing 
of a piano, adding a column of figures and the like. 
Moreover, all of our unconscious life is carried on 
by these mechanical adjustments. As our actions 
become more and more automatic the control of 
them becomes less and less conscious, consequently 
the habitual set of activities which form the daily 
routine can be wholly directed in a mechanical man- 
ner by the lower nerve centers, so that the control 
of the skilled hand in the most delicate and complex 
manipulation can be directed exclusively by the 
nerve centers of the spinal cord. The brain can 
very easily be eliminated when it is no longer active- 
ly exercised and the habit of a complete detachment 
readily follows. 

"We become machines when the activities of life 
are no longer directed by the higher brain centers. 
The very fact that the lower centers can care for 
the ordinary routine movements of the human body 
makes it possible for us to disconnect the great cen- 
tral office of the brain and reduce our living to a 
merely mechanical order of existence. Where there 
is central control, however, there is an indefinite 
variety of possibilities, new adjustments, new adap- 
tations, new associations, which give life to thought 
and vigor to action. 

"There are many human beings who from birth 
are doomed to the fate of animal machines because 
of their deficient or impaired brain power or the 
untoward circumstances of their birth and breeding. 
But while this is true, it does not follow that we 
should so conceive and plan our methods of educa- 
tion as to cultivate this tendency among the chil- 
dren of our public schools. On the contrary a most 
solemn obligation rests upon those who are re- 
sponsible for the methods of school training to de- 
vise some means of freeing the mind from a slavish 
dependence upon rule and routine, in the case of 
those, at least, for whom a machine-like existence 
is not altogether inevitable. 

"Whatever has been accomplished in the world 
of significant value, its notable achievements, its 
progressive development, its valuable works of hand 
and brain have been due wholly to the power of 
living thought and never to mechanical activities 
and automatic reactions of the brain. It, therefore, 
seems only fair to the child that he should be given 
a chance to develop his mental powers in the only 
way which the history of human achievement itself 
can justify. It is the living mind which has domi- 
nated the world, and every complete theory of edu- 
cation should provide for the possibility of develop- 
ing, to some slight degree at least, this supreme 
power. Now the period of education is peculiarly 
the time for the awakening of the slumbering mind 
and for stimulating the brain cells into vigorous 
activity, causing even the brain itself to expand 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



with its expanding powers. It is the particular func- 
tion of the teacher to call forth the spirit of life 
within the child. Whatever lessons may be taught, 
the great central teaching of life must not be for- 
gotten or ignored, or regarded as merely secondary 
— namely, the solicitous care and training of the 
powers of reasoning. The brain, the eye, the hand 
must be nicely co-ordinated; but let no one deceive 
himself with the prevalent modern fallacy, that the 
eye and hand can be trained, while the central factor 
of the combination, the brain itself, be left out of 
account altogether. 

"I do not wish to criticize the value of manual 
training or of vocational study; they are most ad- 
mirable in their place, provided the task which is 
taught is not dissociated from the directive, com- 
pelling and creative power of the mind. It is a 
tragedy, indeed, for the child to narrow down to 
the' special activities of a trade before the mind has 
had a chance to find itself and assume permanent 
control of the operations of the eye and of the hand. 

"In emphasizing the necessity of quickening the 
life of reason as the end of all education, it may 
be well to point out the characteristic features of 
reason. Even a mere statement of the function of 
reason in the life of the mind will tend to empha- 
size its essential significance and importance. The 
peculiar power of reason is due to the fact that by 
the reason the mind is able to liberate the essential 
idea contained in any particular experience, and thus 
to seize upon its universal meaning. With a grasp 
of the universal significance of an idea, the mind 
is consequently in a position to give it a deeper in- 
terpretation and wider range of application. It is 
the reason which holds tenaciously to an idea and 
follows it persistently in spite of varying contexts 
and widely different settings. It is reason which 
sees similarity in spite of difference and difference 
in spite of similarity, which is capable of applyng 
a new idea to old circumstances, and new circum- 
stances to an old idea. Where reason controls, a 
man is no longer the slave either to ideas on the 
one hand, or to circumstances on the other. He is 
free, creative, resourceful, both as regards himself 
and his environment. Moreover it is through the 
living activity of reason that we are able to dis- 
cern about us in any actual situation the surround- 
ing area also of the possible. The mind which is 
alert to discriminate between what is and what may 
be is never shut out to one method of procedure. 
It possesses a potentiality of initiative. It is singu- 
larly sensitive to defects and deficiencies, and finds 
itself under a law of inner compulsion to seek 
progress and improvement at all hazards. With the 
living mind there is always a certain divine discon- 
tent. Call it ambition or aspiration, or the spirt 
of enterprise, or what you will, it is always the 
sign of life. It is the promise and potency of crea- 
tive power. It is of the very nature to create, to 
produce, to command. Wherever this function is 
subordinated, reason at once abrogates this power 



to automatic and mechanical control. Reason is 
always deadened by unreflective, slavish initiation, 
and on the other hand thrives on the difficulties 
which tend to provoke inventive originality. 

"Such being the high offices of reason, I main- 
tain that it is our duty in every phase of the 
teaching profession to cultivate in the minds of our 
students those living sources of power. It is true 
that the process of education can be most con- 
veniently carried on and can be most plausibly jus- 
tified by neglecting this fostering care of the mind 
itself, or at least, by relegating it to a secondary 
place and endeavoring the rather to emphasize the 
value of certain particular pursuits which can be 
learned by imitation and the unquestioning and un- 
reasoning pursuit of the thoughts and methods of 
others. It is easier to be superficial than to be 
thorough and to plow deeply into the lower levels 
of our powers. It is easier to act than to think 
and it is easier to be taught to do some one definite 
thing which by doing again and again we learn to 
do mechanically, than it is to exercise the God- 
given faculties of reason, and aspire to learn to 
command many things. It is easier to run human 
nature into a narrow groove than to develop the 
concealed possibilities of free mental power and 
achievement. It is easier to follow a program which 
gives immediate returns than to prepare the mind 
for the possibility of results which it will take 
years perhaps to mature. The immediate result 
may be most gratifying, but we overlook, or at least 
we do not care to see the immediate limitations also 
which are naturally attached to such immediate re- 
sults and which make a continued progress of the 
mitld forever impossible. 

"We gain nothing by making a short cut to 
mediocrity. Where the mind ceases to develop at 
an early age and all its activities become mechanical 
and fires of reason die out in the brain, the youth 
is doomed to the round of unvarying grind, while 
the future holds for him no possibilities beyond 
the inevitable limitations of his machinelike exist- 
ence. For the youth of today the only door of op- 
portunty is the open mind. The world acknowledges 
but one supremacy, it is the supremacy of mind; but 
one aristocracy, it is the aristocracy of mind. 

"Shall we, therefore, as teachers, be content to 
train the child so that his activities become more 
and more detached from the control and inspira- 
tion of reason? Shall we prepare him for the slavery 
of routine, and no longer strive to make him a free 
man in the kingdom of the mind? Shall we crowd 
his memory with facts and rules of procedure, while 
we keep him in ignorance of fundamental principles, 
and of the possibilities of self-originating thought? 
Shall we be satisfied to show him a confused mass 
of unrelated results and fail to stimulate his inquir- 
ing mind to search for the concealed causes which 
underly them? Train the child by all means for a 
vocation, but I charge you, let it be the vocation of 
a man and not of a machine." 

(EXCERPT FROM ADDRESS AT I. K, U. MEETING, SPRINGFIELD) 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



SEJLF-UNFOLDMENT. 

By Dr. W. N. Hailmann. 

In all things there lives energy. Nothing is abso- 
lutely passive. In the mineral world this energy is 
exercised blindly at all times and becomes manifest on 
every occasion; in plants it is specialized for an uncon- 
scious inner purpose; in animals it begins to see its way; 
and in man it attains conscious self-control in aim and 
execution. In man it attains in fullest measure self- 
activity which implies spontaneity of purpose and 
freedom of action limited only by sense of power in 
the face of external conditions. 

In its various phases, freedom rests primarily upon 
obedience. In its first and lowest phase it appears as 
obedience to impulse and belongs to a life of caprice. 
In a subsequent phase, it learns to yield obedience to 
necessities, to outer conditions, in a life of prudence. 
In its highest and only worthy phase, it yields joyous 
obedience to inner considerations of justice and rea- 
son, of insight and good will, recognizes itself as a 
responsible agent in the service of these, attains true 
self-control. 

The criterion of every educational measure is found 
in the degree in which it aids this process of self- 
unfoldment. More and more, indeed, the conviction 
is gaining ground that instruction and discipline in 
home and school have educative value only in the 
measure in which they serve the child's natural and 
instinctive eagerness for such self-unfoldment. Ideally, 
therefore, their first concern must be to provide a 
more or less suitable life-sphere in which the children 
can find intelligible conditions favorable to the devel- 
opment of these tendencies which rest, primarily, upon 
an intense desire to know, to imitate, to be a helpful 
factor in their world. Arbitrary repression of spon- 
taneous interests and of the instinctive yearnings of 
the soul and attempted compulsion with reference to 
interests which the children cannot share arrest de- 
velopment. 

Indeed, such efforts produce weakness where we 
seek strength, rebellion where we seek obedience, dis- 
gust where we seek enthusiasm. 

The pupils make no real and lasting progress in 
things for which they have no real use in life as they 
see it. Thus, for instance, slow and unsatisfactory 
progress in reading or writing, in spelling or arithme- 
tic, in callisthenics or singing, are due mostly to the 
fact that we labor to force these things upon the chil- 
dren in connection with problems unintelligible to 
them and which do not appeal to their interests or 
needs. 

The first interests of children lie in their environ- 
ment, in the things and activities of the life that sur- 
rounds them, in the occupations of the men and wo- 
men they love and trust, and in the things of nature 
accessible to them. Concerning these they seek knowl- 
edge and control in their untiring questions, in their 
eager offers to help and in their ardent play-life. 

Teachers and parents, therefore, should strive to 
be sympathetic life-sharers in the interests of their 
children so that these, in turn, may become sympa- 
thetic life-sharers with them in the progressively un- 



folding interests of the school and of the home. Arti- 
ficial incentives — such as marks, prizes, arbitrary pun- 
ishments and the rest — should be avoided as much as 
possible. They tend to exercise a pernicious influence, 
inasmuch as they are apt to prevent the development 
of joy in the work itself, of purposeful doing, of cre- 
ative initiative, and to substitute for these eternal mo- 
tives transient, perishable caprice. The school, as well 
as the home, can aid effectively in the establishment 
of a truly progressive attitude in the children's self- 
unfoldment only through respect for their spontan- 
eously developing and expanding interests. Only on 
the firm foundations of learning and doing for life's 
sake can we hope to stimulate in our children respect 
for learning and art as such. 

In other words, everything the children do must 
touch their whole life; intellectually, esthetically and 
ethically ; individually and socially. Everything must 
lead directly and right now to growth of life-efficiency; 
to increase and upward progress in freedom, good will 
and joy; to a deepening sense of duty on the basis of 
justice and love. 

On this principle rest all the measures of the new 
educational movement of today; the creation of edu- 
cational environments that represent in intelligible form 
every worthy feature of the civilization into which the 
child is born; freedom of interests in contact with 
nature and life, and respect for individual need as con- 
trasted with still current Procrustean practices and 
lockstep methods ; substitution of guidance and en- 
couragement in spontaneous achievement for the driv- 
ing and coaxing devices of current mass-teaching; life- 
sharing comradeship between teacher and pupil and 
between pupils of varying attainments, and consequent 
substitution of social co-operation for more or less 
hostile competition ; the elimination of all mere 
formalism in the work of the school and the libera- 
tion of teacher and pupil from the stupefying prescrip- 
tions of supervisory system-mongers ; the substitution 
of intensity of interest for mere time, as well as of 
the enthusiasm of initiative for constraint and artificial 
incentive in every phase of the work of the school, etc. 

In this fashion education is, indeed, coming to realize 
Goethe's significant maxim of method, "From the use- 
ful, through the true, to the beautiful," which we are 
tempted to supplement by adding, "and through love to 
duty." Thus, indeed, the "Century of the Child," so 
beautifully prophesied by Ellen Key, is upon us. Moth- 
ers and teachers have heard the impassioned call of 
Pestalozzi and Froebel and are leading the way. The 
child is conquering and is becoming the leader in the 
work of self-unfoldment; the pedant and mere instruc- 
tionist, the drowsy owls of a passing age that called 
for more spelling and arithmetic and less life must go. 
The rich promises of interest and efficiency, of eager- 
ness to see and say and do, of love for the beautiful 
and the good which each child brings to us, must no 
longer be nipped in the bud by incompetence and self- 
conceit, but fostered and led by a true reverence for 
childhood and by a strong and fervid sympathy on the 
part of its elders into precious fruitage in a life of 
freedom, good will and joy. The deeper meaning of 
the Master's saying, "Of such is the Kingdom of 
Heaven," and its practical identity with the greatest 
triumph of modern science in laying bare the miracles 
of self-unfoldment, are bursting upon the world. 




GENERAL SUGGESTONS FOR SEPTEMBER PROGRAM 

.By JENNY B. MERRILL, Pd D. 

Former Supervisor of Public School Kindergartens, New York City: Special Lecturer on Educational 

Topics 




I have often advised kindergartners at the beginning 
of each month to look over the Magazine of the same 
month for several years back. It is surprising how 
this re-reading will put one in happy touch with the 
month recalling songs, stories, games and other experi- 
ences of other years gone by. 

If a kindergartner keeps a daily journal or plan book 
of her own it is well to review it too, not merely to 
repeat or copy, for each year brings growth. To in- 
sure this very growth, nothing helps more than com- 
parisons. 

I wanted some inspiration myself for this September 
article, for I find it difficult just as vacation begins to 
think of the return to school, but in order to be in 
trim for September, one's article for September starts 
in July! 

I wish all who have a copy of the Kindergarten Mag- 
azine for September, 1913, would re-read my sugges- 
tions therein given for the opening month. 

Just before writing last year, I had been studying the 
three reports of the Committee of Nineteen, and quot- 
ed Miss Harrison, Miss Hill and Miss Blood, compar- 
ing their suggestions on the program. 

The criticisms of recent psychology are leading kin- 
dergartners to see that the typical kindergarten pro- 
gram covers too much ground for little children. It 
is better fitted for the first school year. Children en^ 
tering the kindergarten need mainly to gather first hand 
experiences preparatory to organizing them. 

Miss Alice Corbin, head of the Department of Child- 
hood in the University of Pittsburgh, advises that the 
kindergarten program be based upon five fundamental 
instruction activities which she names in the following 
order : 

1. Locomotion (meaning play with apparatus, 
rhythms, games, etc.). 

2. Nurturing (care of pets, plants and dolls, also 
of newcomers to the kindergarten). 

3. Talking or Communicating (how the little ones 
love to tell all that happens). 

4. Constructing (Is there any toy to be compared 
with building blocks? If only one plaything can be 
secured, it must be a box of blocks for building, but 
we can extend this thought of construction to many 
other kindergarten materials, keeping the principle ever 
in mind). 

5. Exploring, Experimenting. (This inspirative ten- 
dency is receiving more and more attention). 

In the Kindergarten number of Teachers College 
Record, January, 1914, Miss Grace Brown in speaking 
of experimentation says, "Experimenting gives an op- 
portunity to become familiar with some of the possi- 



bilities and limitations of the material, and gives a 
feeling of independence and freedom." 

Dr. Dewey says that the usual kindergarten program 
attempts to give the child "a bird's eye view of the uni- 
verse." This is too much for the child under six. The 
brain centers capable of correlating such ideas are not 
ripe at this early period. The child lives in little de- 
tails. He must gather these details and generalize in 
later years. The child does not grasp the "relation and 
interdependence" which the philosophic kindergartner 
strives to impress. The child will grow up to such 
thoughts when the association fibers of the brain have 
ripened. (Read up nascent periods.) Many kinder- 
gartners now believe it better to emphasize activities 
rather than subject matter. 

Stories, games, conversations, occupations grow out 
of these activities. The intellectual side of our pro- 
gram has been too prominent. We must think more of 
hygiene, ventilation, walks and excursions, out-of-doors 
plays, caring for pets and gardening. Some years ago 
I asked kindergartners to report to me at the end of 
September how many children could throw a ball up 
and catch it on return, knowing that the necessity of 
making this report would focus attention upon the ball 
during the month of September, and' playing ball would 
become a kindergarten exercise daily. Everywhere I 
visited I found children playing ball before nine, at 
recess and in the game yard. I found one intelligent 
boy in a kindergarten that year, who could even be 
trusted to carry a message to the principal, and yet 
could not throw a ball, so undeveloped was his mus- 
cular system. 

The mere swinging of the small first gift balls by 
the string, or even throwing them up is not vigorous 
enough. Large rubber balls are needed. A small foot- 
ball to be thrown and kicked about the playground and 
also back and forth in the ring, the children jumping 
out of its way as it approaches, makes good fun and 
frolic, inducing active play and quick decisions. Dr. 
Dewey reminds us that these activities require the kind 
of thought a child can and should give. There should 
be a heavy suspended ball to be pushed back and forth 
for arm exercise. There should also be a swing, a 
sliding board, a see-saw, a low fence or bars, rope 
ladders and walking beam. Such apparatus will cover 
the demand for "locomotion." 

Do not let me discourage any one who has no such 
supplies. Get one item at a time. This is not impos- 
sible. If the school authorities cannot be persuaded, 
take your need to the mothers in their club. They will 
furnish one or two pieces for you. Perhaps a father 
will make them. 

2. Nurturing. If you cannot secure living pets you 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



can have dolls. Living pets will be considered in other 
articles in this magazine. Dr. Henry W. Holmes in 
addressing kindergartners and primary teachers says, 
"What children in kindergarten and primary school 
need in nature study is the chance to grow things or 
to help them live. If kindergarten and primary chil- 
dren unite in making an aviary or a wild-flower garden 
or a fernery or an aquarium they will get closer to 
nature than they ever can by playing butterfly or even 
observing specimens of butterflies." 

Froebel singularly omits dolls from kindergarten ma- 
terials. He mentions the doll in connection with the 
second gift in pedagogics of the kindergarten, but even 
that reference is not often quoted. Miss Hill says the 
kindergarten materials without the doll furnish a stage 
but no actors. All kinds of dolls are finding their way 
into our kindergartens. Sometimes it is only on "doll 
day" when every little girl is invited to bring her own 
doll, but often dolly has an abiding place and to her 
the lullaby is often sung providing an excellent means 
of securing quiet. 

On one September opening day, I visited a kinder- 
garten where fifty little ones were quieted by the new 
baby doll presented at just the right moment. 

Begin with a baby doll but gather other dolls as the 
other months come, for use in connection with build- 
ing. A chair built of blocks needs an occupant, and 
a stable needs a horse and a miniature boy doll to lead 
him out. A small china or celluloid dolly in a toy 
bathtub has been used most effectively to help in talks 
on cleanly habits. One very successful kindergartner 
told me that when a young child did not initiate build- 
ing readily with the third gift, she would say, "Here 
is a little doll. Make a chair for her, or a bed." 

This working towards an end with a little problem 
as it were, for a guide, is the method being pushed now 
as a means to develop the child's reasoning powers. 
Sometimes the kindergartner suggests a problem, some- 
times a child. Use dolls in illustrating stories in the 
sand box. 

Mother Goose stories are often used in September 
as many children know a few when they come to 
school. Ask who knows "Little Boy Blue," or "Hump- 
ty Dumpty," or "Bo-peep." Little faces will brighten 
at the mention of old friends. When the children are 
building hills of sand, add a doll or two and some one 
may think of "Jack and Jill" especially if there is a 
little toy pail at band. Or the order may be reversed 
and "Jack and Jill" may suggest to some child the 
problem of making a hill for them to walk up. 

The September program should have close affiliations 
with the home, though possibly it is preferable to be- 
gin with the new environment for two or three days, if 
it has been made home-like with a few toys as well 
as flowers, pictures and picture books. Avoid too many 
decorations at first. 

The sand table with a few shovels or spoons and 
the blackboard with inviting crayons at hand, a box 
of large building blocks, paper and crayons for draw- 
ing are sufficient materials. 

We have now passed from nurturing instincts to 
constructing and talking in the most natural way. 



If only the little ones are free to play in small groups 
and talking and communicating are not forbidden or 
hushed, there may at times be a little babel ; touch one 
note on the piano if it grows too noisy, and wait, or 
try Dr. Montessori's lesson in "Silence," now so well 
known. The children certainly respond to it and love it. 

"Getting ready for kindergarten" is a simple, dra- 
matic play for early September. By means of it the 
kindergartner can impress all the simple home activi- 
ties necessary in making the morning toilet, eating 
breakfast, putting on hat, walking to kindergarten, or 
running if late, entering the room, saluting the kinder- 
gartner, etc. This may well be the first dramatic game. 
(The use of this game is fully described in Kinder- 
garten Magazine, April, 1912, No. 201.) 

The children will talk freely about each act for it is 
a familiar one, and they will play- intelligently for 
they love to imitate home activities. 

Our mother play picture this month will emphasize 
"The Greeting" on entering the room. Little social 
formalities must be taught, one at a time. They prove 
very helpful in discipline, subduing turbulent natures, 
and strengthening shy and reticent ones by giving 
them something definite to do upon entering a room. 

If there is a family of dolls and a dolls' table pro- 
vided, "coming to the breakfast table" after washing 
and dressing, will prove of great interest. Let several 
children assist in setting the table with toy dishes in 
the circle, and then place father, mother and children 
at table. If the table is large enough, children can rep- 
resent the family — if small, use dolls. 

The lesson in orderliness and arrangement will doubt- 
less be re-inacted by the children when with blocks 
and paper dollies they repeat this morning exercise to 
gratify their imitative instinct, all unconsciously. In 
some of our city kindergartens, children come from 
homes where table manners and customs are conspic- 
uous by their absence. In these especially is such an 
exercise valuable. Those who are well brought up be- 
come patterns for the less fortunate ones. 

A few family scenes in simple pictures placed low, 
as on the ledge of the blackboard, help to impress just 
such lessons. Look for them in picture books and 
magazines. Cut them out, mount and preserve, for 
they will serve many times. 

"A Doll's Tea Party" is often represented and 
would be the most telling picture to accompany this 
morning play. Make perhaps a vase of flowers on the 
table in the picture, and perhaps a child will suggest 
one at home. 

For kindergartners who have access to the Kinder- 
garten Magazine for 1912, I suggest a study of "A 
Model Kindergarten" running in April, May and June 
numbers. The June number treats of simple rhythms 
and games. 

It is our desire to avoid uniform programs, to en- 
courage initiative on the part of both child and kinder- 
gartner. We give the spirit rather than the letter of 
the opening days, but for those who still desire more 
detailed guidance and for those lacking full training 
we present the following outlines for the early weeks 
of the term, which were written by a young kindergart- 



s 



THE KEVDERGARTEN-PRDIARY MAGAZINE 



ner preparatory to taking charge of her first class in 
September. The form of outlines indicates the careful 
training she had received. I have selected it from 
among a number of September outlines, all of which 
show care in adapting work to the child's environment. 
Each kindergartner who consults this outline is urged 
to modify her own in like manner. 

The last week of this particular September was mod- 
ified by a special holiday. Usually his week would be 
given to talks of pet animals, and making signs of fall. 
Many happy suggestions can be gathered, however, 
from such a program for use at some other time, pos- 
sibly during November in telling of the First Thanks- 
giving Day in our country when so many Indians 
lived here, or in case some child brings an Indian 
canoe, bow and arrow, or picture of Indians. Except 
for special reasons, I should advise leaving this Indian 
work for a primary grade. 

We cannot present such a detailed program every 
number, hence advise that the form of this one be 
studied closely or preserved for reference. 

The term "natural reaction" used in this program 

simply means what any material given, as "clay," in- 
cites the child to do of his own accord. It is what we 
have called "experimenting." The habit of noting "re- 
sults" should be formed as a part of our own work. 



WORK DONE BY KINDERGARTNERS 

1. During the month the central objects of interest 
were toys used during the half hour playtime and the 
pictures on the walls which are children and animal 
pictures. 

1 have the children divided into two groups. They 
were all entered in September, but I have tried a little 
more advanced work with the older ones who will leave 
the Kindergarten in February. I have group work at 
all periods but the circle and game times. L. E. G. 

2. Central Objects of Interest: The room (Kg.) 
and its contents. How to keep it. 

Color Scheme: Sept. B. B. — border of golden-rod. 
Oct. B. B. — border of chrysanthemums (yellow, white, 
dark red and purple). Nov. B. B. — We are to have 
a border of fruits, grains and vegetables. 

Grouping of Tables: 1st, by twos lengthwise = =; 
2nd, by twos in an oblong ||~|| ; 3d, in 3 H and two ||. 

A. J. H. 

3. We have taken no walks in the street this fall but 
we go on the roof at least once every* week. From 
there we can see many things (one day there was a 
butterfly there) and the children can play in the fresh 
air and sunshine. 

A turtle and our aquarium have been central ob- 
jects of interest. 

Autumn branches, berries and leaves have been used 
as room decorations as much as possible. A pumpkin 
and the bright leaves and flowers make a good fall 
color in the room. 

The children are always divided during one occu- 
pation and sometimes twice a day. M. E. S. 

4. Twenty-three new children have been admitted 
into the kindergarten. We have taken for our sub- 
ject this month (September). "Two Weeks in the Coun- 
try With a 'Fre=h Air Cb'ld'." and it has proved inter- 
esting to the children. Each year some of the chil- 
dren in my kindergarten have been sent to the country 
through this Mission House and other agencies. S. E. 

5. At present we have three distinct groups. The 
first consists of nine or ten children who were in the 
kindergarten for a time last term, and who are able 



to do more advanced work. The second group con- 
sists of seven children who will be six by February 1st 
and who will probably be promoted at that time. The 
rest of the children form a third group. These will be 
at least a year in the kindergarten, some longer, and 
will naturally work more slowly. Most of the work 
is done in groups but occasionally there will be an 
occupation at which we all work at the same time. 

W. VV. M._ 

6. Central object of interest during the month has 
been our cluster of milkweed pods, which at the slight- 
est breeze send their seeds floating through the room. 
The children love them and have reproduced them in 
crayon, sung to them and played with them. Also the 
autumn leaves and berries, nuts and acorns. We have 
planted apple seeds and acorns hoping for a little tree 
in time. M. S. T. 

7. During September our chief interest has been in 
the garden. The dwarf sunflowers, xenias, and Japan- 
ese morning : glories were in bloom the whole month ; 
we watched the gralual turning of leaves into a dark 
brown — also the opening of the various seed pods. We 
have found butterflies, caterpillars and spiders. The 
chickens which the children saw when first hatched in 
June are now grown up. 

Last week in September — a walk around block to lo- 
cate the kindergarten and find trees along our way. 

Room decoration — golden rod and flowers from the 
yard. 

During first week in September the whole kinder- 
garten worked together, while the children were getting 
used to each other. Now we have two groups for gift 
and occupation work. The last period they usually 
work together. A. M. H. 

SEPTEMBER 13-17. 

General Top.'c — No general topic. (Children not 
ready for one.) 

Literature — "Ginger-bread Man." Nursery rhymes 
;to test their knowledge of these). (Some people pre- 
fer "The Three Bears" for a first story.) 

Music — "Good-morning Song" (Hill). "Finger 
Dance." 

Rhythm — "Marching, running, skipping, clapping to 
4/4. 

Games — Looby-Loo, Skipping Tag, games with 1st 
gift balls. 

Monday. 

Circle Talk — Receive and welcome the children. 
Acquaint them with each other and their new sur- 
roundings. 

Plan. 

Group I. (1st work period.) Sand — Free play. 
(Teacher observing and possibly suggesting.) (2nd 
work period.) Draw — Free expression. (Teacher ob- 
serving and possibly suggesting.) 

Group II (younger children). (1st work period.) 
Draw — Free expression. (Teacher observing and pos- 
sibly suggesting.) 2nd work period.) Sand — Free 
play. (Teacher observing and possibly suggesting.) 

Tuesday. 
Circle Talk — Centered around a plant which was 
brought in by one of the children and around the win- 
dow boxes. 

Plan. 
Group I. Draw — Black-board. Free expression. 
Sand — Free Play. 

Group II. Sand — Free Play. Draw — Black-board. 
Free expression. 

Wednesday. 

Circle Talk — Things in kindergarten to play with. 
Keeping kindergarten clean. Children clean when they 
come to kindergarten. 

Plan. 

Group I. 3 Gift — (Free expression. Draw — Free 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



expression. Result — Children run to sand table at 
every opportunity that offers itself. 

Group II. 4 Gift — Free expresison. Draw — Free 
expression. 

Thursday. 

Circle Talk. Summer picnics or excursions to parks. 
Plan. 

Group I. String — Stringing with yellow squares and 
straws. Sand — Free play. 

Group II. Sand — Free play. String — Same as older 
class. 

Result. 

Children beginning to work together — built one large 
house. 

Friday. 

Circle Talk — Their families, brothers, sisters. What 
they do to help their mothers. Children's interest in 
their homes tested. 

Group I. Cut — Free expression. Soap-bubbles. 

Group II. Peg boards. Soap-bubbles. 

Were taken out-of-doors — bubbles taken up by wind 
— enjoyed by children. 

Remarks : Children unresponsive. Sand most at- 
tractive. Same work for all children. Free expression 
in all work to help get an idea of the children's ap- 
preciative basis and level of technique. 

SEPTEMBER 20-24. 

General Topic — Summer experiences. 

Literature — "The Three Bears." Rhymes — "Jack and 
Jill," "What Are the Days of Every Week?" 

Music — "Happy Day." 

Rhythm — Same as last week continued progressively 
by variations — following leader, stopping at signal from 
piano — fast, slow, lightly, tramping. 

Games — Merry-Go-Round. Dramatization of ani- 
mals at zoo. Hiding the ball. Aiming game. 

Monday. 

Circle Talk — Summer picnics. Let children tell 
where they went, how, what they saw, who went with 
them. Luncheons packed. 

Plan. 

Group I. Cut — Cut oranges freely. Have basket 
drawn — mount. Basket of oranges ready for the picnic. 
3 Gift — Free expression of boats, trains, street. Result 
— Very good. Kept for decoration of room. 

Group II. Cars — Let children have paper dolls. Cut 
— Free expression. Select some natural reaction and 
organize. 3 Gift — Free expression. Result — Cutting 
in strips. Sticks of candy associated by children. 
Played store and had candy to sell. 

Tuesday. 
Circle Talk — Excursions to parks and lakes. Same 
points, as on Monday. Animals seen at zoo. Draw or 
show pictures of animals. 

Plan. 

Group I. Paint — Flat wash of brown on animals al- 
ready cut. Mount for zoo on blackboard. Technique 
observed. Result — Children still seem to "scrub'' with 
brushes although in kindergarten last year. 

Group II. Clayj — A period of natural reaction today. 
Peg-boards — Pegs for fence. Give paper animals and 
let children play "zoo." Result — Kept busy with dif- 
ferent reactions. No idea associated to things— were 
satisfied with just the activity. 

Wednesday. 

Circle Talk — A trip to the Hudson Riyer and River- 
side Park. 

Plan not carried out — rainy day. Tuesday's talk em- 
phasized again. Older children had drawing and 
3 gift, Younger children stringing and sand. 



Thursday, 
Circle Talk — Experiences of trip recalled. 
Plan. 

Group I. Draw — Free expression of things seen on 
the trip. Talk of past experiences to river recalled. 
4 Gift — Freely build boats. Have paper sails cut. 
Paper sails helped children to form a better image of 
boats and stimulated play. 

Group 11. Draw. Free expression. Close observa- 
tion of technique. Let children tell about the things 
they draw. Sand — Free expression. 

Friday. 

Circle Talk — The country which some child visited. 
How they got there — what they saw. Children's knowl- 
edge of country tested. Show pictures of country. 

Group I. Sand. — Let children represent Hudson — 
making hills on one side — park and trees on other — 
boats ready. Clay — Freely model boats — have sticks 
and sails ready. 

Group II. Draw — Blue crayon for water — have boat 
cut to mount. Direct movement of arm — back, for- 
ward movement. 3 Gift — Natural reaction. Note dif- 
ference between reaction of Monday and of today. 
Idea of cookies associated to form produced by a 
natural reaction of pounding — cookies to play store 
were made. 

Remarks — Kindergarten organized. Children very 
hard to manage in comparison to children in my past 
experience. Children beginning to feel a little more 
at home. 

SEPT. 27— OCT. 1. 

General Topic — Hudson-Fulton Celebration. 

Literature — Sharp-Eyes (a story of Indian life em- 
phasizing dress, food, shelter in comparison to kinder- 
garten children). 

Music — "Indian Lullaby," "Whistles of boats for 
tone work." 

Rhythm — Indians on running and galloping horses. 
Soldiers marching with flags and drums. 

Games — Dramatize Indians coming to dance on 
horses and dance with Indian suits. Aiming games 
with 4 gift and balls. "Went to Visit a Friend One 
Day" (used as a social game). • 

Monday. 

Circle Talk — Let talk center around the Naval Par- 
ade of Saturday night. 

Group I. 4 Gift — Boats — give paper sails, cylinders 
for cannon and for smoke stacks. Draw — With blue 
crayon make water with brown boats in Naval Parade. 

Group II. 3 Gift — Same as Group I. Draw — Same 
as Group I. 

Groups I and II. built together on circle — gave effect 
of a parade. Children very enthusiastic — played can- 
nons were being fired. 

Tuesday. 

No school. 

Wednesday. 

Circle Talk — Talk center around the Historical Par- 
ade and the children's experiences on that day. Have 
American flag and celebration flag in kindergarten. 

Group I. 4 Gift — Represent parade. Give paper 
horses for the floats. Draw — Draw Indians emphasiz- 
ing feather decoration. Give brown, red and yellow 
crayons. 

Group II. 2 Gift — Represent Historical Parade. 
Children build on floor. Fasten string to boxes to play 
parade. Draw — Represent parade — long narrow pieces 
of paper. 

Thursday. 

Circle Talk — Talk to center around Indians. Points 
taken from story told this week. Let children suggest 



10 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



how they could dress to look like Indians — what things 
in kindergarten could be used. 

Group I. String — String 2 gift bead for Indian 
necklaces to be worn in Indian game. Cut — Have 
water drawn on large piece of paper. Freely cut boats 
and mount. 

Group II. String — Same as Group I. 

Miscellaneous Work — Give paper tents to mount. 
Let children add grass, trees and Indians with crayon. 

Friday. 

Circle Talk — Experiences of Military Parade re- 
called. Dress of soldiers. Who took them to the 
parade and watched that no harm came to them. 

Group I. Color Work — Have American flag drawn. 
Let children sketch in the color. 4 Gift — Free expres- 
sion. 

Group II. Clay — Natural reaction. Select some re- 
action that could be organized to a boat. Have paper 
sails ready. 3 Gift — Free expression. 

Gertrude Opperman. 



MOTHERS* MEETINGS. 
Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 

A very earnest, enthusiastic young kindergartner 
greeted me after a kindergarten alumni luncheon last 
June with the question "What can I do to have a 
mothers' club? I just don't know how. I have had 
several meetings and told the mothers about the chil- 
dren's work, but I don't know how to go on." 

It is to help such kindergartners especially, that I 
am sending this article for the September number of 
our Kindergarten Magazine. 

Organization is important for it helps to make the 
meetings permanent and regular. Notices for the year 
should be sent out in September or October, a definite 
day and hour will thus be fixed in the mind of both 
kindergartner and mother and "mothers' meetings" 
will become an established institution. Make the pro- 
gram and then try to live up to it. 

The kindergartner should call upon each mother as 
early in September as possible. Make this call a social 
attention. 

The kindergartner in this way will obtain a knowl- 
edge of each child's home environment, and will be 
better prepared to understand and appeal to each 
child's previous experiences. She will, of course, keep 
eyes and ears open while calling, ask to see the child's 
playroom or toys, note if there are pets or a garden, 
whether there are grandparents, uncles, aunts, brothers 
or sisters, or whether the child is an "only" child, put- 
ing all down in her mental notebook but be sure to 
transgress no social forms in homes accustomed to 
them. 

The call need not be long and can be made ostensi- 
bly to invite the mother to visit the kindergarten on a 
certain day to meet other mothers and compare views. 
It may be well to leave a written invitation as a re- 
minder of the day, or in some cases it may be better 
to inquire what day will be most convenient for the 
mother to come. The kindergartner can then form an 
opinion of the most generally convenient day for the 
meeting. A promise to send a written invitation by the 
littfe one may be made when the day is finally settled, 
or if a change proves necessary. 



Tell the mothers that it is your wish to have them 
form a mothers' club or parents' association. A par- 
ents' association, usually, however, belongs to the whole 
school and is less intimate than a meeting for mothers 
alone in the kindergarten atmosphere. Tell the moth- 
ers as you call that you want them to start a library 
containing helpful books for home training of children, 
and ask if any one has a book or magazine that has 
helped them, to loan it for a few weeks until others 
can be purchased. Tell them that some mothers have 
been surprised to find how many helpful books have 
been written for mothers. One mother expressed her 
gratitude for the use of such a library, saying I never 
knew such books were in existence. 

Give the most intelligent mothers something to do 
and if they do not need help, they will come to give 
you help. Ask the mothers to think who would make 
a good president and also a good secretary. Let them 
suggest having a treasurer. Ask them to think of 
questions or subjects about children that they might be 
discussed. This will start the ball of thought, and the 
mothers will come to the meeting with minds partly 
prepared to act. Remember that you may find many 
able women and assume the role of listener and learner 

If it should not be possible to do this calling, then 
invite the mothers by written note, and tell them these 
same items by way of introduction at the first meeting. 
If the mothers are foreigners or comparatively ignor- 
ant women, it may be as well simply to call them to- 
gether for a social afternoon, and act as. president for 
the first term. Appoint a committee on program, and 
a committee on hospitality. If there is to be a library, 
there may also be a committee on library. The organ- 
ization should be kept simple, but remember there is 
power in organization. 

I have just received this day a program of "The 
Fourth International Congress on Home Education," 
which is to meet in Philadelphia September 22 to 29, 
1914. Over five hundred delegates including official 
representatives of twenty foreign nations are expected 
to participate in this meeting which promises to be the 
greatest congress on the welfare of childhood and 
youth that has ever been held in any country. See 
what organization has accomplished ! The proceedings 
will be published and we will try to give the gist of 
some of the congress papers to our readers, hoping that 
they will pass them on to mothers. Think what it 
means to have organized parents' unions all over Eu- 
rope and America to consider home education. Our 
own beloved Lucy Wheelock is chairman of the sec- 
tion entitled "Before School Age." Dr. G. Stanley 
Hall is chairman of the section on "Child Study." Our 
U. S. Commissioner of Education, Dr. P. P. Claxton, 
is chairman of the section on "The Vocational Rela- 
tion Between Home and School." 

There are six other sections: Mothers' Pensions, In- 
fant Mortality. Parent-Teachers' Associations. The In- 
fluence of Diet on Character, Excursions, How the 
Home and School May Work Together to Develop 
the Moral Strength of the School Child, Pre-Natal In- 
fluences. Sanitation of Home and School are a few ol 
the many subjects that will be discussed. 

Dr. Brumbaugh, the well known superintendent 0» 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



11 



the schools of Philadelphia, is president of the con- 
gress. 

I advise kindergarten mothers' clubs to subscribe for 
some good Philadelphia daily paper for the weeR from 
September 22 to 29, and thus obtain reports of the 
meetings sooner and more fully than in any other way. 

There will Be papers in several languages. This will 
■merest the foreign born mothers in our mothers' cir- 
cles o. Jubs. Great Britain, France, Germany, Aus- 
tria, Russia, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Holland, Belgium, 
Servia, Switzerland, Greece, Turkey, Japan, Mexico, 
Argentina, Bolivia, Peru and even Persia have ap- 
pointed delegates. 

Let kindergartners rise to this occasion and work 
this year for the home as never before. Insist upon 
organizing the mothers promptly. Prepare a program 
for the year. Secure a good penman or typewriter if 
you cannot afford to have the program printed, and 
place the whole year's outline in the hands of mothers 
so that they can see ahead what is on the way to in- 
terest and help them. Then trust yourself to carry out 
the scheme. 

Secure outside speakers for several of the meetings 
if you can, as a nurse, a physician, a„ clergyman, a 
school officer. Have music if possible. Let local con- 
ditions decide whether refreshments should be served 
at each meeting. A very good way is simply to serve 
tea or lemonade and light cake or crackers as the moth- 
ers come in, thereby observing good social form and 
encouraging friendly conversation. Older girls in the 
school from the classes in domestic economy are often 
called upon and are delighted to help at such a time. 
As they do not take part in the meeting later, they can 
remove dishes while the meeting progresses, and no 
one need remain after the close of the program to 
clear up. 

During the social tea-cup, the mothers who have 
come earliest may be entertained with a children's 
exhibit. If the kindergartner will prepare each month 
an exhibit of one phase of the children's work, it will 
not be a great tax and the mothers will gradually be- 
come familiar with all aspects of kindergarten work. 
The exhibits may be in happy touch with the season 
or holiday and thus assist in the way of suitable deco- 
rations. 

The following suggestive programs are given as they 
have proved helpful in the past. Modifications may 
be needed to suit local conditions. The age of the 
kindergartner whether young or experienced, the char- 
acter of the group of mothers and other circumstances 
must be considered for there can be no uniform pro- 
gram for mothers' meetings if they are to be successful. 

SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMS FOR MOTHERS' CLUBS. 

Note : This outline is for mothers who do not know 
the kindergarten and wish to become familiar with its 
methods. 

1. Work and Play in the Kindergarten. 

SEPTEMBER. — The aim and purpose of the kindergarten. 
Its relation to the home. 

Song, a lullaby. Finger plays. 

OCTOBER.— Why should the child be encouraged to draw, 
to paint and model In sand and clay? 



Exhibit of children's work in drawing, painting or model- 
ing since opening of kindergarten. 

NOVEMBER. — The Harvest festival in other countries. Our 
Thanksgiving festival, origin, present objectionable features. How 
can we keep it an ideal historic holiday for the children? Na- 
ture work during the fall leading up to Thanksgiving. Games for 
the holiday in the home. 

Song. Kindergartner's choice of a Thanksgiving program. 
Exhibit. Nature materials. 

DECEMBER. — Preparation of gifts for parents by the chil- 
dren. The selection of toys. Home-made toys. Shall we tell 
the children of Santa Claus? 

Exhibit. Doll's house made in kindergarten and other sim- 
ply constructed toys. A manger. 

JANUARY. — The place of the story in the kindergarten. The 
education value of a regular story hour in the home. 

Stories, the beginning of literature. Story-tellers' league. 
Mothers tell stories. Mother Goose. 

FEBRUARY. — 1 he realistic story as a means of awakening 
ideals. All about Johnny Jones. Araballa and Araminta stories. 
Brave Mary of the Light House. Little Boy Hero of Holland. 
Robert Bruce and the Spider. 

Exhibit. Pictures suggesting ideal child life. 
MARCH. — How the child's love of animals is fostered in the 
kindergarten. Home pets a necessity. Visits to animals in 
parks and aquarium. 

Exhibit. Coloring, free cutting, drawing and modeling of 
animals. 

APRIL. — Garden work in the kindergarten. The value of 
planting one seed. Observation of the nearest tree. Cocoons. 
Garden tools and a wheelbarrow valuable for the child. 

Exhibit. Spring planting, painting and modeling. Sand 
table, a farm scene. 
MAY. — A May Pole festival and its significance. 

Exhibit. Reproductions of the May Pole in drawings, In 
painting and constructive work. Sand table, a May Pole 
scene in Central Park. 

JL'NET. — The value of kindergarten walks and excursions as 
a basis for future school work. The relation of kindergarten 
training to the Grade work in reading, writing and aritmetic. 

Exhibit. Scrap books suggesting a review of the year's 
work in the kindergarten. Sand table, a scene at the sea 
shore. 

REFERENCE BOOKS. 

Boys' and Girls' Handy Book, Baird. 

Finger Plays, Poulsson. 

Son Stories, Hill. 

Songs for Small Singers, Neidlinger. 

Home Occupations, B. Johnston. 

Pianafore Palace, Wiggin and Smith. 

Drawing, A Real Correlation, Daniels. 

A First Year in Drawing, Bailey. 

The Story of a Sand Pile, G. S. Hall. 

A Mother's List of Books for Children, Arnold. 

Note. — Some kindergartners may prefer to introduce mothers 
to Froebel's book for mothers. For them the following outline 
is suggested: 

2. STORIES FROM FROEBEL'S MOTHER PLAY AND 
THEIR MEANING. 

OCTOBER.— The family. Play with the limbs. Falling, fail- 
ing. 

NOVEMBER. — Pat-a-cake. Mowing grass. 

DECEMBER.— The toyman. The lightbird. 

JANUARY.— Ticktack. The window. 

FEBRUARY. — The child and the moon. The little maiden 
and the stars. The shadow rabbit. 

MARCH. — The weather vane. The target. The wheel. 

APRIL. — The nest. The carpenter. 

MAY. — The little gardener. The flower basket. 

JUNE.— The farm yard gate. The little artist. 

REFERENCE BOOKS. 

Froebel's Mother Play and Mother Song. 
Poulsson's Father Play, 



12 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Lindsay's Mother Stories. 

Poulsson's Love and Law in Child Training. 

Note. — Mothers who already know what the kindergarten is 
may prefer to take up Child Study. 

3. THE STUDY OF CHILDREN. 

SEPTEMBER.— Readings from The Child by Dr. Amy Tan- 
ner. 

OCTOBER.— What do children love to do? Why? (These 
questions lead to a study of methods.) (Papers and discussion.) 

NOVEMBER.— What do children fear? Why? (These lead 
to study of the emotions.) 

DECEMBER. — What do children think of punishment? Why? 
Why is running errands a valuable means of discipline? Why 
do children love to be praised? 

JANUARY.— Why do children ask questions? Why do chil- 
dren love to choose? 

FEBRUARY.— What do children imitate? Why? (Acquaint- 
ance ideals vs. historic ideals.) 

MARCH. — What do mothers remember of their childhood? 
(Recalling ones own childhood is very helpful.) 

APRIL. — Why do children love flowers and birds? Flower 
stories. 

MAY. — Why do children love all animals? Animal stories. 

JUNE. — Why do children love to dig and to build? How 
should they play during vacation? 

Some of the following books may be taken as a basis for dis- 
cussion, chapter by chapter: 

REFERENCE BOOKS. 

How We Think, John Dewey. 

Fundamentals of Child Study, Kirkpatrick 

Studies in Education, Barnes. 

Children's Ways, Sully. 

Contents of a Child's Mind, G. S. Hall. 

The Story of a Child, Loti. 

The Care of Children in Health, Oppenheim. 

The Luxury of Children, Martin. 

Morning Glow, R. R. Gilsen. 

Moral Education, Griggs. 

4. CHILDISH INSTINCTS. 
(Using as a text Kirkpatrick's Fundamentals of Child Nature.) 

SEPTEMBER.— Playfulness. 

OCTOBER. — Love of praise. 

NOVEMBER. — Fear. 

DECEMBER.— Curiosity. 

JANUARY. — Love of Making and Constructing. 

FEBRUARY.— Imitation. 

MARCH.— The Fighting Instinct. Self-preservation. 

APRIL.— The Rhythmic Instinct. 

MAY. — Child's love of Animals. 

JUNE. — The Migratory Instinct. 

REFERENCE BOOKS. 

The Child, Tanner. 

The Biography of a Baby, Shinn. 

The Book of the Child, How. 

The Physical Nature of the Child, Rowe. 

N 0TE . — A very simple series of topics that will interest young 
mothers. 

SEPTEMBER.— What is a kindergarten for? Why so? 

OCTOBER. — Fall Nature work. Out for walks. 

NOVEMBER.— The Thanksgiving festival. 

DECEMBER.— The Christmas festival. Children's toys. How 
to choose. i 

JANUARY.— Children's stories, &c. 

FEBRUARY. — Children's songs. 

MARCH.— Children's pets. 

APRIL. — Children's gardens. 

MAY.— The May Pole festival. 

JUNE. — Summer duties and summer plays. 
GENERAL SUGGESTIONS. 

Mothers like to learin the children's songs. 

A story, a song or a game should be presented at each meet- 
ing illustrative of the subject under consideration, or the season 
of the year. Suggestions on cleanliness, clothing, food, sleep, 
care of children in health and sickness should be given as occa- 



sion demands by kindergartner, nurse or physician. Mothers 
should be encouraged to ask or write questions, and to contribute 
their valuable experiences. 

The kindergartner will find it helpful to keep in touch with 
the life in some one family circle where there are children of 
kindergarten age. Learn from mothers yourself. 

A mothers' meeting in some localities must be more of a 
social nature than in others, but in all meetings the chief aim 
should be to arouse higher ideals of child training in the com- 
munity. 



PROPOSED CONSTITUTION FOR A MOTH- 
ERS' CIRCLE OR CLUB. 

ARTICLE I. Name. 
This association shall be called the Mothers' Union 
(Circle or Club), of 

ARTICLE 2. Objects. 

The objects of this Union shall be first to study 
children; second, to interchange views upon the train- 
ing of young children with kindergartners; third, to 
establish the "story hour" in the home ; fourth, to en- 
courage the use of good picture books and music in 
the home; fifth, to encourage indoor and out of door 
gardens for children ; sixth, to assist in planning walks 
and excursions for children during the entire year in- 
cluding vacation time. 

ARTICLE 3. Membership. 

Any mother of a child attending the kindergarten of 
the school is eligible for membership. Mothers of chil- 
dren who have been promoted from the kindergarten 
may continue as associate members upon a vote of the 
regular members. 

ARTICLE 4. Officers. 

The affairs of the Union shall be conducted by an 
Executive Committee which shall include ex-officio, 
the principal or the assisting principal of the school 
and the kindergartners. 

This committee shall have power to add to its mem- 
bers and to fill vacancies in its membership as they oc- 
cur. A president and secretary-treasurer shall be elect- 
ed annually by the executive committee or by the whole 
club. 

ARTICLE 5. Meetings. 

The annual meeting of the Union shall be held early 
in April for the election of members of the executive 
committee. The meeting of the executive committee 
for the election of officers shall be held later in April. 
The regular meetings of the Union shall be held 
monthly throughout the school year, and upon a statecl 
day of the week. 

ARTICLE 6. Standing Committees. 

There shall be appointed from time to time the fol- 
lowing standing committees, viz. : A committee on 
topics for discussion, a committee on music and pic- 
tures, a committee on literature for parents and for 
children, a committee on gardening and a committee 
on social entertainment. 




A Paper Cutting and Pasting Suggestion— Flying Birds 




LITTLE PLAYS and LITTLE PIECES for LITTLE PEOPLE 




THE TELL-TALE FACE. 
Mary Burntox. 

They say if I feel vexed and cross 
'Bout trifles that take place 

An ugly frown the truth will show 
Upon my tell-tale face. 

I s'pose of course, it muse be true 

So I'll more careful be, 
And not allow my face to tell 

Such horrid tales of me. 

I'll try to feel so sweet and kind 

That smiles the frowns will chase, 

And then perhaps I shall not mind 
The tales told by my face. 



A CHILD'S PRAYERS. 
Mary Burnton. 
I always say my prayers at night, 

'Cause then I don't feel very brave; 
And sometimes, in the morning light, 

I ask the Lord my life to save. 
But mother says that way is wrong, 

And not at all as birdies pray: 
Their prayer is just a happy song 

Of thankful praise the life-long day. 



THE EVENING STAR. 
Mary Burxton. 
I love the little star, so bright, 

That through my window peeps, at night, 
Just seeming, by its gleam, to say, 

"Dear Child, you need me not by day; 
But when your eyes are closed in sleep, 
Ah! then, o'er thee, a watch I'll keep." 



A GROWN-UP PLAY 4 

Laura Rountree Smith. 

{Book rights reserved) 

(The children dress as much like grand-ma as 

possible.) 
All. 

Like grown-up ladies we will play, 
And visit grandma dear, to-day! 
1st. 

I borrowed grandma's Sunday cap, 
When she was settled for a nap, 
'Tis jolly fun as you suppose, 
To wear sucIl, funny grown-up clothes! 
2nd. 

I borrowed grandma's kerchief white, 
One she wears morning, noon and night, 
'Tis fun at grown-up folks to play, 
I wonder what will grandma say? 



3rd. 



4th 



All 



I borrowed one of grandma's dresses, 
Oh what will we do if she guesses, 
We are not little folks at all, 
But grown-up ladies come to call? 

My grandma's spectacles will fall, 
I can't see through the things at all, 
When grandma's looking up at me 
Without her glasses, can she see? 

Four grown-up ladies, now at play, 
We'll call on grandma dear to-day. 



(The four grandmas are seated across the room, 
by a tea table, they recite, hear a knock, and admit 
the first four children.) 
1st grandma. 

I settled nicely for a nap, 

But cannot find my snow-white cap! 
2nd grandma. 

I've lost my kerchief without doubt, 

Has any one seen it about? 
3rd grandma. 

My Sunday-go-to-meeting dress, 

Is missing too like all the rest. 
4th grandma. 

My spectacles are missing too, 

Without them what can grandma do? 
All. 

Some one is knocking! who can it be? 

We are not quite dressed, oh my! oh me! 
( Enter children) 
All. 

Oh grandma dear we've come to call, 

Like grown-up ladies one and all, 

We bow to you, we all bow low, 

Like ladies most polite you know. 
Grandma (in concert) 

Oh, ho, oh, ho, the secret's out, 
1st grandma. 

Here's my new cap without a doubt! 
2nd grandma. 

My kerchief too, 
3rd grandma. 

And Sunday dress! 
4th grandma. 

And spectacles are here I guess! 
Grandma (in concert) 

We love you darlings as you see, 

Come now, and help us drink our tea. 
(They all sit and drink tea while soft music is 
played. 

MOTHER KNOWS. 
Mary Burnton. 
Who can tell us 'bout the flowers 

And the weeks and days and hours? 
How the giant oak tree grows? 

Mother; — she knows. 
Who can hardest tasks explain, 

Ease our hours of ache and pain? 
Who will listen to our woes? 

Mother: — she knows. 
Who will teach us how to pray, 

At the close of each glad day, 
When star-lighted heaven glows? 

Mother; — she knows. 
Who loves us the very best, 

Who goes with us to our rest, 
And a good-night kiss bestows? 

Dear Mother; she knows. 



AUNTIE'S BIRD 
Mary Campbell 
The little bird on auntie's hat 

Sits there so very still; 
He cannot sing or fly about, 

Or peck things with his bill. 
It does not seem to me quite fair 

Just 'cause he's blue and red, 
He should be taken from the air 

And worn upon her head. 



14 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



A PICTURE LESSON 

By Mary E. Cotting. 

Of the pictures suitable for use in September with 
young children that of Meyer Von Bremen entitled 
"Come Along", is one of the most appealing. It 
abounds with that action and sentiment with which 
children are familiar and makes, therefore, a link 
between that with which they have been occupied 
during the time preceding the opening of study-time 
and the work of the days to come. 

As "Come Along" is placed, attract attention by 
questioning: Who do you suppose these persons are? 
Where are they? Why are they here? To do some 
work, why do you think so? Yes, grandmother is 
"shaking up the crib," and the dust pan and brush 
are on the floor, but, — why did they all stop working? 
Of course! The baby waked up and everyone just 
had to stop to bid him good-morning. How do you 
suppose they said their good-morning to him? (Gentle 
hugs, soft, little squeezes, pats and kisses.) Yes, I 
suspect that is just how they greet him. How did 
the baby greet them? He surely must have smiled and 
smiled and said "Goodmorning", too. Why do these 
persons like to greet one another every morning? 
When persons are kind and thoughtful they wish to 
make others feel just as the sunshine makes us feel, 
cosy and happy, and the finest way to begin doing 
that is to each day wish the people around us a cheer- 
ful goodmorning. If we remember this the day will 
not only pass well for ourselves but for others. 

What will happen when baby reaches mother's 
arms? Yes, she will give him a big, "bear-hug," and 
then, do you see the basin and pitcher? Do you know 
why they are there? To be sure! Baby will have a 
fine bath and then he will be ready for his breakfast. 
What will happen after that? Probably he will go 
out-doors to play with brother and sister. Do you 
think they will take good care of him? Encourage 
the telling of experiences with the home-baby, and 
make evident the necessity of staying in charge when 
mother has trusted the baby to older children. 

Try to arouse a desire to be gentle, courteous, to 
give comfort and assistance to others no matter in 
how small a degree. 

Close the exercise by having the small folks 
begin to learn the following, or any rhyme of similar 
sentiment: 

Grandmother, Mother, 

Sister and Brother, 
All are here this morning to see 

What the baby's day is going to be: 
If smiles he doth show, 

And laughter and shout, 
He gives all about, 

Then — each will know — 
Grandmother, Mother, 

Sister and Brother, 
That baby's day most happy will be. 

The pictures first used should be simple of con- 
struction, and suggestive of conditions of which the 
children have knowledge; and, little by little, as their 
ability to receive new and unfamiliar thought is de- 



veloped there may be introduced such examples of art 
as will make keen the eye and mind to discover new 
values in that which is presented, and an understand- 
ing of the application of these values to their daily 
thought and action. 

It is to be remembered that pictures are to be used 
not only as a means of cultivating imagination and 
the story-creating impulse, but — are to become a fact- 
or in child education, that sort of factor which makes 
for the development of a large, fine, true interpreta- 
tion of life's values for man and beast. 

Thought for teacher's use in developing exercises 
during the picture study periods. 

Home Atmosphere. 

Helpfulness. Consideration of needs and rights of 
each and all. Generosity. Gentle courtesy toward 
the old. Protection old give to the young. 

Members Of Family. 

Each has a place and right to personality, which 
however, must be so adapted to home-conditions as to 
insure harmony. 

Duty And Attitude Toward Life 

Honesty of purpose and unafraid therefore to ap- 
proach each day's duties. Faithful of performance 
each day. Respectful. Reverent. 

The artist belongs to the modern German School, 
and has a keen knowledge of human — especially child 
— nature: is intensely sympathetic, and shows that 
fine sentiment which leads to a belief in the truth, 
beauty and love to be found in life. 



A HARD TASK. 

Albert Sproul. 

1140 Columbus Ave., Boston Mass. 

I like Rover, he likes me; 

We're as friendly as can be. 
And I like my Trixie too 

Bestest cat I ever knew. 

But my Rover, I can tell, 

Doesn't like poor Trixie well. 

Such a dog and such a cat 

Shouldn't feel at all like that. 

I tried hard the other day, 

When we all were out to play, 

Just to make my dear pets see 

Why they should be friends like me. 

I said: "Look here, Rover, dear, 
This is Trixie — " held her«near. 

Naughty Rover barked, "Bow, wow!" 
Trixie answered, "Sst Meow!" 

Then she jumped away from me, 

Ran high up a maple tree. 
Rover barked and barked — oh, my! 

Wouldn't stop, I don't know why. 

Kitty simply couldn't be 

Made for Rover, I can see. 
So I'm feeling dreadful blue. 

Won't you tell me what to do? 



On July 1st and 2nd, of the current year, was cele- 
brated the 75th anniversary of the State Normal 
School, Farmington, Mass., the .first State normal 
school in America. 




"COME ALONG" 

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18 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



STANDARDS FOR KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING 

Problems of the Present, Hopes and Ideals fop. the 
Futup.e 

By Lltella A. Palmer 

At the first glance the subject seems to have no 
definite limit; but the title, as given, is our hope for 
the future, not our wish. Hope holds us down to 
what may bo possible in a near future; what is pre- 
sented must be practical as well as ideal. The 
standard set up must be in- some measure an adjust- 
ment between our professional ideals and the prac- 
tical situations to be met in the schools and the com- 
munity. 

Let us start with our professional ideals. "A low 
standard brings reproach on our profession." Some 
one has said, "We should have a standard of effi- 
ciency, the highest consistent with the community 
which wo serve and the conditions under which we 
work." That is adeo.uate as a standard of efficien- 
cy, but the ideal standard should be higher, it should 
look toward raising the ideals of the community 
and improving the conditiorft under which we work. 

There arc two convenient ways to outline for our- 
selves our present standards of efficiency. By the 
negative method, we think of all the undesirable 
qualities and conditions that we have seen in the 
kindergartner and kindergarten practice and then 
determine what would be the corresponding pos- 
itive tendency. By the positive method, we think 
of all the good things we have seen. We need both 
of these methods to make us thoroughly conscious 
of our standards; we may enjoy the good but not 
reason out its source until we see its opposite and 
strive for correction. When we have found our 
present standard, we must consider how it is pos- 
sible to bring all kindcrgartners up to this and then 
to improve still further the best of them, to better 
our present best. What shall we demand of all kin- 
derf/artners and kindergartens to bring them to the 
level of the best that we know now? In what di- 
rection shall we look for betterment? 

When one enters the door of an ideal kindergar- 
ten, the room itself suggests happiness, health and 
beauty. It is large, clean, well aired, sunny, and of 
medium temperature. The children's eyes are pro- 
tected from the light; the chairs are suited to the 
size of each child. The children are in comfortable 
positions, there is the normal noise of active bodies, 
and tongues. Growing plants, animals, and other 
objects of interest are easily accessible, to show that 
the children's experiences are broadening by first 
hand-contact. The toys of selected type are on low 
shelves, arranged as neatly as little fingers can do it. 
Pictures, artistic yet with child like interest, are ar- 
ranged with restful effect on the walls. 

We all know kindergarten rooms which differ 
from this description. We have experienced them, 
dusty, stuffy, and close. We have seen the light 
streaming in the children's eyes because the kin- 
dergartner felt it imperative to arrange the tables in 



the conventional hollow square. We have seen tall 
childreu on low chairs and short children on high 
chairs, because the janitor happened to leave them 
in this order. We have seen some children with 
hands folded forty-five minutes out of the hour be- 
cause otherwise they might do something not di- 
rected by the kindergartner, and, on the other hand, 
we have seen kindergartens where the children were 
never in an orderly position. Some kindergartnors 
are too neat to be bothered with animals or toys or 
the plants of which the children take charge. In 
other places, the picture books are torn, doll clothes 
di/ty, and doll dishes broken. We have seen bare 
walls, and again walls with a superabundance of 
valueless pictures. These negative examples show 
that individual standards may be too high, too di- 
vorced from the child's interests, or they may be too 
low, not raising the level of the child's activity. 

In the present discussion we have nothing to do 
with the size or location of kindergarten rooms; we 
must consider only those points for which the kin- 
• dergartner is mainly responsible. Comparing the 
good and bad types of kindergartens just mentioned, 
we realize that a kindergartner should stage ideals 
of art, neatness, orderly activity, etc,, but should look 
at these through the child's eyes and demand from 
Lim only that amount which will be the equivalent of 
Lis best effort in the right direction. She should be 
mentally balanced and open minded enough to place 
the physical welfare of the children above any me- 
chanical arrangement of seats or preconceived idea/ 
of quietness and order, or of liberty. 

The children in an ideal kindergarten are alort, 
responsive, active, self-controlled, happy, creative, 
purposeful, developing. Each of these adjectives has 
been chosen carefully and may stand without fur- 
ther explanation as representative of the best type 
of kindergarten. 

In the opposite type, the children are sometimes 
so "good" that they never make a mistake, but such 
children in all probability never offer anything 
spontaneously, they are passive little followers of the 
teacher's suggestions; they allow the kindergartiKr 
to do most of the talking — as well as the thinkm," 1 ; — 
and obediently reply or suggest the proper thing 
when questioned; they are passively happy because 
being with and doing the same thing with other 
children bring a kind of pleasure. In other kin- 
dergartens the children are rude, boisterous, flit- 
ting from one trivial idea to another, all talking at 
the same time, getting in each other's way and sel- 
dom arriving at results of value. 

The kindergartner who can develop on the part of 
the children the attitude indicated by the adjectives 
used in connection with the ideal kindergarten, must 
be sympathetic, tactful, patient, democratic, a be- 
liever in the earnestness and goodness of child na- 
ture; she must be watchful to present educative sit- 
uations which will arouse and retain interest; have 
foresight to plan definitely for the future, and yet 
wisdom and self-control enough tq lay aside her own 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



19 



-plans when the good of the children leads in another 
direction. 

The work done in the ideal kindergarten should 
show two aspects: one, the immature, crude results, 
the expression of the child's own ideas; and the oth- 
er, the simple yet good forms supplied by the kinder- 
gartner. Along the lines of music, literature, play 
art, and construction there should be seen results 
which bear every evidence of a child's creative efforts 
with little modification by the adult. The adult's in- 
fluence should be felt in the models presented in 
these lines, many of which the children may be able 
to reproduce. 

Some kindergartners do not realize that little child- 
ren can create simple songs under the stress of emo- 
tion, or that they can tell simple stories that are of 
literary value from the child's point of view, or that 
they can evolve their own games or that some crude 
combination of color may be a development for the 
particular child in the artistic line. Many kinder- 
gartners look at the value of the accomplishment in 
these different lines entirely from the adult stand- 
point. They look at the product as a static thing 
instead of looking at the child and his progressive 
development in and through the product. Other kin- 
dergartners remain too close to the child's standard 
in the models which they present; they confuse 
crudity with simplicity. The child is crude because 
his ideas are confused and his technique faulty. It 
is possible for the kindergartner to simplify because 
she has complete control over both ideas and tech- 
nique. 

The ideal kindergartner supplies situations which 
encourage the creation of songs, stories, pictures, 
games, dances, and playthings. She also presents 
artistic and valuable results along such lines, and 
most of these suitable for the children to reproduce 
or copy. 

The personality of the kindergartner is the strong- 
est force within the schoolroom. She should be a 
model in health, happy temperament, courteous man- 
ners, suitable, neat dress, and pleasant voice, and 
above all she should have the play spirit. She 
should actively co-operate with mothers and with 
other teachers, and be interested in the life of the 
whole school and community. 

Dr. Parlin of Cambridge, in a paper entitled 
The Kindergarten of the Future, given at the Na- 
tional Education Association in 1911, offers the val- 
uable suggestions of a progressive educator upon our 
particular problem. He says: "In the kindergarten 
of the future the health of the child will be the 
prime consideration, the chief aim being to develop 
a strong, well organized body to serve later as the ef- 
ficient instrument of a well trained mind." "The 
kindergarten of the future will recognize the supreme 
importance of play in the education of the child and 
will provide ample time and suitable places for it, 
— the frolic or aimless capering and laughing due 
to an overplus of physical energy; the imaginative in- 
dividual play, in which each child follows his own ob- 
servation; and the group plays in which all play to- 



gether." "Our kindergarten will surely associate 
childhood with the myriad forms and voices of Na- 
ture." "Our kindergarten children should also see 
the works of man and man at his work — locomotives, 
fire engines, boats, and beautiful buildings; the car- 
penter, mason, farmer, and blacksmith ; policeman, 
fireman, bootblack, and newsboy; trench digging, 
road making, street cleaning, and house building, 
in fact, every place and everything within the radius 
of their safe and possible observation." "The kinder- 
garten of the future will give much attention to oral 
language training, the children will do most of the 
talking." "The kindergartners will continue to tell 
the children the old favorite stories which have 
stood the test of ages, and will teach the choicest se- 
lections from the children's poetry." "When the 
weather drives the children indoors, they will go to 
a large, well-lighted and well ventilated room, 
fringed with a row of seats and furnished with a 
piano, pictures, and story books and all sorts of play- 
things." 

"The kindergartner of the future will be a most im- 
portant factor in the community and in the lives 
of the children. She will have a healthy, well 
trained body; a quick sensible, and versatile mind; 
and, above all, a great, warm, motherly heart. She 
will be the friend, companion and guide of the child- 
ren. She will really and truly love them and under- 
stand them, not only sympathetically, but scientifi- 
cally, the laws of their growth , the order of their de- 
velopment, their instincts and interests, their physical 
needs and mental requirements. She will know and 
love Nature, be able to recognize the trees, identify 
the flowers, call the birds by name, and tell the story 
of the hills and stones. She will know the best plays 
and games, the bset childhood songs and be able to 
sing them, the children's favorite stories and be able 
to tell them charmingly. She will be able to run, 
throw a ball, roll a hoop, skip a rope, make a whistle, 
steer a sled, and do all the other things which little 
folks expect of their grown-up friends." Finally, the 
kindergarten of the future will respect the individual- 
ity and spontaneity of the child and give ample scope 
for his imagination and initiative. It will provide an 
environment rich in its opportunity, inspiring in its 
suggestion, wholesome in its influence; but will give 
far less attention to regular programs, formal instruc- 
tions, and sedentary occupations." 

We have finished outlining in a sketchy way what 
we hope each and every kindergartner of the future 
will be and do. To sum up, she must be healthy, 
happy, cultured, have a pleasant voice, and be full of 
the play spirit. She must not only love little child- 
ren, but she must understand their physical, mental, 
social, and spiritual nature and needs, how these 
can be developed and where they can be guided. She 
must have wisdom and fitness for leading her child- 
ren. 

These requirements place the emphasis on a dif- 
ferent point from that which is usually stressed in 
our training schools. Where the requirements are 
of sufficiently high grade to rank the training school 



20 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



as a professional school, most of the time is con- 
sumed in learning academically about the materials 
for educating little children, and then how to make 
these educative things of interest to the child. The 
new idea would be to stress the child, his interests 
and possibilities, and then to select from these the 
ones which seem to lead toward adult ideals. We have 
taught gifts, occupations, games, etc., academically 
as subjects, and then, as entirely unrelated 
to these "subjects," we have taught about children, 
and in the time left over we have tried to connect 
the two. 

A schoolman says with reference to all training 
work: "In the normal school the various branches of 
study are to be organized, not so much with regard 
to their inner, logical relations as with regard to the 
interests and aptitudes of children." 

The student in training should, from the first, sec 
the developing child and the means for his develop- 
ment as parts of one process, so that this becomes 



the habitual way of seeing the process; she should 
never for a passing moment entertain the idea that 
education is to be made interesting to a child, but 
should feel that things are interesting because they 
educate, and the teacher's function is to choose the 
best kind of education. 

In studying the educational process, certain recur- 
rent facts will be found and generalizations be made. 
The student can then begin to crystalize her abstract 
ideas of education, its principles and theory, out of 
her actual experience. This gives a method by 
which she can continue to grow after she has left the 
training school. 

In order that students shall develop this ability 
they must have arrived at a certain maturity before 
entrance and have a certain background of knowl- 
edge. The training course must be lengthened to 
admit of observation and practice in the kindergar- 
ten which shall serve as the first-hand experience 
with children, which shall lie at the basis of the 
formulation of educational theory. 
(To be continued) 




BLOCK BUILDING— DETROIT PUBLIC SCHOOLS 




Barnyard Made of Children's Work, Mounted. 
Ask the children to find the horse and sheep, the turkey, the chickens and the ducks. The cow 
and the pig are in the barnyard, too. How many sheep? How many chickens? How many horses? 

Isn't that a nice fence to keep them all in? 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



21 




Translated from the German of Friedrich Froe- 
bel's "Mother Play" by Bertha Johnston: 

(SEE MOTHER PLAY PICTURE) 

Motto for the Mother. 

The child, becoming sensible of his limbs, 
Plays with his hands and fingers. 
Mother love responds to this manifestation 
Of the awakening of his mental powers. 
That which stirs dimly in the child, 
The mother nurtures with solicitude. 

SONG FOR THE CHILD. 

See the fingers in a row, 

Straight they stand and then bend low. 

Bow, Thumbkin, bend your pate, 

While Pointer stretches, tall and straight. 

Middle Finger, courtesy now, 

Goldie, raise up, you know how. 

Little ones, now lowly bend, 

Joining hands, there, at the end. 
All the fingers in a row, 
Standing straight, then bending low, 
Learning how to courtesy, 
Oh, so very gracefully. 
Fingers most polite and kind, 
On each hand we're sure to find. 

FROEBBL'S COMMENTARY. 

The picture and song accompanying this little play 
indicate its outward expression, as plainly as the 
motto implies its inner meaning, so that there re- 
mains little to be said about it as a whole. 

More general than ever before, is the lament over 
the child's improper handling of his body, which 
excites sensuality, destroys his sense of delicacy, and 
pollutes the purity of his soul. And alas! the most 
superficial observation of childish actions, and of the 
physical and spiritual condition of children, proves 
that this lament is not only not unfounded, but sadly 
enough, is only too widely justified. 

What then is to be done, to provide against this 
spreading evil, which like an insidious pestilence, 
poisons what is noblest in the child and in the man 
to be, and if possible to remove it entirely? 

There is but one remedy, but rejoice, O friend of 
childhood and of humanity, for it is a sure one! 
Firstly, the cure for wrong activity is found in those 
right activities and occupations, so suited to and 
persisted in by the child, that they task to the ut- 
most his entire nature, body and spirit, throughts and 
feelings. 

Secondly, In such training and exercising of his 
limbs conduces to the above ends, and the endeav- 
or, through such use, not only to remove all that 
tends to a vacant mind and sensual excitement, but 
especially, to connect such activity, with an intimate 
observation of all that lies around him. 

To accomplish which is the purpose of the sense 
and limb plays here presented. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR GRADE TEACHERS. 

Nearly all of Froebel's Mother Plays draw the atten- 
tion of the child to things external to himself, whose 



activities he imitates, thus identifying himself to an 
extent, with the object imitated, and at the same time 
exercising the muscles and joints of his limbs. 

There is, however a group of little songs which, like 
the one here presented, respond to that period of the 
little child's development, when he is becoming ac- 
quainted with that most immediate part of his soul's 
environment, his own body. One of these plays, 
"Naming the Fingers," points out each finger, giv- 
ing the popular name, as thumb, pointer or index, 
middle finger, etc., the second one, is the one here giv- 
en, and a third, "The Family" helps the child to feel 
that the many often form one whole, as the members 
of a family to the fingers on the hand; and yet an- 
other, helps him in learning to count his fingers. 

The one presented here, so attractive in the picture, 
and which is greatly liked by the children as a play, 
suggests the solution to a problem that teachers of 
all grades, in all kinds of schools, public or private, 
city or country, church or secular, are sure to meet. 
If a serious question at the period in which Froebel 
wrote, it is even more so now, or at least, the general 
public are aware of its importance as never before. In 
Parents' Meetings, the teacher can help the parent, 
by calling attention to Froebel's solution of the dif- 
ficulty, i. e. the affording opportunity to the child 
of employment for all the activities of body, mind and 
heart. This is one of the values of hand work at 
home and in school, and also of active, happy bodily 
exercise. 

If a child is seen misusing his hands, do not mag- 
nify the evil, by telling him not to do so, but give in- 
stant employment for the idle fingers, if but one of the 
little finger plays. Overcome evil with good, but still 
better, if possible, forestall evil with good. Two 
things cannot occupy the same place at the same 
time in tbe spiritual world any more than in the 
physical. Fill the child mind with pure and lov- 
ing thoughts, and give occupation suited to his needs 
and capacity and the entrance to evil is closed. 

HOW PLAYED. 

The little song can be played with the fingers alone, 
or with older children, it would be better dramat- 
ized by ten children. Call the attention of the little 
ones, to the children in the picture; the gracefulness, 
the stately posture. Also, to the artist's poetic idea 
in drawing the blossoms nodding and bowing to each 
other. 

The sunflower, the foundation upon which all these 
pretty manners rest, symbolizes co-operation, helpful- 
ness, the sunflower being a composite of many tiny 
blossoms that have learned the value of co-operation, 
of mutual helpfulness. A bee, creeping from one 
to the other, distributes thus the pollen and all are 
benefitted. So, all the five fingers of one hand com- 
bine to help each other, and the two hands together 
can accomplish what one alone cannot do, and child- 
ren can help each other and the teacher, as the teach- 
er helps the children. 

The dramatization and singing of the little song, 
the practicing each day, in play, of this little visit- 
ing, greeting song, should react on the character, the 
charm of manners being seconded by kindly deeds. 
Let the children tie up one finger, then another, then 
one hand and see how much they are handicapped. 



NERO, ROLLO AND PUSS. 
By Susan Plessner Pollock. 

The little house in the wood had many inhabitants, 
almost a dozen; let us count; the parents two, the 
grandmother (3) the children (4) and (5) Dora (6) 
Nicks and Lizzie seven and eight, Nero and Puss (9) 
and (10) and Rollo made the eleventh. Rollo was 
the big dog who was harnessed like a pony every day 
and drew the milk cans to town. The other animals 
did not live in the house; the cows had their stalls 
where they slept, the hens and chickens and ducks 
and geese had their roosts and the pond, while the 
pigeons had a pigeon house of their own. 

Rollo and Nero were good friends and had been ever 
since they were pups; both had been born in Lerum, 
and brought up, in the little house in the wood, so 
they both had delightful memories of their jolly 
younger days; often had they plunged, head over 
heels into the pond — and made such a rumpus, rowing 
and tumbling about in there, that the fishes must 
have all danced and rocked; they would surely have 
shouted for astonishment, if that had been possible, 
but fish cannot tell us when they are glad, or sur- 
prised, for they can make no sound; they are dumb. 
When Nero and Rollo were puppies, they had had 
grand times, but now they must work industriously 
and earn their meals like grown up people. Nero 
was a thorough hunting dog, while Rollo was a 
thorough working dog, that is, he must draw the 
milk cans in the cart, to the town every day. Early 
in the morning, as soon as the sun was up, the cows 
were milked and the nice warm milk poured into 
the clean, shining tin cans; then the cans were 
placed in the little cart, each packed around with 
straw to keep them from rattling about. All this 
was attended to by Mrs. Forrester, while Dora went 
into the room where the dogs and puss slept and 
waked Rollo up; this she did by patting his smooth 
coat and calling "Rollo, get up, we must go to town." 
Rollo stretched himself, yawned, stood up and after 
another good stretch, was ready for work. Nero 
opened his eyes, too, but then he turned over and 
slept and snored again as before. One must say that 
both animals could snore mightily; it made a great 
rattling when they snored in concert. Puss slept in 
the same place, it was a great wonder that she could 
close one eye in such a racket, but she rolled herself 
up like a ball and hid her head until one could think 
sometimes that she was a puss without a head; but 
perhaps her ears were closed by this means, and after 
all, puss snored herself, altho not so loudly as the 
big dogs. When the cat snored, one called it 
"Spinning,"- for Puss sounded exactly like Mrs. Frank 
Forrester's spinning wheel, when she turned the 
flax into thread and made the wheel turn by moving 



her foot up and down. The town in which the milk 
was sold, lay quite a way beyond Lerum. Rollo 
tramped with his milk wagon thro Lerum, past Mast- 
er Pessumehr's castle; Dora walked always beside 
him, knitting on a stocking meanwhile. She had 
learned that from the Grandmother in the little 
house in the wood, that one can also knit while 
walking. In the town, Rollo stopped before all the 
houses where children lived, who drank milk for 
breakfast. There lived here also grand-mamas who 
liked good cream in their coffee for breakfast; and 
here and there a cook who wished to cook a milk 
soup. Every one who wished to buy milk or cream 
from Dora, gave her money; this she put in her pock- 
et to save for Mrs. Forrester. While Dora went into 
the houses with the milk, Rollo stood still and rested, 
but he did not go to sleep, he was always on the 
watch and as soon as a stranger came near the cart, 
he made a great fuss, barking with all his might. 
Dora often placed a pan with fresh cold water before 
him; for big dogs need to drink often; she also gave 
him now and then, a piece of bread. Sometimes the 
people who bought milk, gave him something to eat 
too. Once an old lady had given him a whole saus- 
age. This grandmother, who knit as much as the 
grandmother in the little house in the wood took a 
thread of wool from her knitting work, fastened it to 
the sausage and let it hang down out of the window; 
that was comical enough, Rollo was much surprised 
as all at once, the sausage tapped him on the nose! 
How excellent it must have tasted to him! "Is it 
good?" asked him the grandma who was standing at 
the window? Rollo would like to have said "Yes!" 
but he could not do that, so he only said "Nrrrrr," and 
wagged his tail quickly from side to side. At eleven 
o'clock generally, Rollo returned to the house with the 
empty cans. Then it was dinner time; he and Nero 
and Puss received together a great dish of food; the 
dogs began to eat immediately, great mouthfuls 
from the middle of the dish, but Puss licked gently 
from the edge of the dish, but she was also satisfied; 
she did not have so large a stomach and caught for 
herself extra, many a mouse-roast. The three animals 
were good friends; it was very seldom that the dogs 
growled and Puss spit at them. Puss was a nice cat, 
she kept herself very clean, often every day, she 
washed and licked herself to her very tail-tip and 
when she was satisfied with herself, she licked their 
ears for the big doggies, who allowed it very willing- 
ly, often sleeping and snoring meanwhile. 
Sent from Leipzig, Germany, by S. Plessner Pollack. 



We find in life exactly what we put in it. — Em- 
erson. 



Despatch is the soul of business. — Chesterfield. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



23 



A FINGER PLAY 

Carrie L. Wagner. 
Here is the mountain 
Tall and high — 




MOUNTAIN 

This is the moon 

Shining- close by. 




This the great mantle 

Which makes the dark night. 




TO MAKE THE DARK NIGHT 

Here is the window 

Through which we may peep, 




MOON 

These are the little stars 
Twinkling so bright, 



WINDOW 

And this is the bed, 

Where we fall fast asleep. 




Going to Kindergarten 

STRAIGHT LINE CUTTING 
By Carrie L. Wagner 

A child's environment is his world, so the subject 
matters in the kindergarten should be of vital inter- 
est to him. When he first comes to the kindergar- 
ten he wants to talk of his home, and the material 
given him is used to picture his surroundings. 

In the folding and cutting on straight lines he may 
make many things relating to his every day life. 
Prom sixteen squares, houses, chairs, tables, a kinder- 
garten, and numerous other intimate objects may be 
cut. To cut the table, fold a four inch square into 
sixteen little squares. At one side cut straight 
through on the first line, thus cutting off a strip of 
four squares. Fold the two long edges of this strip 
together: open and fold the two ends to the first lines. 



Kindergarten Chairs and Table 

At the lower edge cut from each corner one small 
square, formed by the opening, and also cut out the 
two half squares, leaving one small square at each 
side. This forms a kindergarten table. From the 
twelve squares, cut away one more strip of four 
squares. Cut the oblong of eight squares through 
the center, making two squares. From these two 
small squares make the kindergarten and the home, 
by folding the two top squares on the diagonal, and 
cutting away on the line. Cut doors and windows 
The strip of four squares left will make the chairs. 
Cut into two pieces on the center line, then fold the 
edges of these pieces on the oblong; open and fold the 
right-and-left-sides to the center crease. Cut both 
pieces into halves forming two small squares, and at 
the top of each square cut away one small square, 
leaving three squares in the shape of a little kinder- 
garten chair. Cut the little children free hand 
These posters delight the little ones, and a different 
one each month makes a pleasing border for a room 





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PATTERNS FOR DOLL'S HOUSE 

By John Y, Donlop 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRI31ARY MAGAZINE 



25 



TOY MAKING IN THE KINDERGARTEN 

THE DOLLS HOUSE. 
By Wm. Y. Dunlop. 

At the present day it is hardly necessary to speak 
of the educational value of handwork as a subject 
of practical instruction in elementary schools. 

One of the chief difficulties in using it is the diffi- 
culty of finding some one branch to be useful in the 
whole school and which can be made the base of 
other lessons. 

The value of correlation even at this early stage 
is too well understood, for it to be worth while to 
speak much of the additional value of the scheme 
which correlates many different subjects and yet it is 
a point which cannot be too well emphasized. 

Such scheme can be embodied in the dolls' house 
more easily and effectively I think than in anything 
else. 

It includes designing, drawing, modeling, paint- 
ing, practical woodwork, weaving, needlework, knit- 
ting, nature study and hygiene. 

It can also be brought to bear on the history les- 
son for the children who are making a make believe 
home will find added interest in the homes of their 
forefathers. 

The same remarks apply to domestic arrangements 
and to dress and to development of national resources. 

There is no other occupation which can form a 
centre for such a large group of interests. 

Some additional advantages are to be found in 
the facts that no special ability on the part of the 
teacher is required and that the expense of the whole 
thing is small. 

There are two possible ways of beginning the 
doll's house and naturally each teacher must decide for 
herself which of them is most likely to appeal to her 
own school. 

You may begin by first finding the doll and then 
making a house for it or you may first build the house 
and then find the inhabitants for it. 

But whichever you decide to do the ultimate pro- 
cedure when you get to the building of the house is 
the same. 

To stimulate the children's interest each teacher 
will of course follow her own individuality. 

But I think a very good plan is to begin by telling 
the children that we will go for a walk but instead 
of studying flowers we will study houses. 

In the interval between those imaginary walks, 
we ask the children to bring pictures of houses and 
more varied collections it would be most difficult to 
find. 

By this time the proposed doll's house is begin- 
ning to be a topic of interest to the fathers and the 
mothers of most of the class and it continues to be so. 

Having learned as much as possible the next step 
is to select a type and then with the idea of that de- 
sign before us let the class begin to build. 

It is absolutely necessary that the doll's house 
should be a cottage and another point which is worth 
considering is that we should be guided by our 
knowledge of the cottages in the district. 



The chief distinguishing features must be sim- 
plicity of construction. 

In this I would suggest that the side walls and 
the floor of the house be framed together with heavy 
cardboard. 

Taking a house as shown by figures 1, 2, and 3, 
in that case build in the first place as shown by figure 
4, which consists of two gables, ground and first floor 
and two partitions and top piece, 
paint in the positions of the door and build the stair 

Add the roof as shown by figure 5 and then cut 
out the front and back piece of cardboard which are 
be hinges on the one side with a strip of cloth. 

The house is now ready to be decorated. Paint 
in the doors and windows as shown in the plan, figures 
2 and 3. 

When the outside is finished, open the front and 
discuss the decoration of the front rooms. 

A clear idea can now be had by the whole class 
of the internal shape of the four rooms. 

So that the next lesson is the design of furniture 
to be and the color of each room. 

This is really a very interesting pattern for a 
doll's house and it is really simple although it may 
sound rather complicated and with the aid of the 
sketch at figure 6, which shows the living room and 
the front bed room furnished, I think no real difficulty 
will be found, and I would recommend that those 
teachers who have not tried this occupation should 
give it a trial. 

JOHN Y. DUNLOP, 

Glasgow. 



A FEW WISE THOUGTHS ON DISCIPLINE. 
■ (Copied from a Student's Note Book.) 

1. Give children right attitude toward life to save 
many later sad experiences is 1 teacher's priilege and 
duty. 

2. Go near child to discipline it. 
Never punish in anger. 
Remember your own commands. 
Reward occasionally, not as a rule. 
Impart standards — using stories. 
See ahead — thus avoid trouble. 
Believe in power of example. 
Before speaking — have perfect silence — use 

sweet voice. 

10. Avoid "Dont's. Keep the good, the positive 
before the child — not the negative. 

12. Whisper corrections when possible. 

13. Do not require too much of the young child. 

14. Always enter into the child's experience before 
correcting. Study child's motives as well as deeds. 



A course in social service for parents has just 
been given at the National Kindergarten College, 
Chicago. Visiting nurses, playgrounds, juvenile 
courts, and social settlements were some of the 
topics treated. 



There is no friend so faithful as a good book. 
No book is worth anything which is not worth 
much. — Ruskin. 







THE COMMITTEE q?THE WHOLE 

CONDUCTED BY BERTHA JOHNSTON 

THIS COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE, of which all Subscribers to the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine are members, will consider those various prob- 
lems -which meet the practicing Kindergartner— problems relating to the 
School-room proper. Ventilation, Heating, and the like; the Aesthetics of 
School-room Decoration; Problems of the Physical Welfare of the Child, in- 
cluding the Normal, the Defective, and the Precocious; questions suggest- 
ed by the use of Kindergarten Material, the Gifts. Occupations, Games, Toys. 
Pets; Mothers-meetings; School Government; Child Psychology; the relation 
of Home to School and the Kindergarten to the Grades; and problems re- 
garding the Moral Development of the Child and their relation to Froebel's 
Philosophy and Methods All questions will be •welcomed and also any 
suggestions of -ways in -which Kindergartners have successfully met the 
problems incidental to kindergarten and primary practice. All replies to 
queries will be made through this department, and not by correspondence. 
Address all inquiries to 

MISS BERTHA JOHNSTON, EDITOR, 

3£9 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



A MORNING AT SESAME HOUSE. 

The Mecca of the kindergarten visitor in London, 
is assuredly, Sesame House, which trains young 
women along the lines proved good by Pestalozzi- 
Froebel House of Berlin, and the editor of this Dept. 
of the Kindergarten Primary Magazine will describe 
two delightful visits to this interesting centre of Pest- 
alozzian-Froebelian activities. 

First a few words about how it came to be. 

We had formerly thought of the name as being 
derived from the magic formula "Open Sesame," 
which, in the dear old Arabian Nights story, opens 
the treasure cave to the robbers and to Ali Baba, but 
it derives its title only indirectly from this source, 
thus: John Ruskin wrote his famous little essays, "Se- 
same and Lillies," addressed primarily to people of 
leisure, the Sesame part to men and the Lily part for 
women, to awaken them to their responsibility to use 
their leisure conscientiously; it is a call to high think- 
ing and noble living, to a sense of noblisse oblige. The 
text of the Sesame section is "Ye shall have a 
cake of sesame and ten pounds," and it calls attention 
to the treasures hidden in books, — an "Open Sesame" 
as it were, to these treasures. One result of the 
publication of these famous essays, was the formation 
by an earnest group of people, of the so-called Sesame 
Club, and it was this club that founded Sesame 
House, which indeed opens to its students and child- 
ren, a key to the treasure-house of nature, Man and 
God. 

Fraulein Schepel, who for 20 years was the animat- 
ing spirit of the Pestallozzi-Froebel Haus of Berlin, 
was called in 1899 to organize and direct the London 
college. 

A few years ago Fraulein Schepel resigned altho 
she is still a frequent visitor, and Miss Emily Last 
now conducts in the same spirit of consecrated and 
intelligent devotion, the training of young women 
for ideal womanhood and motherhood. 

Walking along an attractive street Acacia Road, 
we come to an arched gateway, witu an inscription 
that lets us know we have reached our destination. 

Entering, we follow a path lined with lime (or, as we 
call them, linden trees,) to the large, old-fashioned 
house. We note in passing strings of monkey-nuts 
(peanuts) tied to the trees for the "Daws (or other) 



birds to peck at," and to our riglit, is the bird's 
table with its basin of water for the bird visitors. 
The grounds are spacious, and some distance away 
is the henhouse, where real fowls disport themselves, 
and where actual egg-hunting may be enjoyed by the 
little ones. There are flower and kitchen gardens 
in which the children raise their own plants and 
vegetables to be painted, or modeled in clay at all 
stages of development, and wherein the students study 
plant life from both the practical and the more 
scientific standpoint. 

Unfortunately we had missed our way in finding 
the place and so we arrived too late to see one of 
the most characteristic exercises — the feeding of the 
pets and the cleaning of the birdcage, the goldfish 
aquarium, the rabbit hutch, and other early morning 
labors. When we entered the room the children 
stood in three rows and a little conversation was in 
progress interspersed with singing. Later, the child- 
ren sat in a circle and a mysterious basket was 
brought in, which was found to hold a most beautiful 
black Angora cat, a pet of one of the teachers which 
she had taken pains to bring from home that morn- 
ing, and which formed a subject of observation for 
the interested onlookers. 

The visitor was shown seeds of various kinds, 
which the children themselves had collected, and 
which were being saved in paper envelopes and card 
boxes (made by the children,) until they should be 
wanted for planting in the spring, or in occupation 
work at table. 

Much stress in this College, is laid upon "group 
work," that is to say, the guidance and control of a 
group of children of varying ages, such as a normal 
family afford, and th econtrol of which requires 
quite different methods from those employed with a 
circle in which all are of the same stage of develop- 
ment. Here, in a small room we saw such a group 
engaged happily in a few household tasks. A boy 
of about five, was washing the windows, making them 
so bright and shining; two little girls were washing 
a pair of vases, another was shinrng some bit of 
metal, and a tiny boy was arranging flowers in a 
vase. But being inexperienced he did not cut the 
stems short enough, the vase was over-balanced, it 
upset, and then he must wipe it up again (cause 
and effect,) after which he cut the stems again, with 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



21 



his little blunt scissors and the blossoms were suc- 
cessfully arranged. 

The children were all happily active without be- 
ing noisy, and after their labors were concluded the 
teacher told them the story of the Golden Windows, 
whose beautiful message will mean more and more 
to the children as they grow in years and life exper- 
ience. A few games were played also, before the 
group was dismissed. 

The students themselves study along lines that pre- 
pare them to direct intelligently and in the spirit of 
the two great Swiss and German educators, the work 
with children and later to superintend similar work 
in parish or settlement or in their own homes. 

They have courses in cooking, vegetarian and other- 
wise; in marketing, and shopping; in keeping of 
accounts; in simple laundering (the day we were 
there a large red quilt had just been washed, accord- 
ing to approved methods to prevent fading or running 
of the colors; and various garments had gone through 
suds and rinsing and blueing waters. Hygiene, sani- 
tation and like subjects are studied; also needle work, 
— the cutting and making of children's garments; in 
fact all topics that are essential to the conduct of a 
home, including the care of children from infancy 
up. For this training the latest subject-matter in- 
troduced into the curriculum, a well-equipped nursery 
is established in an attractive house a few blocks 
away from Sesame House. This "Sesame House 
Nursery" accommodates three resident infants, with 
six students, in addition to the Lady Superintendent 
and the physician. Here Sesame students may study 
the care and guidance of quite young children, observ- 
ing side by side, the physical and the normal devel- 
opment. This course is optional except for those 
training for the profession of Lady Nurse. Many 
however, take it up to complete their own Home-Life 
Training. Among these are young women expecting 
to enter homes of their own. It is a three-months' 
course, both theoretic and practical, including the 
feeding, bathing, care in case of childish ailments. 
Meanwhile, all of these courses are of course accom- 
panied or rather dominated by, the study of Froebel 
and Pestalozzi, the gifts and occupations, and all the 
other subjects that develop in the kindergartner that 
brooding, mother-instinct that lies innate in most 
women, but which needs intelligent, sympathetic, 
efficient training in order that not onl> the individual 
child but the great world at large may be intelligently 
and sympathetically mothered. 

It is the great importance given to the industrial 
and the home-life side of the training which differ- 
entiates the Pestalozzian from other kindergarten 
training schools. It is carried on in the spirit of 
Froebel as expressed in his statement, "The destiny 
of nations lies far more in the hands of women — the 
mothers — than in the hands of those who possess 
power. We must cultivate women who are the edu- 
cators of the human race, else a new generation can- 
not accomplish its task." The heart and imagination 
are exercised at every stage of the work so that 
there is no danger that the materialistic will over- 
shadow the spiritual development. 



Sesame is a seed of great importance in the life of 
the Orient — Sesame House seed has taken root in 
Egypt, in Brussels, in Milan, and the School of 
Mothercraft, founded in New York City a few years 
ago, derived its inspiration from the same source, 
for Mrs. Ashton Jonson, who came to the States and 
founded it, was chairman of the Sesame House Com- 
mittee from the beginning. Many well-known 
educators belong in the Council. Among the original 
councillors were, besides Miss Schepel, Lady Isabel 
Margesson, Miss A. M. Buckton, Miss Fanny Franks, 
Professor Geddes, Miss Lyschinska, Professor Sadler, 
Harry Schrader of Berlin, Professor Sully, and our 
own Earl Barnes, besides many many others. 

The Chicago Kindergarten Institute, with its 
students home called "Gertrude House," after Pesta- 
lozzi's ideal mother, "Gertrude," caught its inspira- 
tion also from Fralein Schepel, is animated by the 
same spirit. It now includes a home-making course. 

Amidst "Wars and rumors of war," strikes and 
counter-strikes, what an oasis to the spirit is this 
centre of a quiet, beneficient influence which will in 
time, leaven the whole lump of human society. 



MONTESSORI AND THE KINDERGARTEN 
Miss Elizabeth Harrison. 

OF THE NATIONAL KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Physically. Dr. Montessori has organized defi- 
nite gymnastics for the muscular development of the 
child, basing the same on their relationship to the ner- 
vous system, but so far has introduced no dramatic 
play. 

Froebel would have all bodily exercise done under 
the stimulus of play, leaving the definite muscular 
development to the body's response to the demand of 
the dramatic instinct of the child. The two methods 

Psychologically: Although Dr. Montessori claims 
can easily be united to the betterment of the child, 
that the unfolding of the child's inner life should 
be the chief aim of education, she frankly con- 
fesses that she knows no other way to deal with this 
spiritual life than definitely to train the senses. She 
says, "The content of our mind is made up of what 
we take materially from our surroundings by means 
of sensation." Therefore she emphasizes sense- 
impressions but ignores the process of apperception, 
memory and imagination by means of which the mind, 
itself, makes use of these sense-impressions for its 
own development. She leaves these important activ- 
ities of the Ego undirected and uncorrected by the 
teacher, although often directed and interfered with 
by the other children. 

Froebel, in all his writings, insists also upon the 
importance of clear sense-impression, but he then 
shows how each new sense-impression should be cor- 
related, by the mind, with the knowledge already ac- 
quired, else the growth of the mind will be confused 
and hampered by unorganized impressions. He thus 
emphasizes the energies of the mind as inborn, acting 
upon the material brought it by means of the senses 
rather than as something built up from the outside 
world through sense-impressions. 

Pedagogically: Dr. Montessori confines her "di 



28 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



dactic material" to geometric impressions and utilitar- 
ian purposes. 

Although his play-gifts are also geometric and the 
child's attention is sometimes called to the mathemat- 
ical qualities of his material, Froehel's materials are 
created more for the purpose of satisfying the child's 
instinctive desire to take to pieces and put together 
all materials that come into his hands; in other 
words, to learn dimensions, form, weight, etc., more 
through creative play than by direct dictation. 

Socially: Dr. Montessori would have the child 
learn his social relations through the actual exper- 
iences in the classroom and on the playground. 

Froebel would have these experiences strengthen- 
ed by dramatic play, stories and songs which portray 
the social life of mankind and its interdependence. 

Spiritually: Dr. Montessori is very devout in 
her attitude toward the spiritual life of the child: she 
says, "In comparison to this realm all the rest is as 
nothing." Yet she acknowledges that it is a subject 
so complex and so deep that she scarcely dares touch 
upon it, and admits that it is to her as yet a vague, 
unsolved problem. 

Froebel believed that there is a spiritual law 
of development as definite as the physical law of de- 
velopment, and that each child comes into the world 
with an inborn spiritual SELF which the senses do 
not reveal to us, but which nevertheless is self-evident 
and must be recognized and developed according to 
this law. Although he urged the study of the individ- 
ual temperament, disposition and talents of each child 
he believed that all should come under this spiritual 
law of unification; because by means of it each human 
being learns to submit to the laws of nature, to har- 
monize his relations with his fellowman and to ration- 
alize his conception of the Divine. Froebel created 
his play-material and selected and rearranged his play 
circle out of the mass of objects and activities which 
the world offers, in order that the child might see in 
his play-tools the geometric forms that unite all forms 
and feel in his dramatic games the social relationships 
which unite all mankind, and learn by means of his 
stories, songs and morning talks with his teacher that 
"this unity is God" and that "all things come from 
God and have their origin in the Divine Unity, in God 
alone. 

Many kindergartners seem to have forgotten to 
keep in mind these two needs of the child, the individ- 
ual and the universal, hence Dr. Montessori's special 
appeal for the first came like a clarion call to many 
parents. 

(From Bulletin issued by U. S. Bureau of Education) 



FIRST GRADE CONSTRUCTION WORK. 

Construction work has been defined as the ex- 
pression of thought through the hands by the use 
of some plastic material. 

Some of the most important aims are: 

(a) To satisfy the desire to express self-individu- 
ality in labor. 

(b) To satisfy the love to create. 

(c) To foster originality, which is in every hu- 
man soul, and is awaiting a means of expression. 

(d) To correlate the class work with the manual 
modifying so-called busy work. 

(e) To relate more closely the home with the 
school. 

With the definition and the aims in mind, let us 
consider some of the ways we may utilize this line 
of work in a practical manner in the school room. 



My first caution is to be content with crude ex- 
pression in the beginning. For the highest idea of 
this work is destroyed if all the work is imitative, 
but some imitative work is allowable. Out of crude 
but original work done in first primary grades will 
conic artistic expression in the upper grades, how- 
ever. 

How many first grade teachers have a doll house 
in their school rooms? Not an expensive one that 
has been purchased at a toy shop, but one made of 
a large wooden box, which some child has donated. 
After the box has been brought into the school 
room, have one of the older boys measure and cut 
the windows in it. Call for suggestions as to the 
papering of the walls, curtains, floor covering, wall 
decorations and furniture. 

It is necessary for the children to decide whether 
they wish the house to be inhabited by paper or 
china dolls. Also decide which room this is to be, 
whether parlor, bedroom, or kitchen. If they de- 
cide parlor, after it is properly furnished, another 
room may be added. This may be done until you 
have a house of four rooms. 

Teachers who have not tried this plan will be 
astonished at the materials brought and made by 
the children, the taste, suggestions for home-mak- 
ing, and the ingenuity displayed by them. 

Each week some little girl may be appointed to 
care for the house. 

In what way may the furnishing and caring for 
this little home correlate with the formal teaching? 
These are some of the practical lessons a certain 
first grade teacher has worked out with her pupils. 
Out of the variety of wall paper brought in by the 
children, came the lessons in color and design. 

A color lesson used as busy work in connection 
with the doiniouse, was the following: Each child 
had a sheet 'of 6x9 drawing paper and a box of 
Dixon's colored crayons. The children tinted their 
papers a light green. Each child was then given a 
small conventional fleur-de-lis, which the teacher 
had cut out of cardboard. This was placed on the 
tinted paper by the child to make a simple wall 
paper design. From this lesson come additional 
lessons of whether this design was to be used for 
side wall, ceiling, or border pattern. Also allow 
the children to experiment with color combina- 
tions, bringing out the thought that soft or pastel 
colorings make a better background for pictures 
and articles of furniture than large, gaudy effects. 

With pegs and sticks children may originate de- 
signs for either wall or floor covering, drawing 
them on squared paper, and perhaps at another 
time working out these same patterns in color. 

With slats, children may weave shades for the 
little windows. 

The floor of the doll house gives abundant scope 
for lessons in color and design. As the children 
bring in carpet for one room the teacher may direct 
the children's attention to the harmony with the 
wall covering, the appropriateness of color to the 
practical use of the room. The children may .decide 
to paint the floor, in which case it gives an impetus 
to the weaving of a little rug. 

It is not necessary to buy looms for weaving. In- 
genious teachers may make them out of cigar 
boxes or chalk boxes. Take the bottom from the 
box and along two opposite edges about *4 inch 
apart drive tiny tacks. String up your loom with 
twine. Weave with yarn, zephyr, or strips of cotton 
cloth. 

Another rug could be made for the bedroom or 
kitchen by braiding rags and twisting and sewing 
them in spiral fashion. The girls could bring their 
own material from home and make curtains for the 
windows. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



29 




The graduation exercises of the Harriette Melissa 
Mills Kindergarten Training School occurred May 
23, 1914, in the New York University Building, "Wash- 
ington Square, New York City. Several choruses 
were sung by the students, trained by Miss Elsie A. 
Merriam, and "Words of Counsel" were spoken by 
Dr. James E. Lough. Miss Julia Duncan presented 
the gold link for the school chain, Miss Mills present- 
ing the diplomas. Part Two was a most charming 
Spring Pageant, the original work of the class of 
1914. The principal characters were, Winter, Spring 
and June, while at the appropriate moment, the Frost 
Sprites, Sunshine Fairies, Violets, and Roses garbed 
in symbolic raiment, wove in and out of the dances, 
whose figures were planned by the students, and pre- 
sented a spectacle captivating in its simplicity, grace 
and harmony of color — all expressing the joy of the 
springtime. 



The New York Kindergarten Association will open a 
Kindergarten Training School October 1st, 1914, under 
the direction of Miss Laura Fisher. Normal Course, two 
years; observation and practice teaching in the kinder- 
gartens of the Association. 



Miss Caroline Crawford gave an interesting talk 
before the New York Public School Kindergarten 
Association on Wednesday, May 20, on simiple games 
and dances, explaining that the first known art form 
was the dramatic dance and that in art form two 
things must invariably be looked for — plot and char- 
acterization. A plot is built on cumulative repetition 
and by contrast, the simplest plot she knew being 
"Follow the Leader." In dramatizing "Mother Goose" 
instead of making it narrative make it characteriza- 
tion of moods that happen very frequently in a child's 
life. 

Miss Crawford gave demonstrations during her talk 
which were very suggestive and helpful to her listen- 
ers. The large number present was pleased to learn 
that Miss Crawford was having a book published en- 
titled "Dramatic Games and Dances." This was the 
final meeting of the association of the year. 

Miss Higgins,t the president, gave a brief outline of 
a varied and interesting program planned for the 
coming year. 

MABEL S. ROGERS, 

Press Com. 
N. Y. P. S. K. A. 
245 West 104th St. 



In a "rapid-advancement class" in Boston, com- 
posed of the 36 brightest pupils of the fifth and 
sixth grades, and placed under one teacher from 
entrance to completion of course, the children fin- 
ished all the work of the sixth, seventh and eighth 
grades in a year and a half. Only one hour a day 
was allowed these pupils for outside study. 



BOOK NOTES 

MONTESSORI SCHOOLS AS SEEN IN THE EARLY 
SUMMER OF 1 1913. By Jessie White, Dr. Sc. 
(Lond.) Pub. by Humphrey Milford, Oxford Univer- 
sity Press. Cloth, 185 Pps. 

This little volume cannot be too highly recom- 
mended both to those who have and to those who 
have not had the privilege of studying the Montessori 
method at first hand. It relates with sympathy and 
yet with scientific accuracy and detail, the author's 
observations of practice in thirteen different Montes- 
sori schools, in Milan, Verona, Rome, Bellinsona and 
Gerra-Gambierogma. Besides being a kindergarten 
vice-principal and author of a book on Froebel, Dr. 
White has had scientific training, and has been a 
science teacher for many years; she states with 
authority, therefore, the following rules for sound 
observational work, and which may well be handed 
down by kindergarten training schools, to their 
graduates and sutdents: — "Acquaintance with other 
methods employed for children of the same age so 
that novel points may not escape notice; the psycho- 
logical knowledge necessary for appreciating the re- 
sults of the method; impartiality of judgment in 
estimating the value of results; patience in studying 
the phenomena so that the impression formed on 
one day may if necessary, be corrected by later 
impressions; carefulness in weighing the judgments 
arrived at and in expressing them verbally." 

These observations covered a period of two months 
and the comparison of one school with another, and 
the detailed description of individual children and 
their doings, as well as of the different teachers, and 
of the precise moment at which one occupation gave 
way to another gives the average reader as good an 
idea of what is being accomplished as if that reader 
were actually present but had not the power of ob- 
servation and comparison so necessary to suond judg- 
ment. We close with one important conclusion of 
interest to all teachers: "This one thing these schools 
have conclusively proved, that consciousness of pro- 
gress and power of self-criticism are much safer and 
more effective motives than emulation, and that the 
children are more charming and better just because 
they are never shown off. The truth is valuable to 
young beginners, as a guide to hear, to observe, when 
visiting day comes. 

ENGLISH SYNONYMS, ANTONYMS, AND PRE- 
POSITIONS. By James C. Fernald, L.H.D. Large 
12mo, Cloth, 723 pp. $150, net; average carriage 
charges, 12 cents. Published by Funk & Wagnalls, 
New York. 

Not one in a thousand of average students would 
ever discover, by independent study of the dictionary, 
that there are fifteen synonyms for beautiful, twenty- 
one for beginning , fifteen for benevolence, twenty for 
friendly, and thirty-seven for pure. The mere men- 
tion of such numbers open vistas of possible fulness, 
freedom , and variety of utterance, which will have 
for many persons the effect of revelation. 

The work contains over 8,100 syuonyms, classified 
and discriminated, with nearly 4,000 classified an- 
toyms; together with the correct use of prepositions 
indicated by illustrative examples. 

To write or speak to the best purpose, one should 
know in the first place all the words from which he 
may choose, and then the exact reason why, in any 
case, any particular word should be chosen. No 
modern book covers this field so accurately and 
thoroughly as does this newest one by Dr. Fernald. 
Continued on Page 35 




Note. It is hoped that this series of articles, which 
will probably continue during the coining year, will 
enable inexperienced primary and rural teachers to 
do better work with the little children. Creative 
self activity is a fundamental principle in kinder- 
garten education. While imitative and suggestive 
work is necessary, yet the goal of the teacher should 
be to lead the pupils to plan, think, invent, and create 
for themselves. To this end the teacher must en- 
deavor always to conform her program to the inter- 
ests, experiences and capacity of her pupils. 

THE FIRST GIFT IN PRIMARY AND RURAL 
SCHOOLS. 

This gift as designed by Froebel, consists of six 
soft rubber balls, covered with woolen yarn or worst- 
ed, one each of the 6 principal colors, red, orange, 
yellow, green, blue, and violet. Each ball has a 
string attached, colored like the cover. The whole 
is usually contained in a wooden box, with sliding 
cover, cross beams, and support. Froebel chose the 




THE F1KST GiJb'T. 

ball for his First Gift chiefly because its shape is 
most pleasing to the child, and it can be easily 
grasped and held in the hand, but perhaps its chief 
attraction to the child, aside from the bright colors, 
is its tendency to constant motion. The fact that 
this form represents one of the three fundamental 
forms of the universe, the sphere, the cube, and 
the cylinder, has been emphasized, but this is of 
course beyond the comprehension of little children, 
and need not be enlarged upon. 

In the kindergarten with the smallest children 
the gift teaches form, color, motion and direction, 
but the pupils of primary age are all doubtless 
familiar with the form involved, and hence the 
instructions can be confined chiefly to color and di- 
rection. The former is by far the most important. 

A little investigation will reveal the fact that a 
vast majority of adults do not have a correct idea 
of even the six principal colors, — red, orange, yellow, 
green, blue, and violet. Hence the importance of 
emphasizing the color lesson. 



In the kindergarten and primary school language 
should play an important part, and some of these les- 
sons will undertake to correlate to some extent the 
gifts and occupations with language work. 

SUGGESTIVE LESSONS. 

LESSON AO. 1. 

I have something in my hand. I am going to 
make the crayon tell you what it is. (Teacher writes). 
"A ball," both in print and in script, and then holds 
the ball in view of the class.) What have I? The 
children ansewer, "A ball." Yes. The crayon has 
told you, a ball (pointing to the print). It will look 
like this when you read it from the chart or book. 
When you write a letter the words look like this 
(pointing to the script). Now, can you see anything 
in the room that is of the same color? 

Teacher encourages all the children to talk about 
the color. Now can you think of something that you 
can not see in the room that is in color like the ball? 
Yes, some apples, some flowers, some cloth, etc. 

Now I am going to make the crayon tell you some- 
thing more about the ball. (Writes, "It is a red 
ball.") What color is the ball? Yes the crayon has 
told you, "It is a red ball." Now read for me what 
my crayon has said. Let each member of the class 
read the words from the board. 

Now look at the color of the ball very carefully and 
try to remember just how it looks so you can bring 
me tomorrow a bit of ribbon, cloth, paper, or some- 
thing that looks red like the ball. 

Now each hold out your right hand and I will give 
you a ball. Teacher distributes the balls to the class, 
repeating the lines: 

With your right hand take the ball, 
Be careful do not let it fall. 

Teach each pupil receiving a ball to say, "I thank 
you," and close their hands: Then csx tliem to open 
their hands and look at the balls, repeating the lines: 

The little balls are pretty, quite, 
So round and soft with color bright. 

If provided with a sufficient number of balls, those 
of one color only should be used at a time by all the 
members of the class. Otherwise, let the teacher use 
a ball of the color which is being emphasized for that 
day. 

What shape is the ball? Yes, the ball is round. 
Now, I will make the crayon say that. "The ball is 
round." Let each child read the sentence. 

Now let me see what we can do with the balls. 
Teacher swings ball like a pendulum. Children 
follow her in the motion in time to the words: 

Tick, tock, 
Like the clock, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



31 



First right, 
Then left, 
Tick, tock, 
Like the clock 

Then the teacher raises the ball in the air and 
drops it on the desk or floor to see it bound. Child- 
ren do the same, and may repeat this in time with 
these words: 

Up and down, 
High and low, 

The pretty balls, 
So swiftly go 

The motions and the words may be repeated sev- 
eral times. 

Teacher brings out further qualities of the balls, as 
they are soft, they are small, they can roll and bound, 
stand still, etc. Bring out the fact that the balls are 
all alike except in one respect, — that of color. 

Now we will put the balls away. Charlie, you may 



gather them and put them into the box. When you 
go to your seats take your pencils and let me see how 
many can make their pencils say the words that my 
crayon has said. 

For additional seat work let the children fold, 
string or paste red kindergarten papers, or sew circles 
with red thread, etc. 

These lessons or plays may be lengthened or short- 
ened as seems best by the teacher. They should 
never be conducted to weariness. 

(To be continued) 



Close observation of 600 school boys through a 
period of 7 years to discover the effects of the to- 
bacco habit demonstrated to Supt. Davis, of Me- 
nominee, Mich., that the non-smokers averaged from 
2 to 10 per cent higher in scholarship and were at 
still greater advantage in the athletics of the school. 
Idleness and poor conditions of home life were the 
almost invariable accompaniments of all cases of 
smoking and all cases of failure which he observed. 




i.n.b. 



SUGGESTION BY LAURA ROUNTREE SMITH FOR BLACKBOARD DRAWING, LANGUAGE OR STORY PLAY 



HINTS^SUGGESTIONS FOR RURAL TEACHERS 

CONDUCTED BY GRACE DOW 

DEAR RURAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children.and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
to use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc., will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 



September, 1914. 

The Lord of love came down from above, 

To live with the men who work. 
This is the rose that He planted 

Here in the thorn-cursed soil, — 
Heaven is blessed with perfect rest, 

But the blessing of earth is toil. 

— Henry Van Dyke 

"Blessed are the Happiness Makers." 
"The world belongs to the energetic man." 
"Genius begins great works; labor alone finishes 

them." 

"Don't let the stream of your life be a murmuring 

stream." 

SUGGESTIONS. 
There is always more of the beautiful in Nature 
than of the disagreeable; more of pleasure than of 
pain: more of light than of darkness. 

A little more sunshine — few rules and much heart 
is what is needed in our schoolrooms. Remember in 
all your dealings with children that kindness and 
patience are far more effectual in producing desired 
results than rudeness and surliness. 

Make an outline of what you expect to accomplish 
in each of your classes during each day; devices you 
will use; topics you wish to emphasize; the habits 
you wish to correct, and how and why. 

In all recitations call upon dull pupils more often 
than upon the quick and bright ones. The dull ones 
need your help and encouragement. 

Insist upon quickness of movement at all times. 
Physical quickness tends to produce mental alertness. 
Be definite in the assignment of lessons. Tell 
children what to do and how to do. Much time is 
wasted from lack of careful planning. You have much 
to accomplish in a few hours. 

School officers are being reminded by the County 
Commissioners their duties in reference to seeing 
that all buildings are in good repair and in a sanitary 
condition. It is your duty as teachers to see that 
they continue so. 

BUSY WORK. 
There is no better way for beginners to become 
familiar with the school room and its furnishings 
than by the use of sewing cards. 

Hectograph pictures of the school buildings on 
heavy paper, and give to the children to prick and 
sew. Use sansilk for sewing as near the color of 
the building as possible. 

In the same manner outline the familiar objects, — 
as pail, cup, globe, waste-paper basket, clock, book- 
case, etc., and give these to pupils. 

The children will enjoy making frames for some 
of their best sewing cards. We suggest the use of 
the disconnected slats, or "Ninth Gift." These can be 



arranged in a variety of shapes, diamond shape, 

square, or oblong. Card board frames covered with 

rafRa may easily be made if an oval one is preferred. 

PICTURE STUDY. 

Study a few of the best pictures yourself, and give 
some instruction to arouse the interest of the pupils 
along this line. A fine picture like fine music is 
soul inspiring. 

Place upon the walls nothing but the copies of 
masterpieces of art, and children will cease to care 
for cheap and highly colored chromos. Picture 
Study — The Cat Family. The artist — Adam. 

Little is known of the personal history of the artist. 
His father was a famous German painter of battle 
scenes. The son inherited his father's tastes and 
talents. His best known paintings are animals. 

The picture — The serious old cat is aroused by her 
frolicsome kittens. She tries to quiet them, and 
while she holds some in check, others are engaged in 
play near at hand, ready at any moment to scramble 
over her body. 

The children should tell the number they see in 
the picture and whether wild or tame. Have them 
tell about their own cats. 

In connection with this study we suggest that the 
picture page in the Kindergarten Magazine, Sept. 
1913, be used if you have not already done so. Make 
simple booklets, or mount upon Bristol board or 
construction paper and frame them. 
DEVICES. 

Number — Place a circle upon the board, and just 
within make a circle of figures from 1 to 9 inclusive. 
In the centre write a number affixing the sign. As 
you point to a number in the circle the pupil adds 
it to, or multiplies it by the number in the centre. 

Word Games — 1. For review of the words learned 
in the reading work. Make two sets of cards on 
which are written the words. Distribute one set 
among the pupils. Hold up one card after another 
from your set just for an instant, and if the child 
recognizes the mate to one of hij cards he is entitled 
to your card. Pupils who can match all their words 
may be given stars on the roll of honor. 

2. Make a set of cards having words on one side 
and pictures representing the words on the other side. 

Place the words upon the children's desks with 
picture side down. Have another child point to 
the words, if a word is not recognized quickly, he 
must turn it over and give it by help of the picture. 
Those- who can give all without having any pictures 
showing upon their desks receive stars of reward. 

Color work and cutting — Cut pictures of autumn 
flowers from colored paper, and mount. These may 
be used in flower games. Each pupil may describe a 
flower without naming it, the others to guess the 
name from the description. At another time 
each may personate a flower, and the name 
found by the following questions, — "Do you grow in 
the fields?" "Are you yellow?" "Have you a long or 
short stem?" etc, 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



33 




in the neighborhood of the school. It is planned to 
repeat the demonstration in many other parts of the 
state. 



ONE DAY'S WORK ON A COUNTRY SCHOOL 
HOUSE. 

It took just one working day of eight hours to 
transform a Tennessee rural school house that was 
in very bad condition into a building of which any 
community would be proud. What was accom- 
plished in this instance by community co-operatio*i 
could be carried out effectively by any county 
superintendent, teacher, or school improvement 
association. 

This unique and practical demonstration in public 
school improvement was engineered by Prof. D. 
Riley Haworth, of the East Tennessee State Nor- 
mal School. Prof. Haworth first secured the co- 
operation of the county board of education of Mc- 
Minn County, in which the demonstration was car- 
ried out. He also secured the co-operation of the 
public school teachers of the county and of the' 
patrons of the Neil school, the plan being to show 
what any neighborhood CAN DO IN ONE DAY 
BY UNITED ACTION in the improvement of 
school buildings and grounds. 

A band of teachers, school patrons and normal 
school students marched out to the Neil school 
early in the morning, to begin operations. An offi- 
cial photographer was taken along; he made photo- 
graphs of the school grounds, the building and 
interior at 8 a. m. before work began, and again at 
4 p. m., when the day's work was completed. The 
"Before" and "After" pictures made it look as if a 
miracle had taken place. 

The building at 8 a. m. was in as disreputable a 
condition as it could be and still be used for school 
purposes. The workers were armed with shovels, 
hoes, axes, carpenters' tools, paint, whitewash, and 
soap. They nailed on new boards where they were 
needed, painted the building, built a chimney, 
cleaned up the rubbish, scrubbed the floor, reno- 
vated the entire interior, constructed a bookcase for 
the teacher, tinted the walls a pearl gray color, 
and hung pictures. The old desks were removed 
and new desks, supplied by the school district, were 
placed in the building. 

The outlay aggregated, in cash, $33. It included 
12 gallons of paint, 5 gallons of linseed oil, 4 paint 
brushes, 1-2 bushel of whitewash, $2 worth of 
weather boarding and lathing, 2 pounds of nails, 4 
window shades, material for sash curtains, 4 pic- 
tures, a number of books to start a school library, 
and one American flag. When the work was com- 
pleted the building presented as attractive an ap- 
pearance as the best one-room country schools. 

One of the most delightful features of the day 
was the social enjoyment that resulted from the 
gathering together of such a large group of work- 
ers. At noon a picnic dinner was served by people 



KINDERGARTEN PROGRESS. 

In ten years kindergartens in the United States 
have grown from 3,244 kindergartens with 205,000 
children to 7,557 kindergartens enrolling 364,189 
children, according to a bulletin issued by the 
United States Bureau of Education. 

Notwithstanding this encouraging increase in 
schools and pupils, the great majority of children 
are still without the advantages of kindergarten 
training. Only 9 per cent of the children or kin- 
dergarten age — 4 to 6 — were in kindergartens. 

"Much constructive work must be done," de- 
clares Miss Myra Winchester, of the kindergarten 
division of the Bureau, reviewing the figures. "The 
child of kindergarten age is so young, so impres- 
sionable, so incapable of defending himself against 
the faulty words and actions and mental attitudes 
of the teacher, that means must be devised to elimi- 
nate or at least diminish the number of faulty 
teachers. Standards of requirements as to person- 
ality and academic and professional training must 
be raised and maintained, for the surest guarantee 
of the extension of kindergartens is good work done 
by good teachers." 

Miss Winchester traces the path of progress in 
kindergartens from private philanthropy to public 
support. "First there were private kindergartens, 
regarded as more or less of a luxury for the well- 
to-do. Next, good men and women began to pro- 
vide 'charity' kindergartens for the poor and neg- 
lected children: churches, settlements, kindergarten 
associations, and mill owners gave and continue to 
give glad and generous support to such kinder- 
gartens. Then as a direct outgrowth of the work 
of the kindergarten associations, there have evolved 
training schools for kindergarten teachers; the State 
legislature has been induced to pass a bill making 
it legal to institute public-school kindergartens; 
local boards of education have partially, then en- 
tirely, taken over the care and education of little 
children, and finally State and city normal schools 
have incorporated the kindergarten training schools, 
making them into a regularly integrated depart- 
ment." 

The Bureau's bulletin on kindergartens gives 
complete statistics for private and public kinder- 
gartens throughout the United States, so far as 
these were reported; together with opinions of 
superintendents, supervisors, and teachers as to the 
results of kindergarten training in their commu- 
nities. The bulletin is illustrated with photographs 
of real kindergarten children in real kindergarten 
activities. 



A series of meetings for vocational discussion in 
the Abilene, Kas., hi?h school promises to develop 
a vocational club. The bovs of the school listen 
to representative men in different fields of work 
tell of the requirements and rewards of their par- 
ticular kind of work. 



34 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



KINDERGARTEN APPRECIATION. 

With a view to ascertaining the actual result of 
kindergarten work in the Public Schools — applying 
the acid test, as it were — Hon. P. P. Claxton, Com- 
missioner of Education, sent the following inquiries 
to superintendents of schools, primary supervisors, 
and first grade teachers under them, in 127 cities 
of the United States: 

"Your city has, I believe, had kindergartens as a 
part of its public school system for several years — 
long enough to test their value as a part of the 
system of public education. The Bureau of Educa- 
tion wishes to ascertain, as nearly as possible, just 
what this value is. To assist in this, will you kindly 
write me in detail your candid opinion in regard to 
the matter? 




HON. P. P. CLAXTON 

U. S. COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION 

EDMONSTON PHOTO, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

"I desire especially to know what advantage chil- 
dren in the primary grades of the public schools 
who have had kindergarten training have over those 
who have not; also, what adjustments, if any, need 
to be made between the kindergarten and the low- 
est primary grades. Your experience and observa- 
tion should enable you to speak with some degree of 
authority on this subject. May I therefore ask you 
to write me fully in regard to both points?" 

The great majority of all the replies were most 
favorable, and should set at rest forever the question 
of the value of the kindergarten in connection with 
the public schools. We publish a few of the replies 
below, which will be continued in future issues, as 
space will permit. 

J. V. Brennan, Ironwood, Mich. — We have had 



kindergartens as a department of our public school 
system for a number of years. This community 
consists of many nationalities and the people are 
practically all workers in the iron mines or about 
the iron mines. Families are usually large and the 
kindergarten here is a second home to the major- 
ity of the children. It is a place for the children 
to live as well as to learn. Very many of the chil- 
dren learn to speak the English language in the 
kindergarten. The kindergarten gives these children 
a right attitude toward schools and school work. 
In fact, without the kindergarten as an adjunct to 
the home, school progress here would be consider- 
ably retarded. The children who enter the grades 
from the kindergarten do much better work, as an 
a*verage, than those who do not get this training. 
In my judgment, the kindergarten is an exceedingly 
valuable part of a school system, especially so in a 
working community where families are usually large 
and the parents occupied in the matter of making 
a living. 

Gerard T. Smith, Peoria, 111. — Kindergartens were 
introduced into the Peoria public schools five years 
ago by popular vote. The first year we had only 
six schools. They have increased at the rate of one 
or two schools each year until we now have thir- 
teen, with the prospect of the introduction of new 
ones until each of the nineteen elementary schools 
shall have a kindergarten connected with it. This 
expansion of the department in itself answers the 
question as to whether we believe there is value in 
kindergartens as a part of the public school system. 
The introduction was made in the face of scepti- 
cism and general disbelief in their educational worth, 
by primary teachers but this attitude has almost en- 
tirely changed. Personally, I consider that the un- 
definable influences are very marked in our schools. 
Moreover, I find that our children enter the subse- 
quent grades with much better mental poise, as 
well as ability to think and act, than children who 
have not been in kindergartens. In our intermediate 

H. F. Leverenz, Sheboygan, Wis. — The schools of 
this city would not appear complete, and would not 
be complete, without the kindergartens. They have 
been a part of the public school system of this city 
since 1890; they have always been popular, and they 
have been liberally supported, although a few in- 
dividuals have occasionally questioned their value. 
No one who knows kindergartens will question their 
value in sense training and also physical and moral 
training. Parents who have children in the kinder- 
garten are often found giving testimony of these 
values without intending to do so. 

The kindergarten introduces the child into school 
life in the proper manner. This point can not be 
overestimated, for this attitude toward school life 
accompanies the child to and through the succeed- 
ing grades. The kindergarten is also the means of 
bringing parents in contact with school more than 
any other grade. 

Jeremiath Rhode, Pasadena, Cal. — Pasadena has 
well-organized, thoroughly equipped and modern 
kindergartens. I believe thoroughly in the kinder- 
garten idea and feel that our experiment in Pasa- 
dena has abundantly proved the work of the kinder- 
garten in socializing the community; in bringing 
children in the best way from the home to the 
primary school administration and teaching. With- 
out question we are getting greater value from the 
kindergartens as organized in our city than from 
any other single department of our school work._ 

Our kindergartens are in bungalows, especially 
constructed for the purpose, and at the same time 
definitely connected with our schools, each being lo- ; 
cated in the corner of the campus. 

TO BE CONTINUED 



Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

Ex-supervisor New York Kindergar- 
tens, and special lecturer on education- 
al topics, can be secured for a limited 
number of addresses to teachers or mo- 
thers, at points not too remote from 
New York City. Pier subjects are the 
following: 

"Present Dav Modifications of the 
Kindergarten.' 1 

"The Report of the Committee of 
Nineteen of the I. K. U." 

"How to Utilize the Results of Kin- 
dergarten Training in the First School 
Year." 

"Primitive Knowledge, or the ABC 
of things." 

"The School of Infancy," "Montes- 
sori Methods." 

"The Home and the School Working 
Together " 
Address 

1 12 East 81st St.. New York City. 

THE STUDY OF 

INDIVIDUAL CHILDREN 



A System of Records, including a 
complete Child History, Medical 
Examinations, Physio-psyco logical 
and Mental Tests, Daily Regimen 
and Disease Record, also Case Dia- 
gnosis, Classification, etc. Sug- 
gested bv 



P.E. 



This is a book that all kindergartners, 
teachers and others interested in child 
welfare, especially in slightly defective 
or atypical children who can be made 
normal through proper education, 
should be greatly interested in, The 
book gives the results of many tests 
and experiments covering years of ex- 
perience, dating back to the founding 
of the Groszmann School for Nervous 
and Atypical Children founded by the 
author in 1900. Price 60c. Address 

National Association for the 

Study of Exceptional Children 
"Watchung Crest," Plainfield, N. J. 



[ OCCUPAT 




By BERTHA UOHNSTON 

Contents:- 1. The Secrets of the 
Market Basket. 2, Mother Nature's 
Horn of Plenty. 3, Saved from the 
Scrap Basket. 4, The Sewing Basket. 
5, The Paint Box. 6, Dolls and Doll- 
Houses. 7, Plays and Games. 8, 
Festival Occasions. 9. The Key Bas- 
ket. 10. The Child's Library. 11, 
Kindergarten Materials — The Gifts. 
12, The Occupations. 

Invaluable to Mothers and 

Kindergartners. 

May be had of your book-seller or 

send 50 cents in stamps for a copy. 

Money refunded if not satisfactory. 

GEORGE W. JACOBS & CO., 



Publishers. 



PHILADELPHIA 



BOOK NOTES 

(CONTINUED) 

AT THE BACK OP THE NORTH 
WIND. George MacDonald Stories 
for Little Folks. Simplified by 
Elizabeth Lewis. Illuminated 
Cloth. 126 pages, with six full 
page illustrations in color. Price 
$1.50, Published by J. B. Lippin- 
cott Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Contents: Diamond makes the 
Acquaintance of North Wind. North 
Wind Sinks a Ship. The Land at 
the Back of the North Wind. Dia- 
mond's Father Loses His Employ- 
ment. Diamond Learns to Drive a 
Horse. Diamond Drives the Cab. 
Diamond Visits Nanny. Things Go 
Hard With Diamond's Family. Dia- 
mond in His New Home. Another 
Visit From North Wind. North 
Wind Carries Diamond Away. 

DAILY ENGLISH LESSONS. Book 
One, By Willis H. Wilcox, Ph. M. 
Cloth. 250 pages. Published by 
J. B. Lippincott Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. No price given. 
We have received book one of 
this series, which embodies an at- 
tempt to present a course in ele- 
mentary English, that teachers 
with limited training can use. 
A sufficient number of lessons, each 
year, are used to practically fill up 
the year's work. We advise all 
teachers of English to examine the 
series. 

THE CRESCENT MOON. Child- 
Poems by Rabindranath Tagore. 
Translated from the Original 
Bengali by the Author, with 
eight illustrations in Color. 
Cloth, 82 pps. $1.25 net. The 
MacMillan Co., N. Y. 
In these delightful prose-poems, 
one sees anew the child universal, 
though here clothed in the flesh 
and the spirit, of the Oriental — the 
imaginative child looking at the 
moon and stars, playing with the 
clouds or with the flowers; the 
child in the home and on the shore; 
the child asleep, and the child a- 
study. These word-pictures will 
appeal and interest all lovers of 
childhood. The answer to the 
child's question, "Where have I 
come from, where did you pick me 
up?" has a message of inspiration 
for all mothers, the world over. 
Mother and child are seen together 
as charming, sympathetic compan- 
ions, in each short poem, in which 
simplicity of expression unites with 
a profound insight into child 
nature. 

A CHILD'S STORY OF DUNBAR. 
By Julia L. Henderson. The 
Crisis Publishing Co., 70 Fifth 
Ave., N. Y. Paper, 43 Pps. 
Price 25 cts. 
The life of the great Negro poet, 

arranged in short sections and easy 

but choice language, suitable for 
I reading lessons at home or in 

school. It is a story with which 



every American child of whatever 
race, should be familiar. The life 
history of this boy, (born of par- 
ents who had once been slaves, be- 
fore they found a home in Canada), 
his struggles, aspirations and suc- 
cess, is an honor to all humanity, 
and may well be a stimulus for all 
children, to nobler living. 

A METHOD FOR TEACHING 
PRIMARY READING. By Lida 
Brown McMurry. Cloth, 80 pps. 
Price 50 cts. Published by the 
MacMillan Company, Boston, 
New York and Chicago. 
This book has been prepared to 
be used as a manual by teachers 
of beginning reading in the primary 
grades in the elementary schools. 
The methods that are outlined may 
be used in connection with any 
other method or with any set of 
basal readers. The application and 
the suggestions given are general; 
and yet teachers, who are perplexed 
by problems in the teaching of 
primary reading, will be able, by 
following this step-by-step process, 
to overcome many specific difficult- 
ies. We advise teachers to investi- 
gate this book. 

FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL 
YEAR BOOK. Volume 3, June, 
1914. 188 pages. 50 illustrations. 
Francis W. Parker School, Chi- 
cago. 

This volume, prepared by the 
faculty of the Francis W. Parker 
School, Chicago, deals with "Ex- 
pression as a means of Developing 
Motive," or the place of expression 
in the process of education. It is a 
distinctive contribution to litera- 
ture on social education, and 
portrays vividly certain fundament- 
al phases of educaton as they have 
been worked out in this school. 
Those who have read Volumes I 
and II of this Year Book will wel- 
come the present volume. 

THE IDEAL PHONIC PRIMER. 
By H. M. B. With illustrations 
by Edward M. Buttimer. Cloth. 
96 pages. Price 20cts. Publish- 
ed by Edward E. Babb & Co. 93 
Federal St., Boston, Mass. 
This book is a valuable aid to 
primary teachers in imparting cor- 
rect pronounciation, and in secur- 
ing rapid progress in reading. 
Write Edward E. Babb & Co. for 
circulars and full description. 

THE MONTESSORI SYSTEM EX- 
AMINED. By Wm. Heard Kil- 
patrick, Ass't Professor of the 
philosophy of education, Teach- 
er's College, Columbia University, 
New York. Cloth. 72 pages, 
Price 35 cts. Published by 
Houghton, Mifflin Co. 
This volume constitutes one of 
the series of the Riverside Educa- 
tional Monographs. Every educa- 
tor in America should read and 
study this little book. We can 
heartily recommend it, 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE STUDY AND 
EDUCATION OF 

XCEPTIONAL CHILDREN 



An Eleemosynary Society incorporated under the laws of 
the State of New Jersey 

In connection with its broad national work for 
exceptional children, this Association has for many 
years been conducting a special institution for the 
POTENTIALLY NORMAL, though"different" 
child, known as 



her: 



T HALL 



The objects of this institution are: 

1st. To determine the individual peculi- 
arities and tendencies which make a 
given case vary from the average. 

2nd. To harmonize the child with its en- 
vironment and to adjust the envi- 
ronment to the child so as to permit 
creative self-expression. 

3rd. To direct all surrounding influences 
to encourage those vocational apti- 
tudes which will best prepare the 
child for independent existence. 

Physical and mental tests, scientifically developed, 
are employed so that there is neither guess-work in 
the diagnosis of these exceptional types nor hap- 
hazard methods in their education. 

Many children puzzle parents and teachers. They 
do not respond to ordinary school or home instruc- 
tion. Unless taken properly in hand, they will be- 
come failures in life. 

(We do not treat feeble-minded, epileptic, degen- 
erate or low types) 

For full information address 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION S. I I C. 

WALDEMAR H. GROSZMANN 

Secretary- General 

Plainfield, N. J. "WATCHUNG CREST" 



THE COAST LINE TO 



KINAC 



DETROIT, w TOLEDO, 

CLEVELAND, BUFFALO, j PT. HURON, ALPENA, 

NIAGARAFALLS. 1 ST. IGNACE. 

"THE LAKES ARE CALLING YOU" 

A RRANGE your vacation or business trip to include our 
J-\^ palatial lake steamers. Every detail that counts for 
your convenience and comfort has been provided. 

Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland, and Detroit 
and Buffalo. Day trips between Detroit and Cleveland 
during July and August. Four trips weekly from Toledo 
and Detroit to Mackinac Island and way ports. Special 
Steamer Cleveland to Mackinac Island two trips weekly 
June 25th to September I Oth, making no stops enroute 
except at Detroit every trip. Daily service between 
Toledo and Put-in-Bay June 10th to September 10th. 

Railroad tickets accepted for transportation on D. & C. 
Line steamers in either direction between Detroit and 
Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland. 

Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet giving deta'led 
description of various trips. Address L. G. Lewis, General 
Passenger Agent, Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company 

Philip H. McMillan, President. 

A. A. Schantz, Vice Pres. and Genl. Mgr. 



\^">H 




The Virginia Journal 
of Education 

Better Than Most and as Good as Any Pedagogical Magazine 

Stands for the highest ideals in the school and home, and meets the 
demands of the teacher, as well as others engaged in educational. work. 

What Some Well-known Educators Say About This Journal: 

From California; "* 

"I appreciate very much the coining of the Virginia Journal of 
Education to our magazine table. It is one of the best, most lively, 
interesting and enterprising publications of the kind that I have had 
an opportunity to examine. Certainly it must exercise a great in- 
fluence for good among the schools of Virginia. I am particularly 
pleased at your efforts to improve school conditions, the grounds, the 
buildings and the interiors of your country schools. We have been 
trying to work in that direction, too, in this State. I hope you may 
long live to publish vour journal and I most heartily congratulate you 
and the people of Virginia for the lively and creditable periodical 
that you are able to give them. " 

From Oregon : 

"I have received as much inspiration and benefit from' reading the 
Virginia Journal of Education as I have from reading any one of 
the numerous ones that come to my desk." 

From Kentucky: 

"I have been reading the Virginia Journal of Education with interest, 
and feel that it is one of the best- educational journals in the country." 

From New Jersey: 

"We regard the Virginia Journal of Education as among the most 
valuable publications received at this office." 

From Missouri : 

"I have been receiving the Virginia Journal of Education for some 
time and have greatly enjoyed reading it. It is an excellent paper 
and should be read by every teacher in the State. It is worth far 
more than your subscription price." 

From the Philippine Islands: 

"The variety of articles which appear in your paper each month, on 
school libraries, the decoration of school grounds and other topics, 
are of general interest. The Journal is well gotten up and appears 
to be doing good work." 

It is the official organ of the Virginia State Board of Ed- 
ucation, and is an excellent medium for advertising, as it 
has fully 5,000 regular readers. In addition several hun- 
dred complimentary copies are sent throughout the conn- 
try each month. 

Subscription Price, $1.00 

The Virginia Journal of Education 

Richmond, Va. 






THE TEACH 




A WIDE-AWAKE PERIODICAL 



FOR 

PROGRESSIVE TEACHERS 

In matters of education, Indiana is in tlie lime light 
The new vocational law is revolutionary in its effects and 
the results will be valuable to all grades oE progressive 
teachers no matter where they teach. 

The Teacher's Journal contains other features of interest 
to teachers everywhere. It is practical and has to do with 
the problems of all teachers. 

SPECIAL OFFER 

Teacher's Journal (1 year) $1.00 

Pathfinder (weekly) l.OO 

Both Teacher's Journal and 

Pathfinder $1.35 

This is the most helpful combination ever offered teach- 
ers. We take subscriptions for all magazines at a very 
low rate. If you are interested write for special prices. 
Address, 

TEACHER'S JOURNAL CO. 

MARION. INDIANA 



Cheap and Excellent Books 

SONG KNAPSACK, 142 songs for schools, 10c; $1 
dozen. 

"PAT'S P' ..., 124 pp. All the music to the KNAP- 
SACK songs. Sweetest, sanest, jolliest song 
book made. Cloth, 50c. 

PRIMER OF PEDAGOGY, by Prof. D. Putnam 
Just what the times demand. Cloth 122 pp. 25c. 

MANUAL OF ORTHOGRAPHY AND ELEMEN- 
TARY SOUNDS, by Henry R. Pattengill. Up-to- 
date. 104 pp., 25c. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF U. S., by W. C. Hewitt. 
118 pp., complete, new, cloth, 25c; $2.40 per doz 

MEMORY GEMS, 1000 GRADED SELECTIONS, by 
H. R. Pattengill. 143 pp., linen morocco finish, 
25c. 

MORNING EXERCISES AND SCHOOL RECREA 
TIONS, by C. W. Mickens. New, 267 pp., 50c. 

PRIMARY SPEAKER FOR FIRST AND SECOND 
GRADES, by Mary L. Davenport. Fresh, 
elegant. 132 pp., 25c. 

OLD GLORY SPEAKER, containing 80 of the 
choicest patriotic pieces written. 126 pp., 25c. 

HINTS FROM SQUINTS, 144 pp. Hints comical 
hints quizzical, hints pedagogical, hints ethical 
hints miscellaneous. Cloth, 60c. 

SPECIAL DAY EXERCISES, 165 pp., 25c. 

Best medicine ever to cure that "tired feeling" 
in school. 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL, Lansintf. Mich. 



MAKE YOUR READING COUNT 

Read This Course 

(Thirty-sixth C. L. S. C. Year.) 

Rambles and Studies in Greece. By J. P. MahafTy, 
C. V. O., author of "Social Life in Greece," 
"History of Greek Literature," etc $1.50 

The Message of Greek Art. By Dr. H. H. Pow- 
ers, Pres. Bureau of University Travel, 125 
illustrations 2.00 

Studies in the Poetry of Italy: Roman and 
Italian. By Frank Justus Miller, University of 
Chicago, and Oscar Kulins, Wcslcyan University 1.50 

The Meaning of Evolution. By Samuel C. 
Schmucker. West Chester State Normal School, 
Pennsylvania 1-50 

"The Chautauquan: A Weekly Newsmagazine." Il- 
lustrated. Containing: 

Where Civilizations Meet: Round About Con- 
stantinople. By Frank Chapin Bray, Managing 
Editor Chautauqua Press. 

Current Events: "Highways and Byways" 
news perspective 2.00 

Total $8.50 

All Four Books (cloth bound) and the Maga- 
zine .• • • • $5.00* 

♦Remit 30 cents extra for postage or prepaid express. 
"Collect" charges are more. 

Easy for Anybody, Worth While 
for Everybody 

If in doubt, send stamp for handbook of testimonials 
Address 

CHAUTAUQUA INSTITUTION 

Chautauqua, New York 

DON'T READ AT RANDOM 



Are You Interested In 

THE SCHOOLS OF HAWAII? 

The Hawaiian Islands (formerly Sandwich Is- 
lands) have been since 1S98 an aulonomousTerritory 
of the United States. The School System is thoroly 
modern thniout, from the numerous kindergartens 
to the Territorial College of Hawaii. 

For any information regarding the schools or 
educational work of Hawaii, address 

HAWAII EDUCATIONAL REVIEW 

HONOLULU. - T. H. 



NURSERY « KINDERGARTEN STORIES 

Selections from distinguished authors with juvenile poems 
and songs included. Every story and poem illustrated. 380 
large pages, price $1.00. The Southern Teacher, which is 
a real live, up-to-date Educational Journal with departments 
in Current Events, Questions and Answers, etc., price $1.00, 
and Nursery and Kindergarten Stories both for only $1.50. 
Address 

THE SOUTHERN TEACHER 



COLLEGE STREET 



GRAYSON, KY. 



KINDERGARTEN SUPPLIES 

|fe Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Construction 

Material 
WE ARE HEADQUARERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE. Send for catalogue. 

THOS. CHARLES CO. 207 N. Michigan Avenue., Chicago, 111. 




Headquarters for Temperance Supplies 

Books 

Song Books 

Leaflets on Scientific Temperance Teaching 

Story Leaflets 

The Young Crusader— Temperance paper for boys and girls; profusely illustrated; and aside 
from stories it contains splendid ideas for entertainments and selections for recitations — help- 
ful alike to teacher and pupil. Published monthly, 25 cents per year. 

Toots — An illustrated book of stories by Anna A. Gordon. Price 60 cents postpaid. Send for 
latest bulletin. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION 



Literature Building 



Evanston. Illinois 



American Primary Teacher 



Edited by A. E. W1NSHIP 

Published Monthly Except July and August 

An up-to-date, wide awake paper for the grades. Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography. New Work in the Grades, 
Drawing, Fables In Silhouette and other school room work. 

Send for specimen copy. 

Subscription, $1.00 a Year 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING CO. 

6 BEACON STREET. BOSTON 



AMERICAN EDUCATION 

Of Albany, die of New York's leading educa- 
tional papers, $1.00 per annum, and the Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine, both one year, post- 
age pr paid in United States and possessions 



$1.80 



The Childrens' Home Society of Ohio 

One of a Federation of 29 State Societies 




Help a Child 
Find a Home 



We invite applications from 
suitable private families for 
children of both sexes and all 
ages, but especially boys from 
one month to ten years old. 

For literature, blanks, etc., 
call or address, 

Dr. F. H. DARBY, 

State Superintendent 

Both pbonea Columbus,, O. 
34 West First Avenue 



THE SCHOOL CENTURY 



Of OAK PARK, III., a most helpful educa- 
tional monthly, $1.25 per annum, and the Kin- 
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OCTOBER, 1014 



iNDEX TO CONTENTS 



General Suggestions for October Program 

Program for a Week in October 

Suggestions for October 

Fall Sequence in Games 

Hints on Drawing in the Primary Grades 

The Baby Club 

Living Animals in the Kindergarten 

Playing Games - 

Suggestive Gift and Occupation Lessons for Primary 

Columbus Day, October 14, 1492 

The Two Gates - 

The Acorn ...... 

Mother Play Pictures .... 

Straight Line Cutting .... 

Patterns for Flags ... 

Study of a Picture ... 

Finger Play Story ..... 

New Games, Plays and Pieces for Little People 

The Story of an Apple 

The Committee of the Whole 

Piano Lessons for Tiny Tots 

Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers 

Patterns for October Booklet - 

Kindergarten Appreciation 

Sewing Card Suggestions .... 

Stick and Ring Laying Suggestions 



Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 



Hediuig Levi 
Dr. Jenny B . Merrill 
Laura Tijountree Smith 
and Rural Teachers 
Mary E. Laiv 
Bertha Johnston 
Susan Plessner Pollock 

Carrie L. Wagner 
John Y. 'Dun lop 
Mary E. Cot ting 
Carrie L. Wagner 

F. G. Sanders 
Bertha Johns/on 
Laura Rountree Smith 
G ace 'Dotu 
Marguerite Li. Sutton 



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42 
42 
43 
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45 
Hi 
47 
48 
49 

50-51 
52 
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58 
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(it 
62 
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65 
65 



Volume XXVII, No. 2 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



THE CLUB WOMAN'S MAGAZINE 



PUBLISHED monthly at Cincinnati, O., 49 Bodmann 
* Building-. Contains articles of literary value to the 
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presidents and chairwomen of committees give des- 
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Address 



M. B. CORWIN, Pub./ 9 c S« n ^l l o DS 



Knows no Competitor. Published for 4 1 Years. Carefully edited 



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SOMETHING TO DO 

A MAGAZINE 
For Primary and Elementary teachers. It furnishes 25 kinds of 
useful and instructive things to do every month. Pronounced the 
most remarkable magazine of its kind ever produced. Edited by 
Henry Turner Bailey on the same high plane as the School Arts 
Magazine. 

SOMETHING TO DO--$1.00 A YEAR 

School Arts Publishing Company 

BOSTON, MASS. 



Have You A Quarter To Invest? 

Would you send 25 cents away if 
youknew you would get back $15.00 
in a short time? If you are a teacher 
you need to know the main points 
in present history quite as much as 
past history or arithmetic or lang- 
uage. If you are a citizen of a great 
country you need to be intelligent 
about the condition of the country. 
It is worth while to be considered 
intelligent— brighter than the ordi- 
nary person. Can you figure what 
it would be worth to you next year 
to be more intelligent? It will be 
worth $25.00 to you the poorest year 
you ever will see. 25 cents will bring 
The World's Chronicle Weekly, for 13 
weeks. Sendfor it tocUy. This is one 
of the things an ambitious person 
ought to do. Thirteen weeks will 
show its real value to you. One man 
bad to attend a meeting and on the 
way read the Chronicle. At that 
meeting he found the knowledge 
just gained was new to the others 
and marked him as a superior per- 
son. It meant much more to him 
than $25.00— how much more, he has 
not figured out yet. Why be ignor- 
ant of the most vital matters when 
so small a sum places them within 
your reach. The articles are written 
so you can understand them readily, 
and they put you in .line for ad- 
vancement.; 

On trial 13 weeks, 25 cents. ;Or send 
$1.00 for a full year. 

THE WORLD'S CHRONICLE, 542 S. 
DEARBORN STREET. CHICAGO 




BOWLDEN BELLS 

FOR SCHOOLS 

From $8.00 to $25.00 

FOR CHURCHES 

From $85.00 to $125.0* 

Write for free 

catalogue. 

AMERICAN BELL & 

FOUNDRY CO. 

Northville, Mich. 



WHITE MOUNTAIN 
=EDUCAT0R= 

LANCASTER. N. H. 

A new periodical devoted to> 
Interests of education in Vermont 
and New Hampshire and all New 
England. 

Circulation extending through; 
South and West. 

Terms: $1.00 a year. 

Advertising rates on application. 

THE KINDERGARTEN 

By SUSAN E. BLOW 

PATTY S, HILL 
ELIZABETH HARRISON 

This Report of the Committee of Nine- 
teen of the International Kindergarten 
Union should be carefully studied by 
every kindergartner who purposes to 
keep abreast of the times. 
$1.25 postpaid. Address, 
J. H. Shults Co., Manistee. Mich. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



Class Rooms and 
Students' Residence 



GERTRUDE HOUSE, 

54 Scott St., Chicago. 



Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course (two years), 

and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for 

Home-making Course, non-professional (one year). 

Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 

Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, M Scott St. 



NATIONAL 

KINDERGARTEN 

COLLEGE 

ELIZABETH HARRISON. Pres. 

Summer School June 16 to Aug. 8 

Kindergarten Course 

All Kindergarten subiects. Montes- 
sori Methods. Art. Folk Dancing. 

Primary Course 

Primary Methods. Montessori Me- 
thods. Art. Folk Dancing. 

Credits applied on Regular Courses 

For full information address 

Box 600, 2944 M ichigan Blvd. 

CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

2108 CONNECTICUT AVE. 
Kindergarten and Primary Courses 
A limited number of resident pupils 

MISS HARRIET NIEL 

Successor to Miss LAURA FISHER 

Training School for Kindergartners 

Normal Course two years. Graduate 

and Special Courses. 
319 Marlborough st. Boston. Mass. 

EVERY KINDERGARTNER 

Who can read and play simple music 

correctly, can add to her usefulness 

and income. 

For particulars write to 

MRS. ANNA HEHANN HAMILTON 

FULTON, MISSOURI 
Author of First Piano Lessons at Home 



Kindergarten Teachers and Students 

will be interested in my investigation and study of 
the MONTESSORI METHOD IN ROME, and my 
practical adaptation of the Method to the American 
School for little children. I will be glad to send il- 
lustrated pamphlet on request. 
Mrs. J. Scott Anderson, Directoress.Torresd ale House 

Training course begins October 1st. 

AMERICAS MONTESSORI TEACHER-TRAUIIKG SCHOOL 

Torresdale, Philadelphia, Pa. 



ffiTALOZZI-FROEBEL: 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

509 S. 'Wabash Ave., opp. Audito- 
rium, CHICAGO. 

ost-Graduate, Home-Making, Primary 
and Playground courses. Special cour- 
ses by University Professors. Includes 
opportunity to become familiar with 
Social Settlement Movement at Chica- 
go Commons. 
For circulars and information address, 

BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER. Supt. 
West Chicago, 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 

students. 
Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Hlglnbotham, Pres. 

Mrs. P. D. Armour. Vlce-Prea. 

SAKAH E. HANSON. Principal. 

Credit at the 

Northwestern and Chicago Universities. 

For particulars address Eva B. Wtalt- 

more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St.. cor. Mich 

ave., Chicago. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Ye. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training In Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER. Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 1914 

1516 Columbia Road, N. W. WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollock, Principal 

Teachers' Training- Course — Two Yeara 

Summer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua— M ountain Lake Park- 
Garrett. Co., Maryland 



THE HARRIETTS MELISSA HILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 
Two years normal course accredited 
by State Board of Regents.' 
SUMMER COURSES 
ay be taken for Kindergarten Train- 
ing School and University credit. 
New York University, 
University Heights 

July 1, August 11 

For information address 

MISS HARRIBTTE M.MILLS, Prtnslpd 

New York University 
Washington Square, New York City. 



Connecticut froebel Normal 

Kindergarten Primary Training School 
Academic, kindergarten, primary and 
playground courses, Boarding and day 
school. Extensive facilities for thor- 
ough and quick work. 14th year. Book- 
lets. State certificates. Address. 

MARY C. MILLS. Principal. 

181 West avenue. Bridgeport, Conn. 



GRAND RAPIDS KINDERGAR- 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 
MAY L. OGILBY. Registrar 

New Quarters, - 508 Fountain St. 

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 

Two Tears' Coarse of Stady. 
Chartered 1897. 
for particulars address 

WTLLETTK A. ALLEN, Principal, 
««» Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, OA. 



The Elizabeth K. Matthews Kin- 
dergarten Training School 

Lucretla Court, . Portland, Ore. 

Regular course two years. Theory and 
practice in private, public and settle- 
ment kindergartens. 
For circulars address 

MISS ELIZABETH K. MATTHEWS 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



THE NEW YORK 

KINDERGARTEN 

ASSOCIATION 



WILL OPEN A 



% 



OCTOBER 1st, 1914 
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

MISS LAURA FISHER 

NORMAL COURSE, TWO YEARS 

OBSERVATION AND PRACTICE TEACHING IN 

THE KINDERGARTENS OF THE ASSOCIATION 

For Circulars address 

524 W. 42nd St., New York City 



Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 23rd Year 

Froebe! School of Kindergarten 

Normal Classes P fffi« fl 

COPLEY SQ. 

Prepares for Kindergarten, Primary and 
Playground positions. Theory and practice 
strong. Special work under best educators. 
Graduates are holding valuable positions. 
Circulars. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

HORTBN3B M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

"•fee Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 



Norma! Training School 

'wo Tears' Course. Terms, $100 per year. 
Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 
'•DivftFtFi r> — r.nwfi«T,*now. mass 



Kindergarten Training School 

Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association 
Two Years' Course. For particulars ad- 
dress 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER 
86 Delaware Avenue - Buffalo. N. Y. 



■THE' 



Teachers College 

OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for all grades 
of teaching. Two Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This College specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary and Intermediate 
Grade Teaching. 
Special classes in Public School Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art. and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

0.IZA A. BLAKCR, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



TRAINING SCHOOL 



TWO YEARS' COURSE 

Instruction in Primary Methods. 

STUDENTS' RESIDENCE. 

SARA K. LIPPINCOTT? D - • , 
SUSAN C. BAKER \ Principals 



2108 Conn. Ave 



Washington, D. C. 



Mice Hafpc TRAINING SCHOOL 

IfSEijd Hull u For Kindergartners 
3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Practice Kinder- 
gartens. Opens October 1st. 101!. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 

The Pines. Rutledge. Pa. 



-CLEVELAND- 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kinderg-arten Colleg-e 
2050 East 96th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 
Founded in 1894 
Course of «tudy underdirection of Eliz. 
abeth Harrison, covers t wo years in 
Cleveland, leading to Senior and Nor 
mal Courses in the National Kinder- 
garten College. 

MISS NETTA FARRIS, Principal 




law Froebel Kindergarten 
Training School and School 
of Culture for Youns 



Forty Practice Schools. 
Medical Supervision. 
Certificate and Diploma 
Courses. 
2313 ASHLAND AVE. 
TOLEDO, OHIO 



thical Culture School 

Central Park Went and 6Xrt Sf 

Kindergarten and Primary Nor- 
mal Training Department 

Prof. Patty S. Hill, of Teachers College, 
Educational Advisor and Instructor 
in Kindergarten Theory. 
Two years' Kindergarten course. Af- 
ternoon courses in Primary methods 
for Kindergarten teachers, leading to a 
Kindergarten-Primary diploma 
For particulars address 



CATH ERINE J. 
Principal 



TRA CY 



•ASSOCIATION- 



Offers unusual advantages for Graduate 

S udy. 

SEASON OF 1914-1915 

PUBLIC LECTURES 

Subject 

MOTHERS' MEETINGS AND VISITING 

Miss Fanniebelle Curtis, Director of Public School 

Kindergartens. 

GRADUATE COURSES 

DANTE'S DIVINE COMEDY 
GAMES KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

KINDERGARTEN GIFTS PROGRAM MAKING 

LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN 
TUITION FREE Apply for Prospectus to 

RfilSS LAURA FISHER 



Director Deyartmei 
S24 IV. 42nd Street, 



•of GRADUATE STUDY 

NEW Y01\K CITY 



Miss Whjeelock's Kindergarten 



Child Welfare course one year. 
Regular course two years. 
Full course three years. 
Address 

LUCY WHEELOCK 

100 Riverway, BOSTON 



Pratt Institute 

School of Kindergarten Training 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Normal Courses for Kindergarten, two 
years. Special Courses for Teachers 
and Mothers. Plays with Kindergar- 
ten and Supplementary Materials. 
Kindergarten Games. Outdoor Sports. 
Tennis and Swimming. Gardening. 
Nature Study. Music, Voice and Pi- 
ano. Literature for Children. Sto- 
ry-telling. Educational Subjects. Psy- 
chology and Child Study. Practice 
Teaching and Observation in the Kin- 
dergartens of Greater New York 

ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Fall term opens Sept. 23, 1914 



AGENCIES FOR KINDERGARTNERS AND PRIMARY TEACHERS 

'T'HIS list of Teachers' Agencies is published for the benefit of our subscribers. It includes only those who claim to be able 

to secure positions for Kindergartners or Primary Teachers. We advise those in need of positions to write one or more 

of these agencies for particulars. Even though now employed you may be able to secure a position in a larger or better school. 



The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teachers, Tutors and 
Schools. No. 120 Boylston street. 



THE REED TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Can place Kindergarten and Primary 
eachers in New York, New Jersey and 
Tennsylvania at good salaries. 
H. E. REED, Manager, Syracuse, N. Y. 

641 University Block. 



THE PRATT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Recommends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and^other; teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 
70 Fifth Avenue New York 



MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

Station A. Spokane, Wash. 
We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of rimary and Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 



REGISTER WITH US. 

We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt., 
Principals, Teachers of Science, Math- 
ematics and Language. 

OHIO VALLEY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

A. J.JOELY. Mgr. MENTOR., KY. 

ALBANY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Provides public and private "schools 
with competent teachers. 

Assists teachers and kindergartners 
in obtaining positions. 

81 Chapel Street. ALBANY. N Y. 



-THE 



NORTHWESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

310-311 PfiOVTDENCE BUILDING 
DULUTH, MINN. 



RELIABLE TEACHERS' A6ENCY 

Trained rimary and Kindergarten 
Teachers- needed. Good positions, er- 
nianent membership. Write to-day. 
612-613 Majestic Building, 

Oklahoma City. Okla. 



Kindergartners and Primary Teachers 

Are in constant demand in the South at 
good salaries. We can place both. 

The Teachers 3 Exchange 

P. O. Box 283, Nashville, Tenn. 

QUR OPPORTUNITIES for placing 
Kindergarten and Primary Teachers 
exceed our supply. No charge until you 
accept position. 

Lewis Teachers 3 Agency 

41 Lyman Block, Muskeflon, Mich. 



INTERSTATE Teachers' Agency 

501-503 Livingston Building. Rochester, 
N. Y. Gives special attention to plac- 
ing Kindergarten and Primary Teach- 
ers in all parts of the United States. 
T. H. ARMSTRONG, roprietor. 



SOUTHERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

COLUMBIA, S C. 

There is an increasing demand for Pri- 
mary Teachers and Kindergartners 
throughout the South. Our agency is 
one of the largest and best known in 
this splendid territory for teachers. Ask 
for booklet, A LAN. 
W. H. JONES, Manager and Proprietor. 



THIS IS THE TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR OF 

The CLARK TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Which proves conclusively its 

standing, 'fry them. Address, 

Stein-way Hall, Chicago; Lincoln, Neb. 

Spokane, Wash. 



WESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY SSK5 

We wantKindergarten. rimary , Rural 
and otherteachers for regularor special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit- 
erature and enroll for the coming year. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manager, 



The J.D.EngleTeachers' Agency 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

A Placing Agency for Teachers. Estab- 
lished 20 years. Register for Western 
Kindergarten-Primary positions. Send 
for circular 



DEWBERRY 

SCHOOL 
AGENCY 

1892-1914 



CPECIALLY trained Kindergarten and Primary 
^ teachers in demand in the best schools through- 
out the South and Southwest. Teachers interested 
should get in touch with us. 

Address, R. A. CLAYTON, Manager. 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 



HIGHEST SALARIES-BEST OPPORTUNITIES ^aSottfw'^we 

need KINDERGARTEN, PRIMARY and other t-achers for private and public schools. 
Write for "POSITION AND PROMOTION PROBLEMS SOLVED." No Regis- 
tration fee. WESTERN REFERENCE & BOND ASSOCIATION, 

667 Scarrett Building, KANSAS CITY, Mo. 

WESTERN POSITIONS FOR TEACHERS 

We are the agency for securing positions for Teachers in Colorado, Oklahoma. 
South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, California, Nebraska, Nevada, 
Arizona Montana, Kansas, Idaho, Utah, North Dakota, and New Mexico. 
Write us to-day, for our Free Booklet, showing how we place most of our teach- 
ers outrigjht. Our Booklet, "How to Apply for a School and Secure Promotion" with 
Laws of Certification of Teachers of Western States, free to members or sent 
prepaid for Fifty cents in stamps. Money refunded if not satisfied. 



€ RpcKyM7 Teachers Age/vsy 



Safes' Educational Exchange 

(Inc.) DES MOINES, IOWA. 

Wants to hear from kindergarten or 

primary teachers desiring places west 

of Mississippi river. Write fully. Will 

answer frankly. 



AM ARFNPY l9TaluaM « i n 
y-vm MUCIXU I proportion to 

its influence If it merely hears of va- 
cancies and tells TU AT is some- 
yon about them ' **ff " thing, 
but if it is asked to recommend a teach- 

youthal RECOMMENDS 

is more. Ours recommends. 

The School Bulletin Atfency 

C. W. BARDEEN, Syracuse, N. Y. 



WE PLACE m an . y rimar y 
c - ' l—r**<& Teachers each 

year. Some Kindergartners. No charge 

until teacher is located by us. Send for 

registration blank. A. H. Campbell, 

American Teachers' Agency 

Myrick Building, Springfield, ass. 



A PI AN Wh ereby the Teacher 
r ^ r ^-^l'^ is brought in touch 
with opportunity at that critical mo- 
ment when each is in search of the oth- 
er, is set forth in our forty-page booklet 
telling all about the South as a field for 

rimary and Kindergarten teachers. 

Get it. 

Southern Teachers' Agency 

Columbia, S. C. 



The South and West 

Offer good opportunities for Primary 
and Kindergarten teachers. For infor- 
mation write CLAUDE J. BELL, 

Bell Teachers' Ag-ency, 

Nashville, Tenn. 



THE OKLAHOMA TEACHER'S 
AGENCY 

GEARY, OKLAHOMA 

Only Competent Teachers Enrolled. 
WRITE US YOUR WANTS 



CENTRAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

A good medium for trained primary 
teachers to use in securing promotion. 
Write to-day. £. C. ROGERS. Mtfr. 







- Ciair^ue-nte 3 5y-tto 



y^kjM^ 






LANGUAGE SUGGESTIONS. Let, the chileren tell in their own way what they see in the picture, and some- 
thing ABOUT THE OBJECTS THAT INTEREST THEM. 




THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY- 



MAGAZINE 



Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, SamoA; Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c, and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 




OCTOBER, 1914. 

EDITORIAL NOTES 

"There never was a good war nor a bad peace." 



Andrew Carnegie, the great champion of peace, de- 
clares that the Kaiser is not personally responsible 
for Germany's part in the war. He charges it to the 
overpowering spirit of militarism. 



"School gardening will develop habits of in- 
dustry; an appreciation of the value of money as 
measured in terms of labor; and a realization that 
every man and woman must make his or her own 
living, and contribute to the welfare of the commun- 
ity. — Hon. P. P. Claxton. 

With a special appropriation from Congress, the 
United States Bureau of Education has just begun 
the work of investigation and promotion of home and 
school gardens. The new division will be under the 
direction of a specialist in school gardening and an 
assistant, both of whom are to be experts in this 
form of educational activity. 



"Every rural school should provide a home in- 
cluding a small farm for the teacher. This teacher 
will be one trained for rural schools, will know the 
child and his needs, will cease to be a tramp teacher, 
will be able to correlate school life with life in the 
country, and will be a leader of men. "We favor 
a county or a larger administrative district union 
for rural-school work, thus providing equality of 
educational privileges, equalization of taxes, adapta- 
tion to the growing needs, and efficient supervision. 
— From resolution adopted by Department of Super- 
intendence, N. E. A. 



Practically all contributors to the Kindergar- 
ten Primary Magazine are experienced as kinder- 
gartners, kindergarten training school teachers, or 
principals, supervisors of great public school kinder- 
garten systems or successful primary teachers. You re- 
ceive the benefit of their long years of practical exper- 
ience. Have you ever known a really successful teacher 
in any line who does not take advantage of informa- 
tion so easily obtained as through the columns of 



VOL. XXVII— No. 2 

educational publications? If not, how can you other- 
wise hope to do your best work with little children. 
Do you not realize how easily and unconsciously the 
teacher who fails to read educational papers along 
her particular line, becomes a "back number." There 
are none too many kindergarten periodical publica- 
tions — you should not only read but study them all. 
If you are to be a real live kindergartner doing your 
work efficiently you will need all the help you can 
get, from every available source. 



From a sermon by Jenkin Lloyd Jones in Unity, 
we qoute: "Tolstoy, when he came to die, selected 
the place of his burial from this story, too little 
known. When a little lad his older brother Nicholas 
told him, that there grew in a certain ravine a tree 
with a green bark that would teach people ant — philo- 
sophy, which was the philosophy of living together 
in the interest of the community, and so the other 
little children in the family used to throw a cloth 
over the table and crawl beneath and play that they 
were ants where everybody would be equal and all 
would work for the well-being of the entire com- 
munity." If children were properly guided in plays 
that thus trained in co-operation rather than for 
war it would not be many generations before Reason 
swayed where passion and mistaken ambition 
now rule. Let us hope that the nations will 
soon follow in the footsteps of Pestalozzi and Froc- 
bel and Tolstoy, who trusted in that divine spark 
that lights every soul born into this world. — B. J. 



This war, so unspeakably unnecessary, so awful in 
its magnitude, so incomprehensible in any real reason 
for its existence, ought surely to give pause to the 
nations of the earth, and men and women ought 
everywhere to unite in prayer that in some way its 
fearful march be halted and in some way peace be 
brought back to Europe and tens of millions be mad; 
to rejoice that their loved ones are to be saved froir 
the useless sacrifice which has already cost so many 
lives and broken so many hearts. And surely we 
should pray that this country may forever be saver 
from any spirit of war, and that its people and its 
officials may forever remlember that a soft answer 
turneth away wrath, and that the world is to be con- 
quered not by might, but by right. Worthless is the 
commerce and the wealth of the world when weigl 
ed in the balance against death and broken hearts. — 
The Burning Bush. 





GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR OCTOBER PROGRAM 



ByJENN* B. MEHRILL, Pd D. 

Former Supervisor of Public School Kindergartens, New York City: Special Lecturers on Educational 

Topics 




The longer I try to help kindergartners prepare a 
monthly program, the more thoroughly convinced am 
I that each kindergartner must be responsible for her 
own if she wishes to live up to the best thought of 
the day, in psychology, in child study or even in 
"common sense!" 

I have been re-reading ten October programs. I 
wish the magazine could publish them all that our 
readers might apply that great gift we mentioned 
last month, comparison, to inspire them to make 
their own decisions as to what is best for the en- 
vironment in which they find their respective kinder- 
gartens. 

Some one has said the child is dependent upon 
both "Nurture" and "Nature" for his development. 

It would almost seem that some of our little ones 
had had no "Nurture" and no "Nature," as we usually 
interpret those words, in the kindergarten for us to 
build upon. Our first duty is to seek out and deter- 
mine what they have had of each for unless we do 
we will waste our energies. If they have had both in 
good measure, that, too, should be considered. We 
must likewise consider our own ability in preparing 
a program, as for example, our ability to draw well 
on the blackboard. 

Here is a charming description of a program which 
was based not only upon environment, the children 
living near a small city park, but also upon the 
kindergartner's ability to sketch well upon the black- 
board. 

You will read the plan with pleasure and catch 
inspiration from it as I have, though you may sigh 
and say, "I wish I could draw like that," or "I wish 
my kindergarten was near a park!" 

Here it is:- 
Hoiv I used the blackboard in September and October. 

"A cross-town car line and a paving of cobble-stones, 
does not prevent our street from being a busy thor- 
oughfare. The children see loads of hay, flour, fruit 
and vegetables of all kinds, coal, iron, huge tree- 
trunks, boards of all sizes, kindling-wood, barrels and 
furniture frames; and one happy day we saw a load 
of sand which stopped at the school and was de- 
posited in the basement. The children tell of the 
truck-loads of chickens and ducks that they see and 
they really hear the sounds they make, and of course 
they want to know where all these things come 
from. 

The load of sand was accounted for first. I drew 
a picture of a beach, the length of the black-board, 
with children digging in the sand, and men loading 
just such a wagon as had brought our sand to us! 



The sea shore led to related subjects and our 
picture grew until it had illustrated many simple 
stories and songs. 

I found that the children learned much about fish 
from the loaded push-carts, and there is always some 
one who can find oyster and clam shells when we 
want them. We used them in our sand box, and made 
a beach there too. 

We began October with a walk to the park at the 
foot of the street. As soon as we returned to the 
kindergarten we mp.de pictures on the black-board of 
the trees we had seen. The children helped by telling 
about the different trees they had noticed particu- 
larly. The leaves in these trees were green at first 
and as nearly as possible we follow the changes. The 
children who live near the park tell us all that 
happens to the trees. We keep them in the picture 
until all the leaves disappear. Later these few trees 
in the park that they know so well stand amongst 
others which I have also drawn; as we walk 
about autumn fruits. There are fruit trees, nut 
trees, and oaktrees. As the leaves on some of the 
trees change color our picture becomes brilliant with 
fall colors. The leaves in the park turn from green 
to brown. 

It is a great satisfaction to be able to bring branches 
of the different colored leaves, that the children can 
handle. I let them make impressions of leaves on 
clay. We also outline leaves and paint, draw, cut 
and tear out leaves. 

Later in month barrels and wagons appear in our 
sketch under the fruit trees, and just such loads as 
the children see in the street also appear from day 
to day in our picture." 

S. Q. 

This very interesting plan was carried further into 
November and December. I hope to continue its 
story in the months to come. I have found that 
children love these "Growing pictures." You, who 
draw well, try such a sketch, if there is any basis for 
it in the child's experience, and also think how you 
can continue the growing sketch into November, for 
you will enjoy its progress all the more if you can 
work it out yourself. 

Here is another suggestive outline, strongly con- 
densed with more than enough in it to start many 
happy thoughts for the month of October. 

Again we find the kindergartner studied what was 
in her neighborhood taking advantage of a small 
farm or garden on a city lot. 

Do you think it was in the suburbs? No, it was 
in a crowded section of the city of new York. I 
fear some kindergartners would not have found "the 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



37 



farm," or if they had, would not have persevered in 
securing permissions to visit it frequently. I trans- 
cribe this outline for your knowing it will help 
whether you are favored with a kind, nearby farmer 
or not, for every child should be introduced by story 
and picture to farm life if there is no other way. 

PREVIEW FOR OCTOBER. 
Walk — A visit to the farmer. 
Central Object of Interests 

1. Sand-box as a farm — children build a fence 
about it with slats, also farmer's house, barn, etc. 

2. Pictures of the farmer at work. (Children's 
picture books.) 

3. A lamb in a barn. (Use a small box.) 

4. A doll dressed as "Little Red Riding Hood." (To 
illustrate story told.) 

Talks: 

Signs of autumn. 
Flowers of autumn. 

Autumn as a preparation for winter applied special- 
ly to the farmer. 

8to7-ies : 

How the corn grew. 

The scarecrow. 

Mary had a little lamb. 

Little Red Riding Hood. 

Songs : 

Grandmamma is knitting. 

Twinkle, twinkle little star. 

Clouds of gray are in the sky. 

Oh, mother how pretty the moon looks tonight! 

Rhythms and Gymnastic Exercises: 
Washing, ironing, sweeping, scrubbing, sewing. 
Farmer plowing, harrowing, hoeing, sowing, reap- 
ing, pitching hay, gathering fruits and nuts. 
High stepping, trotting, creeping, hopping, etc. 

Animals: (In particular.) 

Horse. 

Sheep. 

Squirrel. 

Selections to be memorized. (Not forced upon the 
children but recited to them many times.) 

How the corn grew. 

An autumn song — (A little each day.) 

Mary had a little lamb. 

Principal gift to be used. 

The Fourth Gift. 

Brush work and Crayon Drawings. 

Autumn flowers. 

Vegetables. 

Autumn leaves. 

Farmers' tools, etc. 

H. K. 

By comparing these two plans you see that if you 
cannot draw, you can make your scenes in the sand. 
Sand gives us the third dimension and is more real 
in some ways than pictures and less real in others. 

It is always well to use both sand and pictures if 



possible, as they supplement each other. Some kind- 
crgartners keep a row of pictures on the wall near 
the sand box illustrating the sea shore, or any scene 
that may happen to have laid out. 

SENSE GAMES. 

Let me urge attention to the sense of hearing. 
Let the children listen to the rustling sound of the 
leaves. It will quiet them. 

Keep a large box of dried leaves letting the child- 
ren often dive their hands into the box. Spread the 
leaves upon the floor during the circle period and 
allow the children to scatter with their feet. Let 
them use the rake afterwards to clean up, bringing 
the box into the circle, or a child's wagon to cart 
them off as the men in the park do it. 

DRAMATIZATION. 

I once saw in October a simple little dramatization 
in the morning circle after a conversation about the 
fall of leaves. 

Two boys were appointed to be the workmen to 
gather up the leaves. One took the rake, the other 
a child's cart; each put on a cap as the scene was 
supposed to be out-of-doors. The two boys were both 
to talk to each other as if they were workmen. It was 
comical to hear them try to do so. "Come, Jim, 
hurry up," one said. "Here's the rake.", "Bring 
the shovel and load up the cart." "Get the horse." 
Another child was called, and was fastened by horse 
reins to the cart. Then the load of leaves was 
carted away. So the play restored the room to order. 

I think this illustrates well how a play may he 
improvised or developed on the spot, using the sim- 
plest "properties" and as far as possible the child's 
imagination, and his own language in dialogue. The 
dialogue was changed from day to day as different 
children took part. 

Another sense game may appeal to touch if several 
kinds of fruits or nuts are secured. Have the child- 
ren close their eyes or better, put their hands behind 
them or under the table, and without looking select 
an acorn, a chestnut, an apple, an orange. Gradually 
place less familiar fruits and nuts or vegetables, add- 
ing their names to the child's vocabulary. 

Keep always in mind that the child's vocabulary 
is growing day by day. Call frequently for the 
names of things. 

Some children, particularly foreigners, do not 
known the names of the very objects which they 
handle daily. 

As the children build, you may ask, "What is this?" 
of each individual child as you move about. Tell me 
something about it. Just one little sentence may 
be a triumph for the child if it is his own thought. 
Watch him 1 struggle to tell you even the simplest 
story. Or again, "What are you doing?" This ques- 
tion brings out the important verbs or action words. 

Such work in language is important in the kinder- 
garten, but should not be forced or overdone. Well told 
stories and the verses of songs help wonderfully in 



38 



THE KlNDERGARTEN-PElMARY MAGAZINE 



language, if they have been selected with care, re- 
peated often and accompanied by emphasis, gesture 
and changes in voice. 

October is one of the richest months in the year 
for the kindergarten program. 

We have not referred to the flight of birds. The 
"Crane's Express" seems to be one of the favorite 
stories to impress it. Before telling it, have pictures 
of birds around the room for a week or more. In- 
terest the children in the names of these birds and 
in their colors. Play bird games in review or as new 
ones, if the children are all new. 

Tell the story of the nest of the spring time. If 
there are children who were with you then, let them 
tell it. Bring out your nests from the cabinet, or 
visit a tree. Talk of what the birds have been doing 
laying eggs, feeding the little birdies, teaching them 
to fly. 

Now they are going for a long, long fly. Why? 
Where? Always arouse wonder. It is the precursor 
of thought. 

It will all depend upon the age and development 
of the children whether this wonderful nature story 
is suitable. 

Do not spoil a good story by telling it too soon; 
nor fail to tell it at the right time. 

What an opportunity for your own growth to ex- 
ercise judgment, in all this program work. Our pro- 
grams will surely vary if we "follow the child" as 
Froebel and other educators advise us to do. Read 
Montessori's advice for the children to help in the 
kindergarten program. 

PROBLEMS. 

Many kindergartners are trying more and more to 
let the children set little problems for themselves, 
that they may have a purpose, an aim, and recognize 
when it is accomplished. For example, during 
October if there is a school garden, the children may 
have gathered seeds. Let them think what to make 
to put the seeds in. This is problem enough for a 
child. Give each child a piece of paper and see what 
he can make that will really hold seeds. Select the 
best result, talk about it, suggest further improve- 
ment if necessary. Let all try again, possibly the 
same day, possibly the next. 

Exchange initiative however crude the result. 



Follow it by imitation and suggestions, 
dictation in the background until much later. 



Keep 



We hope to follow this thought of having the child 
work out his little problems more fully during the 
coming months, meanwhile, let me urge a close 
study of Miss Luella A. Palmer's paper upon this 
subject given last July before the kindergarten depart- 
ment of the National Education Association. 



NOTE — The above detailed account of a week's work 
was prepared by a young kindergartner. In studying 
it observe the following points that she has intro- 
duced: 

1. Practical exercises in care of room similar to 
those recommended by Dr. Montessori every morning 
before nine o'clock. 

2. Daily use of the lullaby or silence exercise to 
secure composure after violent exercise in the play 
yard. 

3. Group work. 

4. Carefully selected rhythms. 

5. Games in which all take part followed by 
choice. 

6. Use of old fashioned finger plays as well as 
the modern kindergarten finger plays. 

7. Children allowed to count each other at roll 
call, a valuable number lesson. 

8. A Friday review. 

9. Distribution of work to take home. 

(In some kindergartens the last period is often 
given to play with the thing that has been made as 
the children's work is not always welcomed at home 
nor understood. Mothers' meetings gradually remedy 
this.) 

PROGRAM FOR A WEEK IN OCTOBER 

Central thought: Observation of changes in out 
door life. 



Monday. 



8 : 40—9. 



Free play with balls. 

Drawing on black-boards. 
Helping to prepare room. 
9—9:30. 
Morning ring. 
Greetings. 

Good morning to you. 

Goodmorning to the glorious sun. 
Roll call. 

Counting girls. 

Counting boys. 

Counting all children. 
Talk on weather. 

Kind of day. 

Name of day. 

Name of month. 

Changes in month of October. 

Fall flowers. 

Bare twigs and trees. 

Falling leaves. 

Nutting season. 
Turtle draws into shell, caterpillar asleep. 

Birds migrate, etc. 

9:30—9:40. 

Marching. 

With soldier cap. 
With trumpets. 
With drums. 
With flags. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



39 



9:40—10. 

Recess in yard. 
10—10:30. 
Gift period. 
Five minute lullaby and rest. 
Emphasis on orderly presentation and arrange- 
ment of material. 
Group A — 3rd gift. 

Simple life forms — little copies of daily life 
around them. 

Chairs, beds, tables, side-board, bureau, etc. 
Group B — Slats. 
Sorting colors. 

Arranging in piles of 5 each. 
10:30—10:45. 
Rhythms and physical exercises. 
Running. 
Skipping. 
Hopping. 
Bouncing balls. 
Tossing balls. 
10:45—11:15. 
Occupation. 

Group A — Tearing red and yellow autumn 

leaves. 
Group B — Drawing bare trees. 
11:15—11:40. 
Games. 
Come now let us sing, etc. 
Games in which all take part. 
I will hold my right hand so. 
Did you ever see a lassie. 
'Round and 'round the city. 
Choice of individuals. 
I wish dear little playmate. 
Hiding the ball. 
We are playing together. 
Sense games. 
Feeling objects and guessing their names. 
Tasting fruits and guessing their names. 
11:40—11:55. 
Ring. 

Finger plays. 

Here's a ball for baby. (Followed by lullaby. 
Sleep baby, sleep, or Rock-a-bye baby.) 
Mother's knives and forks. 
Show neat work around ring. 
Ball games. 
Nursery rhymes. 
Dramatize Miss Muffett. 
Dramatize Jack Horner. 
Good-bye songs. 
Distribution of work to take home. 

Tuesday. 
8 : 40—9. 

Same as Monday. 
9—9:30. 

Morning ring. 
Greetings. 
Good morning to you. 
Good morning to the glorious sun. 
How do you do (new). 



Roll call. 

Counting girls. 
Counting boys. 
Counting all. 
Review of songs learned thus far. 

Choice to be made by the children. 
Continuation of talk on nature activities of 
October Math special reference to the squir- 
rel and the nutting season. How the squir- 
rel stores up nuts for winter ( show acorns 
and chestnut burrs) kind of home, habits, 
etc. Mention other animals or insects get- 
ting in their winter supplies. Bees, ants 
etc. 
Story. Whiskey, Friskey and Bushy Tail. 
9:30—9:40. 
Marching. 

Following the lead and motions of captain. 
9:40—10. 

Recess in yard. 
10—10:30. 
Gift period. 

Five minute lullaby and rest. 
Presentation of material. 
Group A — Sticks. Outlining house, bed, table, 
chairs, etc. 
Group B — Third gift. Easy life forms. Se- 
quence of household furnishings. Same as 
rroup A on Monday. 
10:30—10:45. 
Rhythms and physical exercises. 
Squirrels running. 
Mice creeping. 
Ponies trotting. 
High-stepping horses. 
* Giants walking. 

Brownies dancing. 
10:45—11:15. 
Occupation. 

Group A — Coloring large squirrel on both sides 

(with crayons). 
Group B — Drawing acorns on paper and black- 
board. 
11:15—11:40. 
Games. 

Come now let us sing. 
Games in which all take part. 
Tick-tock goes the clock. 
Folk dance: Clap, clap, bow. 
Review games played Monday. 
Games in which individuals are chosen. 

The squirrel loves a pleasant place, (new) 
Skipping games. 
Sense games. 
Feeling. 
Tasting. 

Smelling, (new) 
Review games played Monday. 
Dramatize story told in morning ring. 
11:40—11:55. 
Ring. 
Finger plays ; 



40 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Ball for baby. 

Mother's knives and forks. 

Little squirrel living there in your hollow 

tree, (new) 
Ball games. 
Nursery rhymes. 
Good-bye songs. 

Wednesday. 
8:40—9. 

Same as Monday. 
9—9:30. 
Morning ring. 
Greetings. 
Review songs already learned. 
Thumbs and fingers say good morning. (new) 
Roll call. 
Counting. 
Girls. 
Boys. 

All children. 
Continuation of talk on nature activities in 
October. Special emphasis on migration of 
birds. "Why they fly south. Mother love. 
Habits. Empty nests. Sparrows always with 
us, etc. 

Show bird's nest. 

Story. How the Robin's Breast Became Red. 
Teach new song. 
Fly little birdie, etc. 
9:30—9:40. 
Marching. 
9:40—10. 
Recess. 
10—10:30. 
Gift period. 
Five minute lullaby and rest. 
Presentation of material. 

Group A — 3rd gift. Make bird house, fence 
where birds sit, telegraph poles where they 
perch, etc. 
Group B — Outlining with sticks. Trees, bird- 
house, fence, telegraph wire, etc. 
10:30—10:45. 

Rhythms and physical exercises. 
Birds flying. 
Birds hopping. 
Squirrels running. 
Mice creeping, etc. 
Clapping hands in time. 
Tramping feet in time. 
Tip-toes. 

Skipping, running. 
10:45—11:15. 
Occupation. 
Marching to tables. 
Lullaby and rest. 
Presentation of materials. 
Group — A. Paste bird-house. 
Paper triangle. 
Paper square. 
Slat. 



Group — B. Draw on black-board the deserted 
nest in a tree. 
11:15—11:40. 
Games. 

Come let us sing, etc. 

Review games played Monday and Tuesday. 
Five little chicadees. 
Pretty little blue bird. 
Pigeon house, (new) 
11:40—11:55. 
Ring. 

Finger plays. 

Review: Little squirrel and other plays 
(new) This is little birdie's nest. 
Ball games. 
Dramatization of Mother-goose rhymes. 

Review: Miss Muffett, Jack Horner, King 
Cole. 

New: Four-and-twenty blackbirds. 
Good-bye songs. 

Distribution of work to take home. 
Thursday. 
8:40—9. 

Same as Monday. 
9—9:30. 
Morning ring. 
Greetings. 

Review all good morning songs learned. 
Roll call. 
Counting. 
Girls. 
Boys. 
Both. 
Continuation of talk on October nature activi- 
ties. Speak of Mr. Wind and the autumn 
leaves falling from trees make a warm cov- 
ering for seeds. 

Show red, green and yellow leaves. Discuss 
differences as to shape, size, color, etc. Learn 
names of a few common leaves. 

Learn new song: Come little leaves said 
the wind one day. 

Story. The Anxious Leaf. (Henry W. 
Beecher.) 
9:30—9:40. 
Marching. 
9:40— li. 
Recess. 
10—10:30. 
Gift. 
Group A — Same as group B on Wednesday. 
Group B — Same as group A on Wednesday. 
10:30—10:45. 

Rhythms and physical exercises. 
Leaves scattering in the wind. 
Birds flying and hopping. 
Squirrels running. 
Skipping, tip-toes, heels, etc. 
10:45—11:15. 
Occupation. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



41 



Marching to tables. 

Lullaby and rest. 

Giving out materials. 

Group A — Parquetry — pasting autumn leaves 

on paper. 
Group B — Making chains or (if I can get them) 
stringing acorns and leaves. 
11:15—11:45. 
Games. 
Come now let us sing. 
Active games in which all take part. 
Children to choose games. 
Dances. 
Little play-mate dance with me. (new) 
Clap, clap, bow. 
I will teach you how to dance. 
11:40—11:55. 
Ring. 
Finger plays. 

Pigeon-house as a finger play. 
This is little birdie's nest. 
The squirrel. 
Ball games. 

Repetition of story told in morning ring and 
Good bye songs, 
dramatized by children. 
Distribution of work. 

Friday. 
8:40—9. 

Same as Monday. 
9—9:30. 
Morning ring. 
Greetings. 
Review all songs. 
Finger play: Thumbs and fingers say good 

morning. 
Roll call. 
Choice of songs to sing made by individual 

children. 
General review talk on nature subjects dis- 
cussed during week. Squirrel, birds, nutting 
season, leaves, etc. 
Verses recited by individual children. 
I'd rather be a little child, etc. 
We will try to be patient and loving, etc. 
This world is so full of a number of things, 
etc. 
Children choose story. 
9:30—9:40. 
Marching. 
9:40—10. 
Recess. 
10—10:30. 
Gift. 
Group A— 3rd gift. Short dictation of ob- 
jects made during week by means of imi- 
tation. Most of the period devoted to build- 
ing anything they like. 
Group B— Sticks: (Brief suggestion and dicta- 
tion instead of imitation) home furnishings. 
Free choice later part of period. 



10:30—10:45. 
Rhythms and physical exercises. 
Review skipping, running, etc. 
Gymnastic exercises. 

Rolling, bouncing, throwing, catching make- 
believe balls. 

Heads, shoulders, one, two, three, etc. 
10:45—11:15. 
Occupation. 

Group A — Stringing Hailman beads. 

Lesson on color. 
Group B — Stringing straws and circles. 
11:15—11:40. 
Games. 
Review. 

Ring. (All review work.) 
Finger plays. 
Ball games. 

Nursery rhymes dramatized. 
Talk on cleanliness. 
Good-bye songs. 



B. L. F. 



FALL WALKS. 



We go for a walk at least once a week. 

Once to see the squirrels in the park. 

To see a pigeon house and pigeons. 

To see a beautifully colored maple tree. 

To see old birds' nests. 

To observe the crickets and grasshoppers. 

To gather autumn leaves. 

To see a cow in the meadow. 

These walks are delightful to all and I feel that 
we gain a great deal thereby. 

H. S. T. 

The weather has been so fine all month that we 
have been out nearly every day for a short walk. 
Have gathered leaves, nuts and burrs and what was 
the most enjoyable walk of all, to see the squirrels 
on the parkway. 

K. E. D. 

Walks average two a week. To gather flowers, 
fruit, caterpillars, grasshoppers, watch and feed 
chickens. To climb up and down the rocks, to get 
outside of the Asylum grounds. 

On one of our walks this month we visited the 
Botanical Gardens to see the gorgeous trees, and 
gather nuts, but what proved of greatest interest 
was the Bronx River. 

These are some of the remarks overheard. 

"Listen! the river is talking." 

"It says something like this sh ." 

"See how it is running along with us. May be 
it will go to school with us. 

"It's alive. It could if it wanted to." 

"See the white (meaning the foam) that is a sign 
of snow." 

G. E. K. 

Miss CI. and I spent Oct. 27th, at the Bronx Zoo 
with both kindergartens, 42 children in all, with 
lunches and carfare. We started at 10 a. m. and 
returned at three. We spent a most enjoyable and 
profitable day, having seen the more important larger 



42 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



animals, the monkeys and the birds. On the follow- 
ing days the children made some original drawings 
illustrating our visit, pasted pictures of animals and 
cut out silhouettes which we used in an animal frieze 
to help decorate our room for the Mother's Meeting. 

I. R. 
STORIES FOR OCTOBER. 

"The Chestnut Boys." 

"Friskey, Bushy Tail and Brownie." 

"Crane's Express." (modified) 
"Fleet foot and Jack O'Lantern." 
"The Little Wee Women." 
"Dunny." 

PICTURES. 
Stories told of the pictures in the room. 
Story of Girl and Dog by Reynolds. 
Story of Mother and Daughter. 
Story of An Unexpected meeting by Peel. 
Story of Tom, Irenen and Prince. 
Story of The Ducks. 
Story of The Sunbonnet Babies. 
Story of Dogs eating from Plate. 



E. R. V. 



RHYMES. 

Little Jack Horner. 

Dickory dock. 

Jack and Jill. 

Little Boy Blue. 

Baa, Baa, Black Sheep. 

Little Bo-Peep. 

Little Miss Muffet. 

Mary, Mary, quite contrary. 

ANIMAL STORIES. 
Susy's Dream. 
Billy Bob Tail. 
The Little Pig. 
Baby Ray, Go Sleep. 
Wake up. 
The Three Bears. 
Coming and Going. 
The Frisky Family. 

A FALL SEQUENCE IN GAMES. 



M. E. P. 



B. P. W. 



After several games have been developed, it is 
interesting to play them one after the other in a way 
to illustrate or tell a connected story as all the bird 
games, until finally the birds all fly away South. 

1. Building a nest. 

2. Hopping in and out of nest. 

3. Learning to fly. 

4. Flying. 

5. Migration. 
Again. 

1. The orchard. 

2. Loading wagon. 

3. Train. (To carry to city.) 

4. Selling fruit. (In city store.) 

The second sequence is suggested in "Games and 
Finger Plays for the Kindergarten," compiled by N. Y. 



Public School Kindergarten Association, which can 
be ordered through this magazine. 

It is also interesting to take a day to play all the 
games about animals although these would not make 
a sequence. 



HINTS ON DRAWING IN THE PRIMARY GRADE. 

The only aim that any subject of instruction at any 
reriod of the school life should have is that of giving 
just the natural amount of development to some 
bodily, mental, moral or spiritual tendency at just 
the time that that tendency is of paramount interest 
to the child. 

The tendencies that characterize the primary child 
are those of restless, bodily and mental activity; the 
latter being of the subjective imaginative kind. It 
is the time of symbolism and spontaneous play; the 
time of all times to inculcate the love of artistic crea- 
tion which will blossom at a later period. 

He is intensely interested in action, in human 
and animal life; but not in landscape except as a 
conventional background for some kind of action. 



The kindergarten has mcrs than justified its pres- 
ence as an integral part of the public school. It gives 
children the power to play rationally — a power which 
they are too apt to lose in a crowded city — and play 
is nature's method for preparing the young of all ani- 
mals, including those of the human species, for the 
serious work of life. 

It affords them occupation §uited to their years, and 
thus fulfills the fundamental instinct of learning 
through self-activity. Not only so, but it relieves the 
tedium of everyday life, whether in the mansion of 
the rich or the tenement of the poor, and lays the 
foundation of habits of industry. And lastly, its 
ethical value in teaching children to play and work 
together as a social group, and to obey without fear 
and without coercion the voice of lawful authority, 
is of incalcuable benefit. — G. A. Maxwell, superin- 
tendent OF SCHOOLS, NEW YORK CITY.. 



"There is only one comprehensive rule for bringing 
up children, and that is that we must honestly rack 
our reluctant minds until they give us back some- 
thing of our own forgotten emotions. . . . That we 
must acknowledge the child's mind and emotions re- 
semble our own, in scarcely limited counter part. Sub- 
jective teaching is the only teaching worth while, and 
Sympathy the only kind of love which will bring us 
the best. Children learn most by example and they 
throw open the doors of their hearts to those who 
have shown them that hearts have doors." — Wells 

The teacher of mature wisdom and judgment, with 
her deepened, loving understanding, mothers and 
grandmothers the race and with the skill of the sculp- 
tor shapes, moulds and re-creates the souls entrusted 
to her care. 



"It is a good rule to endeavor hour by hour, and 
week after week to learn to work hard. It is not 
well to take four minutes to do what we can accom- 
plish in three. It is well to learn to work intensely." 
— Charles W. Eliot. 



f Mil KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



43 



THE BABY CLUB 

Hedwig Levi. 

London, England 

At the beginning of this year was started a club 
which has its home in the East End of London. Its 
members are some of the poorest of the great City, 
and yet we are certain that there is no other club in 
London where a brighter spirit prevails. 

The club house was once a public house called 
"The Mitre" but there is now nothing more to be 
seen of a "Public bar," or "Jug and bottle depart- 
ment." 

The founder of the Club, Dr. Harry Roberts, who 
has been in Stepney long enough to learn what is 
good for it, put his scheme before Mrs. Waldorf Astor, 
and under his command fell the old walls, and the 
transformation took place. 

Dr. Roberts, whom we have not the pleasure of 
knowing personally, must be the ideal good doctor for 
he not only knows what is best for the bodily ills of 
his clients but tries to remedy the effects of their 
environment by bringing a little sunshine into their 
lives. We could see this from the bright light which 
came into a poor woman's eyes when we asked her 
the way to the "Babies' Club." 

Then babies are the members of this Club, and at 
present their number varies between 20 and 30. The 
Club was started partly to give a few slum children 
a good time, and partly to give their mothers a chance 
to go to work. 

The members' ages are under school-age but not 
under 2 1-2 years. 

Between 8 and 9 o'clock in the morning these little 
ones are left at the Club by their brothers and sisters 
on their way to school, and they remain there until 
about half past four in the afternoon, when they 
are taken home again by their mothers or some other 
relative. 

In this Club the members learn to be good and 
useful but they have not the faintest idea that they 
are learning anything at all. 

Miss Marie Brahms, the lady who has charge of 
this little flock, told us that she and her assistant — a 
very handsome, sweet looking Japanese lady — are 
trying to give every child individual attention (and 
here "individual attention" does not mean constant 
supervision; the children are watched but are left 
a great deal to themselves) and therefore, the num- 
ber of members cannot be more than 20 to 30 although 
many mothers constantly ask if their little boy or 
girl cannot also come. 
At ten o'clock the children receive a glass of milk 
and a biscuit, and their dinner hour is from 12:30 
to 1:30. They pay Id each for their dinner, which 
is cooked in the nice little kitchen on the first floor. 
The children's pantry is on the ground floor, adjoin- 
ing the playroom. 

The playroom — which is also used as the dinning- 
room — is a fine spacious room with distempered walls, 



upon which hang nice pictures of knights, of polar 
bears, and landscapes. A piano also occupies a posi- 
tion in the room, and at a signal upon it the club 
members run off to the scullery to fetch the table- 
cloth, the plates and basins, and get their little tables 
in order. They also help to serve dinner. They do 
love to help! Little George, — a healthy looking fel- 
low who loves to work — and another little boy (was 
it little Albert?) serve out the "Helpings," which two 
little girls carry round. 

When dinner is over, the members wash themselves, 
and when this is done retire to rest. The place for 
a quiet nap is screened off from the playroom, and 
each member has a nice mattress and a dear little pil- 
low with its owner's name embroidered in red upon 
it; so little Charlie cannot make any mistake and put 
his weary head upon Bobby's or Bessie's pillow. 

Those who do not wish to rest, take out their toys — 
and they have plenty of nice, useful ones. A lovely 
big doll seemed to be the favorite with both girls 
and boys, but they have also an engine and hoops 
with which they play on the sunny roof-garden. They 
have in addition "live" toys — or shall we say "pets" — 
for instance mice, lizards, and little fishes. These 
are the special pride of the Club members. 

When passing their room to the roof garden, we 
also noticed a clean little bathroom containing a 
white bath and a hot water geyser. This must have 
been a surprising place to the slum children indeed! 
But they, as well as their mothers, have quickly 
learned what a blessing cleanliness is, and the little 
ones can now even go home in their nice little green 
jersey suits, as they come back clean the next 
morning. 

Twice a week a lady doctor comes to examine the 
little ones and to give them drill instruction. 

All this is such a blessing to their mothers; but 
the good doctor has not stopped here. There is still 
something more in store for these fortunate Stepney 
inhabitants. 

The good doctor thought that it would be too much 
for the mothers in the long summer holiday to have 
the babies as well as the bigger brothers and sisters, 
on their hands. He therefore will not close up the 
Club House during that time, but will remove the 
little flock into the country. 

It will be quite a journey for the little mites to go 
so far away, and what eyes they will make when 
they come to the real country! 

The estate is about 70 acres and a house has 
been built there but is not quite finished yet. So 
Miss Brahms, who will take the children down, will 
live with them in an open air shelter erected on a 
big square which will be specially reserved for them. 

It is hoped that the first Babies' Club, which al- 
ready proves such a blessing, will soon be followed 
by more Babies' Club-houses, to give other mothers 
and children the assistance which they will gladly 
accept and which is the real kind of help as it is 
not giving only — one who takes care of the children 
receives so much more than they do — but it is help- 
ing in the best sense of the word, 



44 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Living Animals In The Kindergarten. 
By Dr. Jenny B. Merrill. 

Many authorities have called attention to the value 
of the association of children with pet animals. There 
seems to be a peculiar affinity between children and 
animals — a feeling of kinship between them. Parents 
and kindergartners should unite in efforts to secure 
pet animals in the home and also in the kindergarten 
as an invaluable aid in moral training. A desire to 
fondle and to protect a little pet arouses kind thoughts 
and deeds. 

The interest in kindergartens throughout the coun- 
try in pet animals has been extending and of all 
animals the pet rabbit or "Bunny," as the children 
call him, is the favorite. The kitten and the canary 
are also most welcome visitors. Even a chick or two 
sometimes is entertained for a week or more in the 
springtime, and we have had pigeons, too. 

The atm,osphere of the kindergarten room is chang- 
ed by the presence of Bunny when he has the free- 
dom of the room. The children's minds seem more 
active and alert, and not only the games, but the 
drawing and brush work, the free cutting and oral 
expression have all shown decided improvement when 
the children have this little living creature as a daily 
companion. 

If it is not possible to keep a living animal any 
length of time in the kindergarten room, kindergart- 
ners have sometimes arranged what is known as "The 
Traveling Menagerie." A few pets are purchased in 
common and are loaned for a week at a time in the dif- 
ferent kindergartens. Bunny is seldom kept in a cage, 
but is allowed to run about the room, and if he cannot 
be comfortably settled for the night, an additional 
pleasure is given to the children by a visit first to one 
home and then to another. In this way the parents 
have become interested in pets for the home. One 
child returned saying, "Everyone played with Bunny 
— even papa stayed at home." 

The need of regularity in caring for pet animals be- 
comes one of the best means of training. Feeding 
time comes regularly, and the little one should be 
held at least partly responsible, although some older 
person must of necessity oversee such an important 
matter. The canary's bath has served as a sugges- 
tion of cleanliness. 

A child's greatest interest is in the habits of ani- 
imals, and the close observation aroused naturally by 
the child's curiosity impresses many details of form 
and movement. The child's attention is closely held 
and the knowledge gained grows naturally and is 
easily retained. The quick, agile movements of ani- 
mals suggest grace and beauty. The gentle curves 
of the body and the dainty colors in feathers and in 
furry coverings aid in developing a love of delicate 
color tones and beautiful outlines. 

In the kindergarten there should be very little act- 
ual instruction about animals; for example, there 
should be no formal lessons on naming parts, but 
questions may be asked to arouse curiosity, as, 
Does birdie ever go to sleep? Can he speak? What 



does he say? Can you make a sound like it? What 
shall we feed him Why does Bunny need such long 
ears? How can pussy walk so softly? How does she 
wash herself? Such questions should always be based 
upon characteristic activities They will lead the 
children to observe thoughtfully and to ask further 
questions themselves 

When there is no pet animal in the home or in 
the school, a horse or dog which may be seen pass- 
ing daily in the street should be known by name and 
frequently made a subject of inquiry and conversa- 
tion 

Whether living animals are observed at home, in 
the school, on the street, or in parks, it is the individ- 
ual animal with its own individual name that is most 
valuable in arousing kind thoughts and deeds on 
the part of the little child. The children in one of our 
city schools watched every day at noon for "Dobbin" 
to appear, and some one was always ready with an 
apple or a lump of sugar for him. 

Jack was the pet street dog of hundreds of children 
on one crowded city block, and when he was in danger 
of being carried away, the children gave their pennies 
freely to provide him with a license. 

Every small park should be provided with a few 
animals for the children's delight. Squirrels at least 
should abound for the little ones to feed. 

Pigeons and sparrows may often be observed in 
the streets and the sparrows are often fed on the 
window sills of the schools, especially in winter time. 

Next in interest to these living creatures of the 
higher types are those to be found in the kindergarten 
or school acquarium or terrarium. As many as six 
distinct types of animal life have been observed in 
these by kindergarten children, namely, gold fish, 
tadpoles and frogs, toads, turtles, lizards, snails and 
water-bugs. Living bees, butterflies, spiders, grass- 
hoppers and crickets have been entertained in kinder- 
garten window boxes. 

Each one of these living creatures has a peculiar 
fascination for a child because of some characteristic 
motion, habit or sound. From the movements of each 
one, a play may be developed. In each simple little 
drama, the child should enter heartily into the life 
of the animal, playing quite freely, before a formal 
game is taught. 

When I was a little girl I was fond of a story about 
"Willie Wildfire." Willie's name suggests a wild boy, 
but I only remember how Willie loved the bees and 
birds and butterflies. When anyone tried to catch 
them, he would say, "When I was a butterfly" or 
"When I was a bird, I didn't like to be touched." Per- 
haps Willie went to kindergarten; perhaps he was 
only playing with his own imagination. There is good 
moral training in such imaginative animal plays. 

However, the direct influence from the care of pets 
is much deeper. Miss Harvey, of Adelphi College, 
says: "I know the value of our kindergarten pets, and 
should you ask me whether we can have a kindergar- 
ten and leave our pets out, I should shake my head 
and answer with the good old Scotch woman: 'I hae 
ma doots.' " 



THE KINDERCHRTEN-PROTARY MAGAZINE 



45 



PICTURES AND STORIES OF ANIMALS. 

Pictures and stories supplement the living animal 
but never can take its place. Pictures of children 
playing with animals should be selected for the walls 
of the kindergarten and the nursery. Several excel- 
lent picture panels and friezes are now common in 
our kindergartens.* Many kindergartners make bor- 
ders by repeating an animal form, alternating with 
a plant form, suggesting the food or the native haunt 
of the animal, as, the duck and the water lily, or 
the rabbit and the carrot, the swan and cat-tails, etc., 
etc. 

Kindergartners also mount pictures of animals cut 
from old toy picture books on long strips, adding a 
few strokes of the crayon to make a connected scene, 
as of a barnyard. Even the children's work has been 
used by a kindergartner with excellent effect in mak- 
ing these decorative borders. For example, the child- 
ren's trees, fences and barns have been mounted with 
animal pictures as a border or arranged in groups. 
Toy animals are valuable in making picture scenes 
on the sand-table. Animals modeled in clay are also 
used in this way. Plaster casts of animals are used 
for ornament. 

Every kindergarten should be well supplied with 
animal picture books. Such books are necessary in 
extending the knowledge of animal forms not com- 
mon in the city and also in suggesting the natural 
environment of animals. Such books as the follow- 
ing have proved helpful: "Cosy Nook Farm," "Father 
Tuck's Animal Pictures," "Little Boy Blue," Barn 
Yard Pets," Friends at the Farm," Four Footed 
Friends," "Big Animals," "Small Animals," "Baby's 
own Aesop," Derslow's "Mother Goose," Kate Green- 
way's "Mother Goose," "Children's Pets," "Little 
Chicks," "Little Polly's Pets," etc. The very titles 
suggest the life-like pictures which we endeavor to 
obtain. Try to secure some books which show both 
mother and father animal on the same page with their 
young. 

The many songs and games relating to animal life 
we have already referred to. It would be helpful 
to make a special list of these by examining care- 
fully such books as Neidlinger's "Small Songs for 
Small Singers," Poulsson's "Finger Plays and Holi- 
day Songs," Hill's "Song Stories," Gaynor's "Songs 
of the Child World." Humor in the animal world 
is of particular interest, and we are indebted to Mr. 
Neidlinger for his happy treatment of "Mr. Duck and 
Mr. Turkey," of "Tiddledy Winks and Tiddleby Wee," 
as well as many other amusing songs of animals. 

A list of about one hundred animal stories has been 
collated by the New York Public School Kindergarten 
Association. This list is classified under the follow- 
ing heads: 1. Animal Stories from Mother Goose. 
2. Stories of cats and kittens. 3. Dog stories. 
4. Stories of horses and ponies. 5. Stories of cows 
and sheep. 6. Stories of chickens. 7. Bird stories. 
8. Stories of rabbits and squirrels. 9. Stories of in- 
sects and fishes. 10. Fables. (Only a few fables are 
suitable for children under seven.) 

It would be valuable for any kindergartner or 



primary teacher, or for pupils in training classes 
to make such a classified list for herself, using such 
books as "In the Child's World," "Mother Stories," 
Wiltse's "Kindergarten Stories," back numbers of "St. 
Nicholas," "The Kindergarten Review," "Kindergar- 
ten Magazine," supplementary reading books, and a 
good edition of "Mother Goose" and "Aesop." 

Such a list would serve to impress upon the kinder- 
gartner the value of stories of animals in the moral 
development of the child, for it must be remembered 
that it is by no means merely to collect facts about 
animals, or to study Natural History, that we are 
urging more attention to them in the kindergarten 
and in the home. The character training resulting 
from the loving interest in the animal itself and 
the sympathy awakened by following its life in well- 
told stories and pictures is far the most important 
point we have considered. 

INSPIRATION— SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS 

Inspire the child, and the lessons will take care 
of themselves. 

Method is of far less importance than manner. 

Awaken the wish to know, to have, to do, or to be, 
and you have performed the very highest office for hu- 
manity. 

What the child volunteers to do, gives real char- 
acter — good or bad. Can you not well bend your en- 
tire effort to make the voluntary action noble? 

If your own heart overflows, the drippings will satu- 
rate all within their reach. 

The key to all success is inspiration, and it is the 
teacher's golden key — reducing her work to the lowest 
common denominator, but multiplying her results by 
a thousand-fold. 

"Dry?" "Dull?" Then permeate the study with 
wisdom and light, that its very brilliance shall attract 
the child who will otherwise be repelled by it. Your 
very enthusiasm will be infectious. Do not let even 
one recitation, nay, even a study period, become "flat, 
stale, and unprofitable"; but fill each with living 
germs, even as the very air about us is filled. 

Since the days of Him; who "spake as never man 
spake," the influence of the good teacher has been like 
the casting of a pebble into the depths — creating rip- 
ples whose outermost circles wash the shores of 
Eternity itself. 



PLAYING GAMES. 
Laura Rounteee Smith. 



Oh many games we like to play, 

Out in the orchard every day, 
"London Bridge Is Falling Down," 

And "Old King Cole Has Come to Town. 1 
Clasp your hands and hold them high, 

To pass under we will try. 
Then marching up and down we go. 

Such happy children as you know, 
Some day we'll play a game for you, 

With flags of red, and white, and blue, 
Then clasp the hands and hold them high, 

For merry children passing by J 



In the September number we referred to the First 
Gift, stating that it consisted of six balls, usually of soft 
rubber, covered with woolen or worsted, one each of 
the six principal colors, red, orange, yellow, green, 
blue, and violet. For children of the primary age its 
chief value will be in teaching color, motion, and di- 
rection. 

We emphasized the importance of giving correct 
color perception of at least the six principal colors, 
and gave a suggestive first gift lesson, in which the 
teacher introduced the ball, asking the children to 
give its name, then writing the words on the black- 
board, afterwards calling attention to the color of the 
ball, and ending with the sentence on the black- 
board, "It is a red ball." The pupils were invited to 
bring something on the following day that would re- 
semble the ball in color. Afterwards the shape of 
the ball was emphasized and this sentence brought 
out, "The ball is round." This was followed by 
swinging the ball like a pendulum, bounding, etc. For 
supplementary seat work it was advised to have the 
children fold, string, and paste red kindergarten 
papers, or sew circles with red thread, etc. In this 
issue we begin with lesson 2. 

Lesson No. 2. 

A review of words learned in Lesson 1, with some 
variation, as, "The red ball is round." etc. I am 
thinking of something else that is round. Who can 
guess what it is? Yes, an apple is round. 

Can you tell me something else that is round? An 
orange is round, a cherry is round. 'Yes. The earth 
on which we live is nearly round. The children name 
other articles that are round, and review the reading 
from the board. "The round ball is red." Whose ball 
is this? "It is my ball." Children read sentence, ^It 
is my ball." Marion, you may get the balls and give 
them to the children, who receive the balls in their 
right hand as before, saying: "I thank you," and per- 
haps repeating the rhyme of the previous lesson. 
Children may toss their balls to each other. Teacher 
writes, "Toss the ball." Children read the sentence. 
Then teacher tosses her ball to one of the children, 
and writes, "I can toss the red ball." Have children 
read the sentence. 

The different things brought by 'the children as 
representing their idea of red are then examined by 
the teacher and pupils. This will afford an oppor- 
tunity to detect and correct erroneous conceptions of 
the color. In like manner as the lessons continue 
let all the colors represented by the balls be brought 
out and emphasized. 

In teaching the colors it is best to first call atten- 
tion to the color and talk about it before the name of 
the color is mentioned. 



In the latter case, all the colors may be referred to 
in the first lesson, but before naming the different col- 
ors of the balls talk about them in such manner as to 
lead the children to think about the color before the 
name is given. 

Lesson No. 3. 

After distributing the balls, begin the lesson with a 
talk on the material from which the balls are con- 
structed. 

Can you tell me what the balls are made of? India 
rubber inside and woolen yarn outside. Can you tell 
me how india rubber is made? Well, it is made from 
india rubber milk which is found in plants and trees 
that grow in the south, where it is nearly always 
warm, and where there is hardly ever any snow o,r ice. 
The men cut into trees and the yellow rubber milk 
runs out. It is then more than half water but it is 
boiled over a fire and in that way rubber is separ- 
ated from the water and it can then be made into 
many things besides balls. Can you think of anything 
else that is made of rubber? Yes, rubber bands, rubber 
erasers, rubber corks, rubber dolls, rubber combs, rub- 
ber buttons and even shoes, coats, hats, etc., are made 
partly at least of rubber. It was first used to rub out 
black pencil marks, and that is the reason they called 
it india rubber. In our next lesson I will tell you 
something about the woolen yarn that covers the balls. 

Now we will look at the colors you have brought 
me and to-day we will think about the color that is 
like this ball. Can you see anything in the room that 
is in color like this ball? Can you remember anything 
that is fit this color? Can you tell me the name of 
this color. Yes, orange. 

Teacher writes on the board, "I can play ball," 
"See my ball swing," "My ball is rubber," etc. 

To-morrow you may bring me something that has 
the same color as the ball. 

Gather the balls, and for seat work let pupils copy 
the sentences from the board and fold, paste or string 
orange papers, etc. 

ANOTHER SUGGESTIVE LESSON INTRODUCING 
ALL THE COLORS AT ONE TIME. 

Lesson No. 4. 
"Would you like to play a ball game this morn- 
ing? Then let us repeat these words:" 

In my hand a ball I hold, 
Till upon the floor it rolls. 
If it goes in the ring 
We will clap, we will sing. 
Tra la, la, et^ 

(Clapping if the ball goes in the ring.) 
"John may run up to the box (have the six balls 
suspended from the crossbeam) and choose the ball 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



47 



he likes best and roll it in the ring as we all sing" 
(the above song.) (Make the ring on the floor of 
third gift blocks placed close together with an open- 
ing to allow the ball to enter the ring.) 

"Who can tell us the color of the ball John rolled 
into the ring? - ' 

"Good; Mary guessed it; and now she may choose 
the ball she likes best to roll in the ring." 

And the song is repeated while Mary rolls her ball 
into the ring. 

This little song and game may be repeated until 
many have made a choice. 

In case all the colored balls are not ch«sen ask to 
have those which have not been chosen rolled for the 
sake of naming the colors not already chosen. 

As a close to this lesson take all the balls of the 
beam, except the red one. 

"I wonder, children, who can find the ball here in 
my apron that looks most like the red ball?" 

"Yes, Nan has found it." 

"What color is it, Nan?" 

Nan answers, "The orange ball." 

"Tie it on the beam, Nan, next to the red ball." 

"Who can find the ball that looks most like the 
orange ball?" Proceed in like manner until all the 
balls have been arranged in this order — red, orange, 
yellow, green, blue, and purple. 

In this step you are leading the children to feel 
the relationship of color and color harmony. 

Later, after the children have had many lessons in 
color, repeat the first part of this lesson for the 
purpose of noticing the growth in the taste of the 
children. 

This entire lesson should not be longer than fifteen 
minutes. 

Lesson No. 5. 

Continue language lesson, and close with motion 
lesson. The following may prove suggestive. 

Teacher directs the pupils to swing the balls back- 
wards and forwards, singing or repeating the words: 

Merrily, Merrily, 
Backwards and forwards, 

Cheerily, Cheerily, 
Go our pretty balls. 
Repeat several times. 

Change to the circular motion, using the words: 

Round and round in a ring, 
See my ball quickly swing. 

Repeat. 

Then swing the balls around in the opposite direc- 
tion, repeating the words: 

Now back again, 
In circle true, 
Swiftly our little 
Balls will go. 



Books should to one of these four ends conduce, 
For wisdom, piety, delight or use. 

— Denham. 



COLUMBUS DAY— OCTOBER 14, 1492 
By Mary E. Law 

One of the most important and delightful phases 
of kindergarten work is the observance of holiday 
or festivals which Froebel did much to encourage. 

The first celebration of the year is Columbus Day. 
The teacher of the Kindergarten should prepare her- 
self by a thorough study of Washington Irving's life 
of Columbus, or some equally reliable and interesting 
account of the great discoverer. 

The children should be prepared by a study of the 
first gift, adding balls of different sizes, colors and 
textures. One large ball can represent the sun, and 
be tossed into the air and allowed to turn and spin 
to the children's delight. A smaller one should 
be used for the earth and a still smaller one for the 
moon. Others should be called stars, for the child 
should learn at once and forever that the heavenly 
bodies, spheres, ball or globes are continually revolving 
rotating and whirling in the heavens. Little songs 
and stories should be used to fix the impressions in 
the mind. The earth may be represented by a ball 
half white and half black or some other color, so 
that day and night, and the phases of the moon 
may be illustrated. The occupation work should be- 
gin with the sun, sewed in a radiating pattern in 
yellow silk. The sun, moon and stars may be posted 
on paper in the form of a poster. The moon may be 
represented as a crescent to give variety, but the 
stars should never be represented as five or six print- 
ed affairs. All sorts of round objects should be 
brought in by the children to emphasize and define 
the spherical form. After a couple of weeks of this 
kind of preparation the story of Columbus may be 
begun and going on from day to day. Beginning 
with his childhood and emphasizing the qualities of 
courage and perseverance. 

His faults should not be mentioned neither should 
he be painted as an ideal, simply as a man of won- 
derful courage and perseverance. The balls should 
be used constantly for illustration and very soon 
the sand table sliould be brought into requisition. The 
shores of Spain and the port of Palos are made. Then 
the three ships, the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa 
Marie. Then the Islands of the West Indies which 
he discovered with the American continent in the 
background. The Indians, the wigwams and the 
camp fires, give color and interest to the story. All 
the incidents of the voyage, should be brought out, 
especially where Columbus ordered the crew to "Sail 
on! Sail on! Sail on!" After the story is completed, 
a pageant should be arranged for Columbus Day, 
October 14. There should be Queen Isabella and 
King Ferdinand on the throne. Then Columbus and 
his followers bearing baskets or bags of potatoes, 
corn and other products of the new-found land, in- 
cluding six Indians in native costume, with moc- 
casons, bows and arrows, stuffed birds and other 
gifts. All sorts of games may follow. Some of the 
songs that may be used in preparation follow: 
"Oh! Lovely Ball of Golden Light" 

"The round beautiful world," 

"Do you know how many stars," 

"Try, try again, and Columbus sailed across 

[the sea." 



48 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRD1ARY MAGAZINE 



THE TWO GATES 

Commentary. 
Translated by BERTHA JOHNSTON 

The intention of these little plays, that gift with 
which they are meant to endow the child, is easily 
stated. First, teach him to guard that which he has 
acquired. Second, help him to distinguish surround- 
ing objects, and seek to have him name them — at 
first, what is nearest to him in house and yard; 
garden and field, and then later on, in the plain and 
in the woods. 

Teach him to recognize things not only by their 
names, but also by their attributes; not only by their 
attributes when in action, their conduct; but also by 
their qualities, when in repose. 

Have you not observed, Mother, what a profound, 
an imperative desire for all this dwells in your child? 
At a certain time in his life, almost as if by magic, 
he appears to invent for himself, the words for act- 
ivities and qualities. At this period what joy is 
given the child by the perception of smoothness, wool- 
iness, hariness, brightness, roundness, as well as by 
the activities of rolling, creeping, hopping and the 
like. And with admirable ease he apprehends and 
connects, contemplation, word and idea. 

Preserve, nurture this feeling, in him. For if you 
do not foster it, if you do not put him in the way of 
right activity, he is lost to you: he will as if it 
were, rust, as the magnet rusts, and lose those fac- 
ulties, which are not continuously, increasingly em- 
ployed. 

This sense, so to speak, of the child, resembles 
costly wine in a broken glass; what is not made 
use of at once is lost-powers which are not immed- 
iately exercised, efforts which are not directly sus- 
tained by a suitable object perish. 

The honeysuckle, mother, has familiarized you with 
flowers in pairs, and you know of others variously 
grouped, as in catkins, in the pyramidal elderberry 
and the round snowball. 

The child can discover many other things about 
flowers. The colors, delicate, variegated, plain. The 
forms, bell-shaped, rayed, round, spurred like a 
knight, spiralled like a snail. Bound arrangement, 
bound in tufts, in umbels, or in disks. For each of 
these a term can soon be found, when aided by eyes 
that are clear and sound. Each is strengthened by 
what he finds out for himself. 

Then, only have courage, dear Mother, and use 
well each hour. The seeds concealed deep within 
the fruit will germinate, to refresh and rejoice you. 
As soon as this is perceived it will bring blessing to 
your child. 
Some Additional Suggestions for the School Teacher. 

The above Commentary of Froebel refers to two 
pictures, shown in this number of The Kindergarten 
Magazine, (The Farmyard Gate,) and one depicting 
the Garden Gate. In the first are seen the various 
animals and fowls of the farmyard, the presence of 
colts and calves indicating the spring season, which 
thus serves to connect our Fall subject with those 
of a few months previous. In the background we see 



a frisky colt taking advantage of the open gate to 
risk adventure into the unknown. 

The pictures and commentary suggest several 
seeds of thought for the teacher to drop incidentally 
into the fertile mind of parent or child, as occasion 
may arise. 

What are some of the differences between wild 
and tame animals? Why do tame animals need 
special care? Through dependence on man they have 
lost certain powers of discrimination and do not 
know how to care for themselves as they do in their 
wild state. 

What are some of the needs of all animal life? Food, 
drink, salt, shelter from heat and cold? How do 
wild creatures secure these necessities. 

Cbanges in thickness of fur in winter and summer; 
migration for warmth or cold, or for food. 

Need of shepherds in some countries; sheep die 
of eating sheep laurel, not knowing that it is poison- 
ous for them. 

What dangers threaten animals if they run away 
from home? wild animals, as wolves and foxes: being 
run over by locomotives; getting lost or stolen. 

What special- care do our farmyard animals need 
in winter? They must be housed from wind and cold 
and snow, and fed with grain or hay stored by provi- 
dent farmer. 

What do they give us in return for our care of 
them? Milk, eggs, wool, feathers, transportation, 
work in field and road. 

The second picture shows a charming formal 
garden, a rustic fence in the foreground, with a little 
girl reclining upon it in contemplative attitude, while 
another little niaiden reaches through to pluck a blos- 
som. Flowers, trees, shrubs adorn the garden, with 
a fountain in the center and a decorative gate in the 
background. There is, however, no such variety as 
one would expect, after reading the commentary. The 
teacher would be under the necessity of supplying 
examples of various types of flower, leaf, stem, etc. 

A discussion about the treasures which we most 
value and must most carefully guard leads naturally 
to Curran's famous declaration, "Eternal vigilance is 
the price of liberty." How can we best preserve this 
great boon which has been purchased at the cost of 
such sacrifice in the past? Why is liberty such a 
treasure? What is meant by freedom of the press? 
What may happen if we abuse this privilege? Liberty 
to think for oneself; liberty to express one's thoughts; 
liberty to act according to the dictates of conscience 
as long as one does not thereby interfere with the 
liberty of another — that is what America stands for. 
A precious privilege that one must not endanger by 
license. 

In Mothers' Meetings the teacher may lead in a 
discussion as to the value of the "gate" when young 
people reach the adolescent period. How much, how 
little freedom is it safe to give the young boy, the 
young girl, in order to preserve that which is noblest 
in them? What training will best give the youth, the 
maiden, the self-respect, the high ideals, the will pow- 
er and self-restraint, to pass safely by the many pit- 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



49 



talis set for the feet of the unwary and unsophisti- 
cated.? To help them conquer the temptations inci- 
dent to every stage of development? 

Surely one safeguard is a joy in Nature, a familiar- 
ity with her charms, as seen in the life of farmyard, 
forest, garden, or sunset sky; a knowledge of the 
beauties to be discovered in every wayside walk. 
When the collecting instinct siezes the boy or girl, 
guide them to an interest not alone in postage stamps, 
but in all the wonders of the natural world. 

Help the parents to feel, also, that although we want 
to keep the young people in the Garden of Innocnce as 
long as possible, that ignorance is not necessarily a 
safeguard. When they must pass through the gate 
into the great world beyond, they must be equipped 
with knowledge, but as Sir Galahad sang, "My 
strength is as the strength of ten, because my heart 
is pure." 



THE ACORN. 

By Susan Plessner Pollock. 

"Grandmother," said Herman one day, "I have had 
an acorn in a box for a long time, but still it is 
nothing but an acorn;" "And what should it become 
in your box?" asked grandmother." Why a ship, or 
a cupboard, such as Godmother Athol bought in 
town;" said the boy. Grandmother laughed: "My very 
dearest little monkey" she said," how came you to 
have such a strange fancy? How can an acorn be 
changed into ship or a cupboard?" "Godmother told 
me that her cupboard was once an acorn, and that 
the ships (which she had herself seen) were also 
once acorns." Your Godmother Athol was right, but 
the acorn does not change itself in such a short time 
in this way." "But Boland told me about a man who 
dug up sand in the woods and put it in his cellar 
and the next morning, it had turned into gold." "Rol- 
and told you a fairy story dear boy; such stories are 
not true." "Then Roland told me a falsehood; I will 
never believe him again!" "He was joking with you, 
not telling you a falsehood; it is allowed to tell fairy 
stories to children, because they give children pleas- 
ure and because every one who hears them knows 
right away (immediately) that they are intended for 
fairy stories. Only those falsehoods are sinful, which 
are told as if they were true. Roland did not think 
my little Herman was such a little stupid one, as to 
believe the story." "But how can an acorn turn into 
a ship in any other way?" "The acorn is a seed; when 
it lies in the earth, it receives life, that is, it develops 
a germ or seed bud; the Heavenly Father, has given 
every seed the magic to change (transform) itself. 
Just so the acorn develops in itself a seed bud, which 
bursts its hard shell house, and pushes itself deeper 
into the earth, and builds roots, — then the acorn push- 
es a seed bud upward and from it there grows a 
tiny tree, as fine as a thread; now if nothing harms 
this little sprout, no hare or rabbit nibbles it off, 
and nobody's heavy foot breaks it off, it grows on, 
becoming higher and stronger; when it is as old as 
Grandma, then it has a fine trunk and tough knotty 



branches; but the oak lives much, much longer than 
man, (people) they can live to be several hundred 
years old. By and by, when the tree trunk is strong 
enough it is cut down by men, then the ship build- 
ers build ships and the cabinet makers make 
cupboards from, the wood." Herman had listened 
attentively; as grandma stopped talking, he shook 
his head; "It is still too bad" (a pity) he said, "That 
the acorn is not changed (transformed) through a 
miracle, or magic." "Is then, the opening of the seed- 
kernel and the growth of the germ, or seed bud, no 
magic, or miracle?" "Yes, it is indeed a wonder 
miracle, but it would be nicer if the acorn could be 
changed, or transformed in one night." "There are 
many things in nature which are changed in one 
night! yesterday, I saw a large basket full of pretty 
pink and white blossoms, with many dewey, fresh, 
green leaves: Gertrude would like to have made 
wreaths with them, they pleased her so; when I saw 
the basket today, there were no more flowers in it; 
in their place stood a vessel filled with a sweet fluid, 
(drink)." "Is that a Fairy story?" asked Herman. 
"No, my precious boy, it is a nature wonder; the flow- 
ers and leaves in the basket yesterday, were clover 
blossoms and leaves and grass — mother gave them to 
the cow for her supper last evening, and over night 
they were turned into milk." "Ah, so! that happens 
every day." "Yes, certainly every day, but is it, for 
that reason, any less a great wonder, (miracle) 
magic? The fairy stories which grown up people 
write and tell, to give children pleasure, sound more 
wonderful, because they tell things of which we have 
never before heard, while Nature works her wonders 
and her magic, daily before our eyes, in exactly the 
same way. When one is uo more a child, tiey com Ider 
these magical happenings with astonishment. It is 
the duty of grown up people, to bring such wonders 
to the notice and attention of children, that they may 
early have the joy and delight of observing how rich 
God's Nature is in remarkable happenings; it is a 
world of magic." 



A Playground Institute was recently organized in 
Cleveland, Ohio, to train workers for the local play- 
grounds and recreation centers. 



Five in every ten children observed outside of 
school hours in the average city are loafing — doing 
nothing at all because, as they say, "There is nothing 
to do," according to Arthur C. Moses, of the Wash- 
ington Playground Association. 



WAS IT YOU? 
By Laura Rountree Smith. 

A little girl sang a song at play, 
A little girl helped mother all the day, 
A little girl smiled as she worked away, 
Was that little girl you? 



Even from the body's purity, the mind. 
Receives a secret, sympathetic aid. — Thomson. 

"Don't Care" has no house. — Negro, 




"THE FARMYARD GATE" 

Mother Play Picture 




♦THE GARDEN GATE' 

Mother Play Picture 



52 



THE KIKDEROABTEN-PRIMAEY MAOAZIKE 



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X 






G- 


— ir> 



THE BARN AND WHEELBARROW 



STRAIGHT LINE CUTTING 

By Carrie L. Wagner. 

During their walks in October the children will 
see the gardners gathering in the vegetables and ty- 
ing up the corn shocks. The pumpkin gleaming in 
the fields, and the many seeds waiting to be gathered, 
interest them. For an occupation this month, a 
poster may be made from a square cut on straight 
lines, picturing the work of the month. From one 
square a barn and wheel barrow may be made. Fold 
into sixteen squares; cut from the right on the first 
line the length of a square, then up the length of 
one square, across on the center line the length of 
two squares, down the length of one, and out to the 
edge on the line. Thus six squares are cut away. 
Fold the lower edge of this piece of six squares to the 
first line; open and fold the edge of the upper left 
hand square to the lower edge. Cut the oblong from 
the lower left edge and leave a quarter of a square; 
then cut the other quarter and half square out. Fold 
the upper left square on the diagonal and cut off. 
The squares on the lower right corner may be cut 
into the shape of a wheel and thus a realistic wheel 
barrow is formed. The ten squares left from making 
the wheel barrow m|ay be the barn where many ripen- 
ed grains are stored. To shape the roof, fold the two 
upper corners on the diagonal to the center crease, 
open and cut away the corners on the line. 

Hoes, rakes, shovels, and other utensils may be cut 
free hand, and mounted around the edge of the poster. 
Or pumpkins and corn shocks drawn around the edge 
would make a pretty border. 



BUSY WORK 

The one teacher of eight grades in a country dis- 
trict, or the teacher of forty primary children in the 
village or town school, may believe she has no time to 
arrange, nor the pupils any time to execute any of 
the work done by the kindergarten or manual train- 
ing schools. It is probable that if she should spend 
the time devoted now to restoring and maintaining 
order, to the planning of some such work, she would 
be more than pleased with the result. 

In a certain western town there is a little brown- 
eyed, sweet-faced lady in charge of a Primary Depart- 
ment enrolling from fifty to sixty-five students. She 
will show you paper-mats, baskets, sewing, clay mod- 
els, paper cutting, etc., all done by the six and seven 
year-old tots. There has been nothing of the pre- 
scribed year's work neglected. Not only is the read- 
ing excellent, the spelling good, the number-work up 
to the standard and the language work far above the 
average, but the problem of discipline is practically 
solved. When a pupil has completed the preparation 
of a lesson, he is permitted to busy himself with some 
training device. It may be the weaving of a paper- 
mat; the materials are ready, the directions on the 
board. He quietly makes his own selection of colors, 
and is busy, happy, and therefore orderly until the 
recitation period. A little thought on the part of 
the teacher and a surprisingly small amount of direc- 
tion will accomplish wonders n the matter of disci- 
pline and hand training. 

Children of the third and fourth grades may con- 
struct geometrical figures of pasteboard or clay, learn- 
ing the names of the figures and writing the names of 
objects having similar form. They may make col- 
lections of the different woods in the neighborhood, 
and spend the odd moments in mounting them prop- 
erly. 

Second grade children may outline plane figures 
by sewing around the outlines or pasting on wooden 
toothpicks or colored strips of paper. The colored 
strips may be arranged into borders of conventional 
design by the more artistic. They may write a story 
and illustrate it by pictures clipped from advertise- 
ments. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



53 




HO 14; 




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FIG2.C 



PATTERNS FOR FLAGS 

By John Y. Dunlop 



54 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




THE REAPERS-Jules Breton 



STUDY OF A PICTURE 

BY 

Mary B. Cotting. 

Isn't this a beautiful out-doors picture! Would you 
like to tell something about it? No, it is not a 
garden, why did you think it was? Yes, there is a 
path with flowers growing beside it, and the little 
boy has been gathering some. What is he doing 
now? Why is he running? Where do you think they 
all are going? Yes, they are going home, and where 
have they been? You must hear a story about that 
for you could never guess what they have been 
doing. 

One morning that little boy, whose name is Jean, 
woke up very early, for his mother had promised 
that he might go to the harvest fields where she 
worked. There was nothing he liked to do better 
than this, so he dressed very quickly. As he buttoned 
button after button he thought of the last time he 
had been to the fields. Then he had gone with his 
father, who ploughed the ground to make it soft 
and ready for the seed which another man, called the 
sower, was to scatter all over the good-smelling, up- 
turned, brown earth. That was a good while ago, and 
all the weeks since the rain and sunshine had been 
helping those seeds to grow into tall stalks of wheat, 
which were now ripe and ready to be cut down, and 
it was the cutting down, or reaping that Jean was 
going to the fields to watch. He loved to see his 
mother work; she cuts with a queer knife called a 
sickle (like this which the woman in the middle of 
this group is carrying,) and so very swiftly no one 
else can cut as much in a day as she can. Jean is 
very proud of his strong mother and tries to keep still 
for he knows that will please and help her. When 
the sun is high over the tree under which Jean stays 
the reapers come to rest and eat their dinner. If 



they are not too tired they tell him how in a few days 
the heaps of yellow-covered grain will be piled upon 
a great wagon and drawn by two stout horses to, the 
shed where some day the ripe kernels will be beaten, 
or threshed, from the tiny husk-coverings that have 
protected them until the just-right time came for- 
them to fall away. And they tell him, too, how these 
kernels will be sent to the mill and ground into the 
flour from which bread is made. If they are not 
so tired as to need to take a nap, the reapers will 
show him the fields where grow other kinds of 
grain — the kind that will be used for food for the 
horses, cows and fowls. It is all very wonderful, 
Jean thinks, and all the afternoon as he plays in the 
shade by the brook he wonders and wonders if his 
mother will take him to those other fields to watch 
the reaping there. When the bees among the flowers 
and the birds in the fields and trees are getting 
ready for night the mother calls Jean for it is time 
for the reapers to go home. As they slowly — for 
they are very tired — walk along the path across the 
fields Jean trots behind stopping now and then to 
gather flowers for the dear grandmother at home. 
As he is being tucked into bed after supper he tells 
his mother he thinks it si the finest thing in the world 
to work in the fields, and that when he's grown into 
a man like father, he is going to have a farm. Mother 
pats him and says he surely will if he is good and 
works hard enough. 

Let the story form; be the introduction to the 
picture. From time to time let he child-questions 
determine when to give information concerning the 
harvests of various countries, emphasizing especially 
those of our own land. 

That which is of first importance in using this 
picture is to be the awakening of the dormant child- 
love for the beautiful through the impression 
made by the French artist's (Jules Breton) represent- 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



55 



ation of magnificent space, over-reach of sky, the 
peculiar atmosphere indicating the close of day, the 
beautiful pose, and relationship of the figures to one 
another and the entire picture, and the child's care- 
free abandon born of a happy day in the open. 

Note For Teachers: 

Jules Adolphe Breton (1827-1906) like his great 
countryman Millet took for his subjects the common- 
place, every day events of peasant life. He works 
truthfully never over representing the material, or 
sentimental phases of the subject. 

There is grace and appeal in all his work and noth- 
ing of the morbid and heavy atmosphere sometimes 
shown in pictures of peasant life. 




IN OCTOBER 

By substituting plenty of good social opportunities 
at the school and meeting the pupils halfway, the 
school authorities succeded in getting the students at 
the West Chester, Pa., High School to give up vol- 
untarily the secret societies in the school. 



They believe in "class athletics" at Tacoma, Wash., 
the kind where all the members of a class take part. 
For the boys the contest is kicking the football for 
distance; for girls the event is throwing the basket- 
ball for distance. In 113 classes the entire member- 
ship without exception took part; and even in the 
upper four grades, where no effort was made to organ- 
ize all the classes, 65 per cent of the pupils partici- 
pated. 



A FINGER PLAY STORY 

THE SQUIRREL 
Carie L Wagner 
Here are the tall trees 
In the shady wood, 




THE TALL TREES 

These are the little nuts 

That grow so rich and good. 
The little squirrels live 

In these big hollow trees, 
Keeping snug and warm, 

And safe from winter's breeze. 




THE NUTS 

These are the pantries 

Dug into the ground, 
Where the little squirrels bring 

All the nuts that they have found. 
And in the sunny springtime 

When gentle rains tap down, 
The nuts the little squirrels left 




THE PANTRIES 

Come peeping through the ground. 
Then they grow and grow 

In all the sunny weather, 
Until they're tall trees full of nuts 

For the children and squirrels to gather. 




COME PEEPING THROUGH THE GROUND 





NEW GAMES, PLAYS AND PIECES FOR LITTLE PEOPLE 




WRITTEN FOR THE KINDERGARTEN 
PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




THREE SHIPS. 
Mary R. Campbell. 
Enter three boys with toy ships. 
First boy — 
Here's to the Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria, 

Columbus' ships that braved the Main 
Sailing west from Palos, Spain 
To prove the earth is round. 
Second boy — 
Hardships and trials did the men endure 

Before they finally saw bright land 
With strange men standing on the strand 
And Columbus called them Indians. 
Third boy — 

One ship was wrecked on the homeward way 
But the others filled with men and gold 
Arrived and many stories told 

Of all their strange adventures. 
All three boys — 
Three cheers, three cheers for Columbus true 
And for all great men whose deeds are brave 
"Who do not try their lives to save 
But follow the path of duty. 



PLAY FOR COLUMBUS DAY. 
Maey R. Campbell. 

(Ferdinand and Isabella on their thrones, chairs 
with a red drapery concealing them.) 
Enter Columbus and followers, bowing low. 
Columbus — 

most gracious majesties! 
Ferdinand — 

My wise men say your scheme is vain 

So your plan I must disdain; 

If as you say this earth is round 

No one could stay upon the ground. 
(Bows his head and looks very wise.) 
(Columbus looks sadly around and sighs.) 
Queen Isabella (stretches forth her hand.) 

1 have talked to the Abbot kind, 

And he has made me change my mind. 

Take these and these (dropping her bracelets and 
necklaces into Columbus' hat) and may you be, 

Successful in your quest at sea. 
Columbus and followers — 

Long live, long live Isabella the queen 

Such generous faith has seldom been seen. 

Long live, long live Isabella the Queen! 
All, (except Columbus, who bows as he listens) 

Here's to Columbus, so brave and so true, 

Who will soon sail west on the ocean blue 

To— find— the— land— of— India! 



Headed by king and queen all march around and off. 
One returns — 

Columbus safely made his voyage 

And now though he never knew it 

He discovered this land, the fair land of our 

[birth, 

The greatest nation on all the earth! 
(Displays flag.) 
All, except Columbus, return and sing America. 



COLUMBUS GAME. 

Laura Rountree Smith. 

(Book Rights Reserved) 

The children stand in a circle. They choose one to 

represent Columbus. The children all sing the verse. 

As they sing the fifth line of the verse, Columbus 

points to three children who become the Nina, the 

Pinta, and Santa Maria. These three children come 

inside the circle, and wave arms up and down as 

though sailing. The children now all repeat the 

song, marching round in the circle, waving arms 

up and down, and the children inside the circle skip 

round also. 

The song is then repeated, the children standing 
in the circle, and the three chosen as Nina, Pinta, 
and Santa Maria, choose three children to take their 
places, by pointing at any three children in the circle. 
The game m)ay continue as long as desired, or 
until all the children have had a chance to go inside 
the circle. 

It will be very pretty to dramatize the story of 
Columbus in connection with this game. 
The children sing the following song. 

Columbus Song. 
Columbus was a sailor boy, 

Many years ago, 
A great ship was the sailor's joy, 

Many years ago. 
The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria, 

Little vessels three, 
The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria, 
Sailed out across the sea. 



OCTOBER GAME. 
Laura Rountree Smith. 
(Book Rights Reserved.) 
The children stand in a circle. They choose Miss 
October who goes inside the circle. 

The children all march round the circle singing to 
the tune of "Twinkle Little Star." 

Round and round the ring we go, 

Merry children as you know, 
All the school-bells sing a song, 
Happy children march along. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



57 



The children now pause and face toward the centre 
of the circle. 
Miss October says," 

All the months go passing by, 
To tell my name now who will try?" 
One after another the children run inside the 
circle saying, "Is your name June?" "Is your name 
December?"" etc. 
Each time Miss October answers, 
"Guess again 'tis very plain, 
That you do not know my name." 
The children may keep on guessing until all the 
other months have been guessed, then one may say 
"Is your name October?" 

This child and Miss October will change places and 
the game continues. 

All the children clap hands and say, 
"The summer is over, 
You are merry October." 
To vary the game, or to end it, the children may 
again march around the circle singing, to the same 
tune, 

All the months are marching so, 

One by one they come and go, 
Winter, summer, spring and fall, 

You will find twelve months in all. 
If any child asks if the month is October, before all 
the other months are named, he must go out of the 
game. 

This game will help the children to learn all the 
names of the months. 



OCTOBER PLAY. 
(Miss October enters and scatters autumn leaves 
on the floor.) 
Miss October. 

I am merry October, 

That gay little rover, 

Jack Frost I'll call if you please, 

The fruits are all mellow, 

The leaves red and yellow, 

They wave in the late autumn breeze. 
(Enter Jack Frost) 

I am little Jack Frost, that gay little rover, 

Good morning, good morning to you, Miss October! 
Miss October. 

Good morning Jack Frost, good morning to you, 

Late in the autumn now, what can you do? 
Jack Frost. 

I'll paint the leaves upon the trees, 

And ripened nuts will fall, 

I'll freeze the little silver streams, 

"Good skating" the children will call! 
(They retire to one side of the room, enter children 
with baskets of nuts and apples.) 
1st. 

'Tis the fall of the year, 

Jack Frost has been here. 
2nd. 

He's a right merry fellow, 

See the leaves red and yellow! 



3rd. 

The skies are so clear, 

Miss October is here. 
4th. 

The chestnuts burst open, they're ripe, and so, 

We say Jack Frost has been here, we know. 
5tn. 

See the apples rosy and round, 

All the ripest apples I've found, 

Hurrah! for Jack Frost, that gay little rover, 

Hurrah! hurrah! three cheers for October! 
6th. 

Nuts are very good to eat, 

Children find them quite a treat, 

Hurrah! hurrah! the summer is over, 

Hurrah! hurrah! for merry October. 
(Miss October and Jack Frost come forward, and 
bow low.) 

Miss October and Jack Frost. 

Little children one and all, 

We heard your merry voices call, 

We will bring you happy days, 

While you sing October's praise. 
(All sing, swinging their baskets to and fro.) 
Tune, "Lightly Row." 

We will play, we will play, 

On a bright October day, 

We will play, we will play, 

Singing songs so gay, 

Welcome, welcome, we all sing, 

Merry days of fall or spring, 

We will play, we will play, 

Singing songs so gay. 



LITTLE HANDS. 
A Recitation for Boys and Girls. 

Laura Rountree Smith. 
Girls. 
Two little hands woke up one day, (hold up hands) 
Two little hands for work and play, 
They swept the room 'till the floor was bright 

(sweep) 
Two little hands so clean and white. 

Boys. 

Two little hands shook the old plum tree, (shake) 
Down fell ripe plums for baby and me, 
Two little hands clapped one, two, three, (clap) 
For we were happy as happy could could be. 

Girls. 

One little hand took a dinner pail, 
Swinging it to and fro, (swing right hand) 
One little hand helped to bounce the ball (bounce 
It was useful as you know. 

Boys. 

One little hand waved a friendly greeting (wave 

[hand) 
To a friend across the way, 
One little hand took off a cap, 
And bowed in a proper way. (hand to head) 

All. (holding up hands) 

Two little hands that work and play, 

Two little hands that we wash each day, 

Two little hands so clean and white, 

We will clasp them in prayer at night, (clasp hands) 



58 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




STORY OP AN APPLE. 
F. G. Sanders. 
67 Hazelton Ave., Toronto, Canada. 
Cutting of the bare tree in winter. 
Cut from black, use white chalk or crayon for snow, 
mount on blue or white. 



"You think I am dead, the apple-tree said, 
Because I have never a leaf to show 

Because I stoop, and my branches droop 

And the dull gray mosses all over me grow. ! 



Apple-tree, how did you grow? 

I came from a little seed. 

The seed was in the ground. 

The sun and the rain helped the seed. 

Little roots ran up from the seed. 

A little stem ran up from the seed. 

A little stem grew tall and strong. 

Birds came to the tree. 

Blossoms grew on the tree. 

Apples came from the blossoms. 

All came from a seed. 

(From Hall and Brambaugh Standard Primer. 



Cut blossoms from pink or white, the branch from 
black. 



"Bend down your branches, apple tree! 

Said little May," 
"With blossoms I must trim each twig, 

And I've not long to stay." 



Tell the story of Johnny Apple Seed. 



The old man who saved all his apple seeds, and 
with his stick dug a hole and planted them all through 
the state where he lived, so that many lived to bless 
him for his good gifts. 



Cut barrel from black and mount on white, or cut 
barrel from white and mount on black. 

Cut apples from red, yellow or green. 

Apples in the orchard mellowing one by one. 

Tell stories of packing, storing and shipping the 
apples. 

What countries they grow in. 

What used for. 

Names different kinds of apples. 

End of the apple. 

Apple pie. 




THE COI 



ITTEEof THE WHOLE 



CONDUCTED BY BERTHA JOHNSTON 

THIS COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE, of which all Subscribers to the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine are members, will consider those various prob- 
lems which meet the practicing Kindergartner — problems relatirvg to the 
School-room proper. Ventilation, Heating, and the like; the Aesthetics of 
School-room Decoration; Problems of the Physical Welfare of the Child, in- 
cluding the Norma], the Defective, and the Precocious; questions suggest- 
ed by the use of Kindergarten Material, the Gifts, Occupations, Games, Toys, 
Pits; Mothers-meetings; School Government; Child Psychology; the relation 
of Home to School and the Kindergarten to the Grades; and problems re- 
garding the Moral Development of the Child and their relation to Froebel's 
Philosophy and Methods All questions -will be -welcomed and also any 
suggestions of ways in which Kindergartners have successfully met the 
problems incidental to kindergarten and primary practice. All replies to 
queries will be made through this department, and not by correspondence. 
Address all inquiries to 

MISS BERTHA JOHNSTON. EDITOR, 

389 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y- 



The catastrophe now overwhelming Europe is so 
much in the public mind that, to offset the glamor of 
war in the minds of the older children, it is perhaps 
just as well to let them understand in a small meas- 
ure, how, when one nation is affected by good or 
evil, the entire world to greater or less extent, is 
affected also. What will perhaps appeal to the child- 
ren more than any other fact, is that the toy market 
is hard hit. Most of our finest as well as our cheaper 
toys come from Austria, Germany, and Russia. For- 
tunately, they are usually sent over about six months 
before Christmas, and one consignment had already 
been shipped in the "President Lincoln" just before 
war was declared. Its cargo is the last received. Doll- 
houses, china toys, and mechanical toys come largely 
from Germany and Austria, and innumerable woolly 
lambs and Noah's Arks and tiny villages as well. 
Santa Claus will therefore, have a difficult task in 
supplying all the needs of the children, as our own 
workmen will have to be called upon and they have 
not the skill which the Europeans have acquired by 
many years of experience. 

Do not let the children rest, however, in a mere 
selfish regret as to their own possible losses. Awaken 
their sympathy for the people abroad, who, being 
unable to find a market for their toys will have to 
suffer want and distress; many little children may 
have to go hungry because unable to sell the toys 
they have helped to make. 

The teacher naturally wishes to utilize every op- 
portunity for making the children realize their 
privileges afforded by the schools, both public and 
private, and what they lose if they miss a single 
day while school is in session. 

Therefore, while this terrible war is in progress, 
tell the children Daudet's wonderful little story called 
"The Last Lesson," and which is to be found in a 
volume of his short stories entitled "Monday Tales." 

The story recounts how a little Alsatian boy starts 
for school one fine day, and then, thinking of the hard 
lesson in participles before him, is tempted to play- 
ing truant. However, he changes his mind and goes 
to school. Approaching, instead of the wonted hub- 
bub, amidst which he hoped to creep unnoticed to 
his seat, there is an unnatural stillness, and entering, 
he finds all quiet, and the teacher dressed in his 



holiday suit, while some of the important people of 
the small village are seated upon the platform. The 
teacher, seriously but kindly, tells little Franz to take 
his seat and then explains to the children that this 
is the last day they may ever have their lessons in 
their beloved and beautiful French tongue. The vil- 
lage has been captured by the Germans and tomorrow 
a German pedagogue will take charge of the school 
and henceforth all their lessons will be in another 
language than their own own. 

Oh, how little Franz regrets the many days he has 
played truant and how industriously and zealously 
all of the children perform their exercises that day. 
In writing, every letter is made with such care! And 
each recitation in grammar, geography, reading is 
done as perfectly as possible. But alas, little Franz, 
in his sorrow, bungles over his participles, and the 
teacher understands and expresses his own regrets 
for the days when he himself has not come to school 
and reproaches the parents for their neglect in some- 
times permitting the children to be absent. 

Twelve o'clock comes, farewells are sadly said, and 
the teacher, turning to the board writes for last time, 
"Vive la France!" 

In telling this little story at the present juncture, in 
order to keep strictly to the spirit recommended in 
President Wilson's advice as to neutrality and the 
avoidance of antagonism between citizens of dif- 
ferent races, we would suggest that the names of 
countries be omitted and the statement merely made 
that two countries had been at war, and this event 
happened in one captured village, the teacher nnallly 
writing on the board, "Long live our country!" ' 



COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE. 
Practical Self -Examination. 

In the New York Evening Sun recently, Eleanor 
Gilbert tells of a business firm that charts each one 
of its employees, the applicant giving also an estimate 
of himself, and every six months the records are gone 
over to learn what improvements have been made 
and who are eligible for promotion or dismissal. We 
commend to our teacher-readers some of the points 
listed on this chart, which may help them to study 
themselves and to decide in which ways they may 



60 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



strengthen themselves mentally, physically, morally. 
Here are some of the qualities noted: 

Physical qualities of applicant: 
Age, height, weight, complexion, condition of 
teeth. 

Mental qualities: 

Ambition, energy, industry, persistence, accuracy, 
promptness. 

Other qualities: 

Fair spirit, loyalty, cheerful, what progress made 
in last year? Condition of eyes, neatness, 
carriage, striking physical characteristics, 
what kind of first impression made? What 
marked ability? Imagination, foresight, cre- 
ativeness, open-minded or obstinate? Detail 
worker? 

It is well to frequently take stock of yourself and 
qualities, and we hope this extract may assist many 
an aspiring teacher to self-knowledge that will lead 
to a successful career. 

A graduate of one of the colleges for girls, and 
herself an educator, in a recent report criticises col- 
lege graduates as walking badly, stooping being 
hollow-chested and indulging too freely in provin- 
cialisms and slang. This suggests some of the lines 
along which the teacher may criticise herself in mak- 
ing out her own personal chart. 

On her way to market, the editor passed two 
little tenement-house girls, one wearing a yellow 
tissue-paper cap, wings and girdle, and the other sim- 
ilar accessories, that were pink in color. One of 
their playmates left them and as she caught up with 
us, we queried. "Can you tell me if those winged 
creatures are butterflies or fairies? I cannot quite 
tell." Although I was a stranger she at once fell in 
with the spirit of the occasion and readily replied, 
"Oh, the yellow one is a butterfly, and the pink one 
a fairy." 

The Binghampton press (N. Y.) , in its issue of 
Aug. 11, gives a column to a graphic description of 
the children's department of the Public Library, 
which department is in charge of Miss Ursula John- 
stone, the idol of the children. 

The 3,000 volumes which compose the children's 
library are classified in various sections, one of which 
is known as the "Clean Hands Case." "This is a 
collection of finely bound, beautifully illustrated 
books, secured at no small expense, which are not 
allowed to be taken from the library and which may 
be obtained for perusal in the reading room, only 
after the youngsters have presented their hands for 
the board of censorship inspection. These, according 
to the law of the room must have recently undergone 
a change from the normal color. They must be clean 
and must be passed upon by the board of censor- 
ship, which is Miss Johnstone. 

"Little tots," she says, "will hustle in, and with- 
out saying a word, extend their hands, palms up, 
on my desk, for approval. If they are clean, I nod, 
and they tiptoe around to my left and gingerly take 
down a coveted book. When in the course of time a 
volume does become slightly soiled it is removed 



from the "clean hands case" to the regular shelves." 

It is interesting and important to learn of the 
fascination that United States history has for the 
little foreign-speaking children. German, Slavs, Rus- 
sians, Italians, they read the lives of the presidents, 
war stories, and semi-political works, in fact every- 
thing in American history they can get. Here is 
a hint for the public school teacher. 

Miss Johnstone has accomplished good work, as 
have librarians in other places, by lecturing to wo- 
men's clubs on the literature which should be put 
into the hands of children. The grade teacher, or 
country school teacher, can make the subject of the 
children's reading a bond to link her with the home. 
She can help the parents to feel the need of guiding 
the children's taste in literature. 

From the New York Times we quote an editorial 
which we commend to the teachers of all grades in 
every kind of school in our beloved country. It 
speaks for itself. 

THE HOMING TEACHERS. 

There are no exact figures of the American teach- 
ers who went abroad this year early in July, but they 
must run up high among the thousands. They are 
beginning to return now, with experiences they had 
not counted on, and for many with a change of out- 
look upon the world such as no like class has ever 
won. Most of them are women, since the great body 
of teachers in the United States are women, and 
since women are more eager, adventurous, and ef- 
ficient as travelers than men in like calling. A very 
large proportion of them are young, because in the 
younger women of late years the desire for travel, 
the sense of its value in their profession, has nota- 
bly extended, as well as the self-reliance which 
foreign travel demands and instills. 

They are beginning t6 come back, like the beggars 
in the nursery rhyme, "some in rags and some in 
tags," but mighty few "in velvet gown." Many are 
coming in the steerage, as did multitudes of the 
children with whom they deal and their parents. 
Some are coming in crowded cabins or taking such 
rest as they can get on sofas, cots, and chairs. If 
the weather on the sea be bad, they will be huddled 
in comfortless quarters under very disagreeable con- 
ditions. Most of them are weary with hardship and 
mordant anxiety. Many have lost baggage, others 
are pinched for means and return to face a period 
of sore embarrassment, possibly of real privation. 

Yet we venture to think that the great body of 
them are cheerful, stout-hearted, and with plenty of 
energy to take up their wonted task with a new and 
broader notion of its obligations and its opportuni- 
ties. They have seen and shared conditions in the 
various lands from which or across which they fled 
toward home and safety of which they had never 
dreamed. But in these conditions, to some degree, 
their pupils and the families of their pupils always 
have lived, and from them they have escaped to seek 
permanent freedom in America. The suffering is 
more intense and general, but it is always present, and 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



61 



under conditions in several European countries is 
likely to become acute as well as chronic. The 
teacher who takes up next month the care of the 
crowding children of those who are always "refuge- 
es" — a s the teacher for a time was a refugee — will 
look upon them with different and more seeing eyes. 
She will apprehend, as she could not before, their sore 
and persistent needs, their heavy handicap, their 
pathetic but not hopeless shortcomings. To her study 
of them to her efforts to guide and sustain them, 
there will be added the precious force of sympathy. 
And apart from this result of the distressful ex- 
periences of our teachers there will be the fact that 
they have had a severe but rewarding lesson in the 
stern school of reality. They have many of them been 
engaged in their calling in what we call the science 
of civics, one aim of which is to show the influence 
of political institutions on the daily life, on the wel- 
fare and advance of citizens. They have now seen 
and felt what is the influence of institutions one of 
the main objects of which is to train citizens for 
destructive warfare to hold them, ready for such 
warfare on sudden call, and meanwhile to load 
and cripple them with the vast burdens of prepara- 
tion for war. Our teachers will have learned, 
we are sure, that the "civis" of our towns and States 
and nation cannot compare in importance with the 
study of the affairs of the world and the intolerable 
conditions under which scores of millions have to 
live. The pomp and circumstance of glorious war as 
it pervades our textbooks and our literature will be 
obscured by the poignant sense of what the scourge 
of war means to the common people, the unnumbered 
toilers among whom, in their flight to secure homes, 
they have passed. The generation of American 
citizens who next month pass under the charge of 
these returning teachers will, we are confident, be 
trained, consciously or unconsciously, in a spirit 
made broader, clearer, more helpful by the exper- 
iences of this Summer. 



We have had kindergartens in our city for a good 
many years. We would hardly know how to main- 
tain a public-school system without them. If all 
home conditions were ideal and children could have 
free play and outdoor exercise until they were 6 
years of age, the need of the kindergarten would 
not be great. But no such conditions exist in any 
city. The kindergarten, therefore, supplements the 
home. It gives training in how to work and how to 
play in such a way as to be of value in the future 
work, and in addition to this it also supplements 
what in many cases is a meager home life. 

C. Edward Jones. Albany, N. Y. 



PIANO LESSONS FOR THE TINY TOTS. 
Laura Rountree Smith. 

(The following article will answer many questions 
in regard to First Piano Lessons at Home — the new 
system of teaching the piano to children of kinder- 
garten age, by means of daily ten or fifteen-minute 
lessons and no practice.) 

First Piano Lessons at home, by Anna Heuermann 
Hamilton is the most original and interesting method 
of teaching music to children and beginners. It ap- 
peals to me as a splendid method of teaching pharas- 
ing, rhythm, and reading notes. The method of 
counting is specially good. 

I am interested in the remarks made on every 
page; they can not fail to interest the child and help 
the teacher. New elements are introduced in this 
charming manner; as on page 19; "And here is Mr. 
Thumb. He is a very necessary worker and we are 
glad to welcome him." And again on page 25: 
"High E thinks he can sing better than Low E. Do 
you think so? And here is P on the top line." 

The selections are easily played and melodious 
throughout. The books are based on the psycho- 
logical principle of "Proceeding from the Known to 
Unknown." The facts of music are introduced so 
gradually that they will not confuse the child's mind. 

The writing books present such an interesting ap- 
pearance I find I should like to use them and begin 
music study all over again. 

The books are especially adapted to the needs of 
the kindergarten teacher. No progressive kinder- 
garten teacher can afford to be without them. They 
will be an invaluable help to country teachers, pro- 
viding them helpful material; and to mothers who 
wish to help their children at home. They will 
make the children familiar with the position of notes 
on the staff, and' give much more than a "speaking 
acquaintance" with many characters in Music Land. 

They are, in my opinion, the best books of the 
kind on the market. 



Kindergartens for colored children are being ad- 
opted in different parts of the South as one of the 
agencies for improving social conditions that have 
troubled two generations. 



IMPORTANT POSITIONS OPEN. 

Examinations for important positions in the United 
States Bureau of Education at Washington will be 
held during September and October. 

The places to be filled are: Specialist in Industrial 
Education, at $3,500; specialist in educational sys- 
tems, $1,800; specialist in school and home gardening, 
$3,000, with an assistant at $1,600; specialist in home 
economics, $3,500; specialist in agricultural educa- 
tion, $3,500; translator, $1,800; and assistant in rural 
education, $1,800. Women are desired for the posi- 
tions of specialist in home economics, specialist in 
educational systems, assistant in school and home 
gardening, and assistant in rural education. The 
other positions are open to men. 

Full information as to date and place of the ex- 
aminations may be obtained from the Civil Service 
Commission, Washington, D. C. 



Take the world as it is, not as it ought to be.— 
German. 



HINTS^ESUGGESTIONS for rural teachers 

CONDUCTED BY GRACE DOW 

DEAR RURAL TEACHER-— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
rural schools and rny subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope i9 to assist you to secure better results with the small children, and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
to use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc . , will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 



OCTOBER 1914. 

Leaf Booklet 

"October gave a party; 

The leaves by hundreds came, 
The chestnut, oaks and maples, 
And leaves of every name." 

The month of October is an excellent time for the 
study of leaves; owing to the variety of colors the 
children are usually more interested in gathering 
them than at any other season of the year. These 
may be made useful and profitable busy work for 
the month, and the work may be completed by 
having each child prepare a booklet with his best 
work to take home. 

Have each child gather a number of different 
shaped leaves and press carefully. Outline them on 
paper and use as a lesson in paper cutting, use if 
possible paper the color of each leaf. For another 
lesson we suggest that the outline be drawn upon 
drawing paper, and with colored crayon or crayola 
colored the same as the original leaf. 

The smaller leaves may be used in a border design. 

The materials needed for the booklet will be one 
sheet of drawing paper about 9 x 12 inches upon 
which to mount the leaves, and a sheet of construc- 
tion paper red, yellow, green, or brown of the same 
size for the cover. 

On one page fasten with glue a few of the pressed 
leaves, on another page the leaves cut from colored 
paper, and a third the leaves drawn and colored. 
These may be tied with ribbon the prevailing leaf 
colors. 

HOLLOWE'EN SUGGESTIONS. 

Kindly humor and harmless sport is what Hal- 
lowe'en should mean to all of us. Let us help along 
a reform in this line by training the children of the 
kindergarten to make it a season of harmless merri- 
ment and true jollity. 

This is a day when fairies are supposed to reign, 
and for a morning talk have the children relate some 
fairy story, also tell or read one from Hans Christ- 
ian Anderson, many of which are suitable for this 
purpose. 

In nearly every rural school the children will have 
little difficulty in providing themselves with pump- 
kins. Jack-o'-lanterns may be made, which may be 
used in games, and also as models for a lesson in 
drawing and coloring. 

Children may make caps of orange colored tissue 
paper, and decorate with shapes of pumpkins, brown- 
ies, witches, and cats cut from black paper. 



They will enjoy making brownies of horse chest- 
nuts and toothpicks, or potatoes and picks. 

To some this may seem like a waste of time when 
so much of real work is to be accomplished, but 
remember that the spirit of the day is felt, and it is 
our duty to make it in some way a benefit, and rob 
it of the element of lawlessness. 

SENSE TRAINING. 

The eye: — The teacher can do much to help her 
little folks to see, and thus greatly aid them in their 
later work in arithmetic and language. 

Tb.3 first exercises in sight training come through 
the use of color. Teach the primary colors first, and 
in their order in the spectrum. Have samples of 
colored paper and ask them to draw colors to match. 
Give them pieces of paper and have them bring 
something from home to match in color. 

Draw the six primary colors on the black-board, 
then erase one color, and ask them to find from their 
material the missing color. 

The ear: — Make very light strokes upon the desk, 
and see which ones can detect the sound. Call atten- 
tion to the ticking of the clock. Suspend pieces of wood 
and metal with cords, then strike them letting pupils 
name the material by the kind of sound. 

The hand: — The sense of touch may be cultivated 
by giving them objects to handle, asking then to de- 
termine temperature, texture, rough or smooth, rigid 
or flexible. They may be taught to give relative 
weight by feeling. 

The children will enjoy a game of recognizing by 
sense of touch. Place in a basket a large number 
of objects, toys, fruit, and vegetables. Blindfold the 
children in turn, and have them take out the objects, 
naming each. The ones who are able to recognize 
and name correctly the largest number are the 
winners. 

COLUMBUS. 

A little time on October 12th, should be given to 
the discoverer of our country. With the youngest 
pupils the exercises will be of more interest if given 
in story form. 

In Italy over four hundred years ago a little boy 
was born who later became very famous. At that 
time people living on the other side of the ocean 
did not know that this country where we live existed. 

Little Christopher spent much of his time on the 
wharves, and made friends with the sailors who told 
him wonderful stories of their voyages to far away 
countries. When he grew up he became a sailor. 

He thought there was a shorter and better route 
across the sea than the one usually traveled. He 
had no ships, nor money to hire sailors to go with 



THE KINDEBGARTEN-PKIMAKY MAGAZINE 



53 



him. His own country refused to help him. He 
asked the king and queen of Spain for help, and they 
after many years of waiting, provided him with three 
small vessels and one hundred twenty men to take 
this trip across the ocean. 

After many weeks Columbus saw signs of land, on 
the water a stick of wood or branch of a tree, and 
sometimes birds flying in the air. 

On the morning of October 12th, they landed. This 
land that they reached was our country, and was later 
called America. 

"Who was it who first waved a flag on this soil? 
Who to as it who cared not how painful the toil? 

Columbus, Columbus, with soul great and true! 
The heart of our nation beats fondly for you." 

Paper Cutting — The study of Columbus will furn- 
ish some excellent work in paper cutting ,and folding. 
They may cut circles to represent the earth, a boat 
as in time of Columbus, sailors' caps, birds seen on 
the journey, Indians who were found there; their 
bows and arrows, wigwams, drinking cups, etc. 

Related Pictures — Place one or more before the 
children in connection with this study. 

Departure of Columbus. 

Columbus at the Court of Ferdinand and Isabella. 

Columbus on the deck of the Santa Maria. 

Landing of Columbus. 



WORK WITH KINDERGARTEN BEADS 

The advantages of the little half-inch kindergar- 
ten spheres, cubes, and cylinders inprimary school 
work are manifold. 

We very much doubt if there be anything in the 
line of kindergarten material which can be used more 
successfully for really profitable busy work than these 
kindergarten beads. Even the smallest and dullest 
child can do something with them without instruc- 
tion, and with a little guidance they can be made to 
serve efficiently, especially in acquiring knowledge of 
form, color and number work. 

The beads are furnished plain and also in the six 
primary colors; they can be used over and over again, 
and never wear out. 

The little one who enters the school for the 
first time can be made to feel at home in his new sur- 
roundings very quickly if given a shoe string and a 
little box of these beads. 

It may be well at first, after showing him how to 
place them on the string, to let the child play with 
them without instruction. Later he can be taught 
to do the stringing after the following order: 

With a view to teaching color, first ask him to 
select all the beads of one color, by name or not, and 
place them on the string together. Then all of another 
color, and thus continue all through the six principal 
colors. He may then be required to place one of one 
color and one of another color, following this rotation 
throughout. Then two of one color, one of another 
color: two of one color and two of another color. Two 
of one color and three of another color. Thus he will 
be taught number work unconsciously. 



This work can be continued almost indefinitely. 
He may also be taught to place the beads on in 
spectrum order, namely — red, orange, yellow, green, 
blue and violet, repeating until the string is full. 

In taking up the study of form it is better to use 
the plain beads. Beginning with the sphere: let him 
select all of that shape, then all of the cubes, then all 
of the cylinders. Then let him alternate with the 
sphere, cube and cylinder. 

He can then be given the colored beads, and 
taught to divide them both by color and by form, after 
the manner indicated above. Thus he may be taught 
to string two red spheres, one red cube, two red cubes, 
one red sphere, two orange cubes, one yellow sphere, 
etc. 

The teacher will understand how these combina- 
tions can be carried on almost indefinitely. 

The rural teacher who has many grades in her 
room and finds herself on a rainy afternoon with a lot 
of restless little ones will find these beads very helpful 
and wonderfully efficient in bringing order out of 
chaos. 

Instructions for the entire class or room can be 
given verbally, or if time will permit whispered to 
each pupil, which will prove more effective. 

No kindergarten exercise should be continued too 
long or repeated too often, or the interest will lag. 

If it is desired to teach number combinations, after 
working with the beads awhile, other material can be 
introduced, as sticks, slats, cubes, or tablets, etc. 

The one unsatisfactory feature about the stringing 
of beads is that the work which the child performs 
cannot be retained permanently. 

To overcome this disadvantage, seeds, nuts, shells, 
etc., can be substituted, and gathered by the pupils in 
the summer or fall without material expense. Many 
flower seeds, melon and citron seeds, sunflower seeds; 
also peas, beans, redberries, etc., can be used for this 
purpose. 

Many of the seeds can be perforated easily after 
being soaked. 



Kindergartens have been maintained throughout 
the city of Newton about 20 years, and are accessible 
to practically all children in the city. We believe the 
kindergartens to be a valuable department of our 
public educational system. Two years ago I made 
formal inquiry of all the first and second grade teach- 
ers regarding the value of kindergarten training as 
they observed it in the children that came to them. 
About three-fourths of all children entering our 
primary grades have spent from a year or a year and 
one-half to two years in the kindergarten. The replies 
of our first and second grade teachers to my inquiry 
were practically unanimous in favor of the kinder- 
garten training. 

F. E. Spaulding. 

Newton, Mass 



A boaster and a liar are cousins. 



The dog that means to bite doesn't bark. 



64 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




PATTERN FOR OCTOBER BOOKLET 

MARGUERITE B. SUTTON 



DIRECTIONS FOR THE PUMPKIN 
BOOKLET 

Use a piece of ordinary school drawing paper 6 1-4 
inches by 3 1-4 inches. Draw a faint dotted line 
through the center of the paper where the booklet is 
to be folded, and on the right side draw the outline 
of a pumpkin, as pictured. With heavy lines draw 
in the eyes, nose and mouth. Color the pumpkin 
orange with black eyes, nose and mouth. After colors 
are dried cut around the outside of the pumpkin, 
and fold on the center line. 

This booklet may either be used for spelling folder 
or invitation booklet. 



KINDERGARTEN APPRECIATION 

F. H. Beede, New Haven, Conn. — We have had 
kindergartens in New Haven for twenty years and 
I believe strongly in the value of their work. In 
this line of work, as in any, mistakes will be made 
and mistakes have been made; nevertheless, the 
main work of the kindergartens is, in my opinion, 
wholesome and useful. Fifteen years ago, first 
grade teachers preferred to have children directly 
from the home, without previous school experience, 
rather than to have children from kindergartens. 
Their feeling was that kindergarten children had 
not learned prompt obedience and the formalities 
of school routine. Today probably every first-grade 
teacher in our city would prefer to have kindergarten 
children. Their testimony is that these children 
have more initiative, more experience, a larger fund 
of school information, and a habit of doing school 



work in conjunction with other children. Their so- 
cial instinct has been developed. The old-fashioned 
teacher who wants mainly to "hold down" school 
children does not want kindergarten children. The 
up-to-date teacher whose thought is to develop her 
children, to enlarge their power of initiative, and to 
develop responsiveness on their part, asks every 
time for kindergarten children. 



C. E. Chadsey, Detroit, Mich. — My experience 
with kindergartens now extends over a period of 
years, both in Denver and in Detroit, and I can 
express myself most emphatically in favor of very 
liberal expenditures for kindergarten purposes. 
While the results of the kindergarten are not always 
tangible, that is, they can not always be measured 
with reference to the specific work accomplished in 
the elementary grades, I am convinced that the 
general value to the child through increasing his 
stock of general emotions, particularly with refer- 
ence to his social relations with his fellows, justi- 
fies the expenditure incurred. 



Gather ye rosebuds while ye may, 

Old Time is still a flying; 
Arid that same flower that blooms today, 

Tomorrow shall be dying. 

— Herrick. 



J would not enter in my list of friends, 

(Though grac'd with polish'd manners and fine 

sense, 
Yet wanting sensibility), the man 
Who needlessly sets foot upon a worm. 

— Cowper. 



Jenny B.[ Merrill, Pd.D. 

Ex-supervisor New York Kindergar- 
tens, and special lecturer on education- 
al topics, can be secured for a limited 
number of addresses to teachers or mo- 
thers, at points not too remote from 
New York City. Her subjects are the 
following: 

'Present Day Modifications of the 
Kindergarten. 

"The Report of the Committee of 
Nineteen of the I. K. U." 

"How to Utilize the Results of Kin- 
dergarten Training in the First richool 
Year." 

'rimitive Knowledge, or the ABC 
of things.'' 

"The School of Infancy," "Montes- 
sori Methods." 

'The Home and the School Working 
Together " 
Address 
1 12East Slst St., New York City. 



THE STUDY OF 

INDIVIDUAL CHILDREN 

A System of Records, including a 
complete Child History, Medical 
Examinations, Physio-psycological 
and Mental Tests, Daily Regimen 
and Disease Record, also Case Dia- 
gnosis, Classification, etc. Sug- 
gested by 

MAXIMILIAN P.E.GROSZMANN 

This is a book that all kindergartners, 
teachers and others interested in child 
welfare, especially in slightly defective 
or atypical children who can be made 
normal through proper education, 
should be greatly interested in, The 
book gives the results of many tests 
and experiments covering years of ex- 
perience, dating back to the founding 
of the Groszmann School for Nervous 
and Atvpical Children founded by the 
author in 1900. Price 60c. Address 

National Association for the 

Study of Exceptional Children 
"Watchung Crest," Plainfield, N. J. 



HOME OCCUPATIONS 
EOR BOYS AND GIRLS 

By BERTHA JOHNSTON 

Contents:— 1. The Secrets of the 
Market Basket. 2, Mother Nature's 
Horn of Plenty. 3, Saved from the 
Scrap Basket. 4, The Sewing Basket. 
5, The Paint Box. 6, Dolls and Doll- 
Houses. 7, Plays and Games. 8, 
Festival Occasions. 9, The Key Bas- 
ket. 10, The Child's Library. U, 
Kindergarten Materials— The Gifts. 
12, The Occupations. 

Invaluable to Mothers'and 

Kindergartners. 

May be had of your book-seller or 

send 50 cents in stamps for a copy. 

Money refunded if not satisfactory. 

GEORGE W. JACOBS & CO., 

Publishers. PHILADELPHIA 



WANTED, back number of the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine for Janu- 
ary, 1907. Address Northern State Nor. 
School, Marquette, Mich. 



FOR SALE— Five bound volumes of 
the Kindergarten Magazine, beginning 
with the first number. Address, Nora 
A. Smith, Hotel St. Albans, 351 West 
28th St., New York City, N. Y. 




Jt 




A 


!>• 


Ifl 


r 



SEWING CARD SUGGESTIONS. 

Draw the designs large on card-board or strong heavy paper, perforate 
with large holes at convenient distances or have older pupils do it; and let 
the little ones sew the cards. Do not allow them to work too long at a time, 
thus avoiding eye strain. 



A 



**L*> 








STICK AND RING LAYING SUGGESTIONS. 

Many of the letters of the alphabet can also be made with sticks and 
rings. They are especialy adapted for flower and fruit forms. Let very 
simple forms be suggested at the beginning. 



FOR SALE— Two Paradise of Child- 
hood, quarter century edition, new, at 
$1.00, half price. J. H. Shults, Manistee, 
Mich 



WANTED— Back numbers of the Kin- 
dergarten Primary Magazine for June, 
1909. Address, Assistant Inspector of 
Schools, Trichinopoly District, Madras, 
India. 



WANTED— Back numbers of the Kin- 
dergarten Magazine, beginning with 
September, 1896, and ending with June, 
1897. Address. Mrs. Richard H. Wyman, 
512 Lee St., Evanston, III. 



WANTED— Back number of the Kin- 
dergarten Magazine, for January, 1913. 
Address, Assistant Inspectorof Schools, 
Eaujaeu District, Madras, India, 



66 



THE KlNDERGAftTEN-PMMAliY MAGAZINE 



COMENIUS OR KOMENSKY. 
By Mary E. Law. 

What sometimes has been charged against kinder- 
gartners that Froebel, the founder of the kindergar- 
ten, occupied their whole field of vision and that 
they did not do justice to the educators who preceded 
him and from whom he borrowed many of his funda- 
mental ideas. 

Perhaps that charge could scarcely be sustained 
at the present time for there are two or three great 
educators whom we must credit with influencing in 
a marked degree not only Froebel but the world at 
large. John Amos Comenius was one of these 
inovators. He was a Bohemian, born in 1592. His 
parents died when he was quite young and his early 
education was neglected. At sixteen he began the 
study of Latin at that time the key to all knowledge 
and culture. Being of mature mind be noted the 
difficulties of mastering the language by the old 
method and it was through this experience that he 
became a teacher. A few years later, after he had 
prepared himself for the ministry, he was appointed 
director of a parish school and he set himself to 
work to prepare a simple book in Latin. The book 
met with instant success and was translated into 
many languages. It was the custom in those days 
to educate the priesthood and nobility only by tutors. 
He suggested classes with one teacher and numerous 
cadets or pupil assistants. 

He recommended that all classes be educated, the 
poor as well as the rich; the girls as well as the 
boys; that they should study real things or science 
and he prepared some little text books upon physics 
and astronomy. He published the first illustrated 
school book, primer called the "Orbis Pictus," of 
the world in pictures. 

Later he published many books for schools, and 
finally a book on infancy for mothers. He arranged 
a graded school system. He established a school 
state or republic which was the forerunner of our 
modern school cities and student government. He 
recommended short hours, two in the morning and 
two in the afternoon. He objured the rod and severe 
and humilitating punishments of all kinds. He ad- 
mitted teaching the vernacular and the beginnings of 
things. He believed man should know all things. 
He was one of the greatest men of his time and was 
invited by England, Holland, Sweden and America 
to establish his new educational system in their lands. 
Harvard college solicited him, to found their new 
school on a scientific basis. One wonders where Amer- 
ica would be to-day had he accepted the invitation. 
All kindergartners can see where Froebel accepted 
all of these ideas and interwove them into the fabric 
of the kindergarten. It was Comenius who said, 
"We learn to do by doing." 



Books are men of higher stature, 
And the only men that speak aloud for future times 
to hear! 

—Mrs. Browning. 



PAPER TEARING AND CUTTING. 
By John Y. Dunlop, Glasgow, Scotland 

(See Illustration, Page 54) 

The work of the kindergarten is such that many 
little fingers can be actively employed in a paper 
tearing lesson. 

A great number of objects can be torn from mem- 
ory other in imitation of those from books. 

Paper tearing to make flags of other countries is 
very interesting and can be correlated with the other 
work. 

All the class need not be required to work on the 
same object but except in the free play period each 
child should aim at one like the picture or so like 
the teacher's drawing. 

When a particular good object has been torn it 
is advisable to pin it up on the wall. 

Young children are proverbially impatient and 
their interest lags unless the teacher shows that she 
means to preserve their work. 

The various flags shown with this article are the 
flags of England, Scotland and St. Patrick. 

The Union Jack, the flag of America in 1776 and 
the flags of France and Sweden. 

Fig. 1. Made of a piece of white paper 6 inches 
by 4 inches with a red St. George's cross mounted 
on both sides. 

Figs. 2 and 3 show how the red paper is folded be- 
fore being torn into the shape of Fig. 4. Fig. 5 
shows the pattern opened out. 

In Fig. 6 the colors of the flag is blue with a 
white St. Andrew's Cross. 

Fold as shown at Fig. 7. Fig. 8 shows the pattern 
torn and Fig. 9 shows it opened out. 

Fig. 10, St. Patrick's, is made up in the same way as 
the flag of Scotland. 

To make the flag of Britain cut or tear a St. 
George's cross, a St. Andrew's cross and several strips 
of paper to make the blue portion for the flag of 
Ireland. 

Fig. 12 shows the early flag of America and Fig. 13, 
14, 15, 16 and 17 shows the method of folding for 
the tearing of a five point star. 

Tear Fig. 17 on the dotted line then open out. 

In the flag of France I always like to work with 
6 inch by 3 inch paper; fold into four strips and tear 
one strip off. 

The creases now show the portion of the flag to 
blue, white and red. 

Tear pieces of colored paper and mount in position 
as shown at Fig. 18. 

In the flag of Sweden a blue ground is used then 
tear a yellow cross and a small yellow strip. 

Tear the small red triangular pieces by folding as 
shown at Fig. 21. 

Paste the cross first in position then add the tri- 
angular pieces on the top and bottom. 

Then paste the yellow and blue strips on the top. 

Many other flags could be added to this series but 
the teacher should be the best judge when the class 
have had enough of this subject and if more is re- 
quired a reference to a promgfamme of flags for 
other countries will supply their wants. 



BOOK NOTES. 

NEW AMERICAN MUSIC READ- 
ER No. 3, PART ONE. by Fred- 
erick Zuchtmann. Cloth, 150 
pages, price 35c. Published by 
the MacMillan Co., New York. 
The same methods of procedure 
are continued in the New Am- 
erican Music Reader No. 3 that 
characterize No. 2 referred to 
above. The voice is regarded as of 
first importance, and all songs 
and studies are in such keys and 
with such range that the head 
quality always employed in the 
high voice may be blended with 
the lower register without re- 
course to the harsh tones of the 
chest. 

PRIMARY HAND WORK. By Ella 
Victoria Dobbs, Assistant Profes- 
sor of Manual Arts, University of 
Missouri. Cloth, 124 pages, price, 
75c. Published by the MacMillan 
Company, New York. 
A helpful book, with many illus- 
trations. Its scope is indicated by 
the contents as follows: Paper 
Cutting and Poster Making; Book- 
lets; Criticism and Standards of 
Workmanship; The House Problem; 
The Village Street; Sand Tables 
and What to do with them; Ani- 
mals and Toys; Holidays, General 
Suggetions and Summary. 



These pictures can be cut apart and used in decorative work or given to the 
children. 



MOVING PICTURES. 

We sometimes have moving pic- 
tures in our room and this is how 
we do it. I took a strip of paper, 
several yards long and about twelve 
inches wide, and printed words on 
it about six inches apart. Then I 
took a large piece of pasteboard 
(the kind that comes between 
crackers) and cut two slits in it, 
about six inches apart and wide 
enough to slip the long piece of 
paper through. After putting the 
paper thro?h the slits I pasted the 
ends together and by pulling on 
the paper first one word and then 
another comes into view. The 
children name the pictures by giv- 
ing the words. They never tire of 
doing this. — Ella Mclntire In 
Primary Education. 



EDUCATIONAL NOTES 

The public schools of the United 
States have 495,000 teachers, and 
the private schools 80,000. 



Trees for beautifying school 
grounds are furnished free to rural 
schools in California by the Chico 
State Normal School. Chico will 
also send, on request, a man to lay 
out school gardens in rural com- 
munities. 



On account of the European war, 
the Fourth International Congress 
on Home Education and Parent- 
Teacher Unions, which was to have 
met at Philadelphia September 22 
to 24, was postponed to a date to 
be announced later. 












BLACKBOARD OR LANGUAGE SUGGESTIONS FOR OCTOBER-Laura Rountree Smith 



THE TREE'S SECRETS. 

Laura Rountree Smith 

(This play is to be given by a child representing 
the Tree and a smaller child. Several other children 
may stand behind them waving green branches.) 
Child- 
Here stands the tree so strong and tall , 
The tree has secrets from us all. (All whisper.) 
Tree — 

Listen carefully, my dear, 

Some of the secrets you may hear. (Hand to ear.) 
Child— 

Oh, tree, what do you whisper about? 
You have many secrets without doubt. 
Tree — 
I hold a nest with birdies two, (form nest with 

fingers). 
A wee little nest with eggs so blue. 



Child- 
Why do you whisper all the night long? 
Are you not tired singing your song? 

Tree — ■ 

Come, shake my branches, then you will see, 

(shake), 
Down fall the ripe apples, one, two, three. 
Child- 
Thank you, tree, so strong and bold, 
Some of your secrets you have told. 
Tree — 
I hold up my branches so happy am I, (hold hands 

up), 
When the stars come out in the evening sky. 

All- 
Wave your branches to and fro, 
Some of your secrets we all must know, 
Wave your branches to and fro, 
This is the way the tree will grow. 



BOOK NOTES. 

"BOBBY" by J. J. Bell. Cloth, 160 
pages. George H. Doran Co., N. 
Y. Net, $1.00. 

Amost delightful study of a small 
hoy and incidentally of his parents 
and a few other grown-ups. Writ- 
ten by the author of the "Wee 
Macgregor." It is as entertaining 
and as true to the life as its pre- 
decessor; the incidents unique but 
such as might happen in any fam- 
ily. The chapters are short and will 
be excellent reading for Mothers' 
Meetings, each one affording a text 
for more or less lively discussions. 
Altho somewhat spoiled, Bobby is 
a brave and loyal little soul, whom 
one must love despite his at times 
decidedly exasperating conduct. As 
an accurate study of childhood 
teachers will find "Bobby" an aid 
to a better understanding of the 
children under their care. 

"ME AND THE DOG." Verses by 
Fred Emerson Brooks. Artist 
Dan Sweeny, Hand-lettered by 
Mary Crete Couch. Published by 
Jo Anderson (owner of the dog) 
at his print-shop, Sacramento, 
Cal. Price four bits. Paper. 

A unique and artistic booklet, 
that will appeal to lovers of the 
dog. There are nine stanzas in 
praise of the dog, each accompany- 
ing a picture in ink drawing of 
the dog and his master, the head 
of the latter in each case being in 
half-tone and exaggerated in size. 
The drawings are clever and one 
feels at once the perfect rapport 
between Mr. Anderson and his pet. 
One picture shows him soliloquiz- 
ing before a mirror thus: 

"If dogs were fashioned after men, 
What breed of dog would I have 

[been? 
And would I e'er reserve caress 
Or be extolled for faithfulness 
Like my dog here? 
On the cover a real chain at- 
taches the dog to his kennel. 

NEW AMERICAN MUSIC READ- 
ER No. 2, PART TWO. by Fred- 
erick Zuchtmann. Cloth, 148 
pages, price 30c. Published by 
The MacMillan Co., New York. 

This is one of a series of Music 
readers under this title, published 
by the MacMillan Company, and 
which we can most heartily recom- 
mend. The general purpose of this 
and No. 2 is to present attractive 
songs for practice, to introduce new 
difficulties, one by one, at suitable 
intervals, with plenty of drill, and 
to apply the skill thus gained to 
the interpretation of songs, the mat- 
erial used for practice being drawn 
from and leading directly to the 
song itself, which is thus the source, 
the basis and the object of practice. 



These pictures can be cut apart and used in decorative work or given to the 
children. 











NATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE STUDY AND EDUCATION OF 

EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN 



An Eleemosynary Society incorporated under the laws of 
the State of New Jersey 

In connection with its broad national work for 
exceptional children, this Association has for many 
years been conducting a special institution for the 
POTENTIALLY NORMAL, though "different" child, 
known as 

HERBART HALL 



The objects of this institution are: 
1st. To determine the individual peculiarities 
and tendencies which make a given case 
vary from the average. 
2nd. To harmonize the child with its environ- 
ment and to adjust the environment to 
the child so as to permit creative self- 
expression. 
3rd. To direct all surrounding influences to en- 
courage those vocational aptitudes which 
will best prepare the child for independ- 
ent existence. 
Physical and mental tests, scientifically developed, 
are employed so that there is neither guess-work in 
the diagnosis of these exceptional types nor hap- 
hazard methods in their education. 

Many children puzzle parents and teachers. They 
do not respond to ordinary school or home instuc- 
tion. Unless taken properly in hand, they will become 
failures in life. 

(We do not treat feeble-minded, epileptic, degen- 
erate or low types) 

For full information address 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION S. 1 1 C. 

WALDEMAR H. GROSZMANN 

Secretary-General 

Plainfield.N. J. "WATCHUNG CREST" 



Statement of the Ownership, Management, Circula- 
tion, Etc. 

of KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE, published 
Monthly except July and August at Manistee, Michigan 
required bv the Act of August 24, 1912 

Name of Editor, J. H. Shults ; Post Office, Manistee, Mich 
igari; Managing Editor, J." H. Shults, Business Manager, 
J. H. Shults, Manistee, Michigan. 

OWNERS: (If a corporation, give names and addresses 
of stockholders holding one per cent or more of total 
amount of stock.) J. H. Shults, Manistee, Michigan; Grace 
Dow Manistee, Michigan. Known bondholders, mort- 
gages, and other security holders, holding one per cent or 
more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securi- 
ties: NONE, 

Signature of editor, publisher, business manager or owner. 
J. H. Shults. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this "30 day of Sept., 1914. 

F. H. Stone. Notary Public. 
(My Commission expires Sept, lst,1915.) 



The KINDERGAETEN-PBIMAEY MAGAZINE 
With the Kindergarten Review, now $1.25 a year, 
both for $1.85 



THE COAST LINE TO 

MACKINAC 

DETROIT, T TOLEDO, 

CLEVELAND, BUFFALO, j PT. HURON, ALPENA» 

NIAGARAFALLS. ^ ST. IGNACE. 

"THE LAKES ARE CALLING YOU" 

ARRANGE your vacation or business trip to include our 
. palatial lake steamers. Every detail that counts for 
your convenience and comfort has been provided. 

Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland, and Detroit 
and Buffalo. Day trips between Detroit and Cleveland 
during July and August. Four trips weekly from Toledo 
and Detroit to Mackinac Island and way ports. Special 
Steamer Cleveland to Mackinac Island two trips weekly 
June 25th to September 10th, making no stops enroute 
except at Detroit every trip. Daily service between 
Toledo and Put-in-Bay June 10th to September 1 0th. 

Railroad tickets accepted for transportation on D. & C. 
Line steamers in either direction between Detroit and 
Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland. 

Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet giving detailed 
description of various trips. Address L. G. Lewis, General 
Passenger Agent, Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company 

Philip H. McMillan, President. 

A. A. Schantz, Vice Pres. and Genl. Mgr. 




The Virginia Journal 
of Education 

Better Than Most and as Good as Any Pedagogical Magazine 

Stands for the highest ideals in the school and home, and meets the 
demands of the teacher, as well as others engaged in educational work. 

What Some Well-known Educators Say About This Journal : 

From California; ' '■ ~ * - iv 

"I appreciate very much the coming of the Virginia Journal of 
Education to our magazine table. It is one of the best, most lively, 
interesting and enterprising publications of the kind that I have had 
an opportunity to examine. Certainly it must exercise a great in- 
fluence for good among the schools of Virginia. I am particularly 
pleased at your efforts to improve school conditions, the grounds, the 
buildings and the interiors of your country schools. We have been 
trying to work in that direction, too, in this State. I hope you may 
long live to publish your journal and I most heartily congratulate you 
and the people of Virginia for the lively and creditable periodical 
that you are able to give them. " 

From Oregon: 

"I have received as much inspiration and benefit from' reading the 
Virginia Journal of Education as I have from reading any one of 
the numerous ones that come to my desk." 

From Kentucky: 

"I have been reading the Virginia Journal of Education with interest, 
and feel that it is one of the besteducational journals in the country." 

From New Jersey: 

"We regard the Virginia Journal of Education as among the most 
valuable publications received at this office." 

From Missouri: 

"I have been receiving the Virginia Journal of Education for some 
time and have greatly enjoyed reading it. It is an excellent paper 
and should be read by every teacher in the State. It is worth far 
more than your subscription price." 

From the Philippine Islands: 

"The variety of articles which appear in your paper each month, on 
school libraries, the decoration of school grounds and other topics, 
are of general interest. The Journal is well gotten up and appears 
to be doing good work." 

It is the official organ of the Virginia State Board of Ed- 
ucation, and is an excellent medium for advertising, as it 
has fully 5,000 regular readers. In addition several hun- 
dred complimentary copies are sent throughout the conn- 
try each month. 

Subscription Price, $1.00 

The Virginia Journal of Education 

Richmond, Va. 



THE TEACHER'S JOURNAL MAKE YOUR READING COUNT 



A WIDf-A-WAM PtmODICAL 

FOR 

PROGRESSIVE TEACHERS 

In matters of education, Indiana is in the lime light 
The new vocational law is revolutionary in its effects and 
the results will be valuable to all grades of progressive 
teachers no matter where they teach. 

The Teacher's Journal contains other features of interest 
to teachers everywhere. It is practical and has to do with 
the problems of "all teachers. 

SPECIAL OFFER 

Teacher's Journal (1 year) $1.00 

Pathfinder (weekly) l.OO 

Both Teacher's Journal and 

Pathfinder $1.35 

This is the most helpful combination ever offered teach- 
ers. We take subscriptions for all magazines at a very 
low rate. If you are interested write for special prices, 
Address, 

TEACHER'S JOURNAL CO. 

MARION, INDIANA 

Cheap and Excellent Books 

SONG KNAPSACK. 142 songs for schools, 10c; $1 
dozen. 

"PAT'S P' -x, 124 pp. All the music to the KNAP- 
SACK songs. Sweetest, sanest, jolliest song 
book made. Cloth, 50c. 

PRIMER OF PEDAGOGY, by Prof. D. Putnam 
Just what the times demand. Cloth 122 pp. 25c. 

MANUAL OF ORTHOGRAPHY AND ELEMEN- 
TARY SOUNDS, by Henry R. Pattengill. Up-to- 
date. 104 pp., 25c. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF U. S., by W. C. Hewitt. 
118 pp., complete, new, cloth, 25c; $2.40 per doz. 

MEMORY GEMS, 1000 GRADED SELECTIONS, by 
H. R. Pattengill. 143 pp., linen morocco finish, 
25c. 

MORNING EXERCISES AND SCHOOL RECREA- 
TIONS, by C. W. Mickens. New, 267 pp., 50c. 

PRIMARY SPEAKER FOR FIRST AND SECOND 
GRADES, by Mary L. Davenport. Fresh, 
elegant. 132 pp., 25c. 

OLD GLORY SPEAKER, containing 80 of the 
choicest patriotic pieces written. 126 pp., 25c. 

HINTS FROM SQUINTS, 144 pp. Hints comical, 
hints quizzical, hints pedagogical, hints ethical, 
hints miscellaneous. Cloth, 50c. 

SPECIAL DAY EXERCISES, 165 pp., 25c. 

Best medicine ever to cure that "tired feeling" 
In school. 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL, Lansing, Mich. 



Read This Course 

(Thirty-sixth C. L. S. C. Year.) 

Rambles and Studies in Greece. By J. P. Mahaffy, 
C. V. O., author of "Social Life in Greece," 
"History of Greek Literature," etc $1.50 

The Message of Greek Art. By Dr. H. H. Pow- 
ers, Pres. Bureau of University Travel, 125 
illustrations 2-00 

Studies in the Poetry of Italy: Roman and 
Italian. By Frank Justus Miller, University of 
Chicago, and Oscar Kuhns, Wesleyan University 1.50 

The Meaning of Evolution. By Samuel C. 
Schmucker. West Chester State Normal School, 
Pennsylvania • • • • 1-50 

"The Chautauquan: A Weekly Newsmagazine." Il- 
lustrated. Containing: 

Where Civilizations Meet: Round About Con- 
stantinople. By Frank Chapin Bray, Managing 
Editor Chautauqua Press. 

Current Events: "Highways and Byways" 
news perspective 2.00 

Total $8.50 

All Four Books (cloth bound) and the Maga- 
zine $5.00* 

♦Remit 30 cents extra for postage or prepaid express. 
"Collect" charges are more. 

Easy for Anybody, Worth While 
for Everybody 

If in doubt, send stamp for handbook of testimonials 

Address 

CHAUTAUQUA INSTITUTION 

Chautauqua, New York 

DON'T READ AT RANDOM 



la 



Are You Interested In 

THE SCHOOLS OF HAWAII? 

The Hawaiian Islands (formerly Sandwich Is- 
jnd«) have been since 1^98 an auionomousTprritory 
r>f the United States. The School System is thoroly 
modern thruout. from the numerous kindergartens 
to the Territorial College of Hawaii. 

For any information regarding- the schools or 
educational work of Hawaii, address 

HAWAII EDUCATIONAL REVIEW 

HONOLULU. - T. H. 



NURSERY X KINDERGARTEN STORIES 

Selections from distinguished authors with juvenile poems 
and songs included. Every story and poem illustrated. 380 
large pages, price $1.00. The Southern Teacher, which is 
a real live, up-to-date Educational Journal with departments 
in Current Events, Questions and Answers, etc., price $1.00, 
and Nursery and Kindergarten Stories both for only $1.50. 
Address 

THE SOUTHERN TEACHER 



COLLEGE STREET 



GRAYSON, KY. 



KINDERGARTEN SUPPLIES 

Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Construction 

Material 
WE ARE HEADQUARERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE. Send for catalogue. 

THOS. CHARLES CO. 207 N. Michigan Avenue., Chicago, 111. 




Headquarters for Temperance Supplies 

Books 

Song Books 

Leaflets on Scientific Temperance Teaching 

Story Leaflets 

The Young Crusader— Temperance paper for boys and girls; profusely illustrated; and aside 
from stories it contains splendid ideas for entertainments and selections for recitations — help- 
ful alike to teacher and pupil. Published monthly, 25 cents per year. 

Toots — An illustrated book of stories by Anna A. Gordon. Price 60 cents postpaid. Send for 
latest bulletin. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION 



Literature Building 



Evanston, Illinois 



American Primary Teacher 



Edited by A. E. WINSHIP 

Published Monthly Except July and A'igust 

An up-to-date, wide awake paper for the grades. Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography. New Work in the Grades, 
Drawing, Fables In Silhouette and other school room work. 

Send for specimen copy. 

Subscription, $1.00 a Year 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING CO. 

6 BEACON STREET. BOSTON 



The Childrens' Home Society of Ohio 

One of a Federation of 29 State Societies 




Help a Child 
Find a Home 



We invite applications from 
suitable private families for 
children of both sexes and all 
ages, but especially boys from 
one month to ten years old. 

For literature, blanks, etc., 
call or address, 

Dr. F. H. DARBY, 

State Superintendent 
Both phones Columbus,, O. 
34 West First Avenue 



AMERICAN EDUCATION THE SCHOOL CENTURY 



Of Albany, one of New York's leading educa- 
tional papers, $1.00 per annum, and the Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine, both one year, post- 
age prepaid in United States and possessions 



$1.30 



Of OAK PARK, III., a most helpful educa- 
tional monthly, $1.25 per annum, and the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine, both one year, pre- 
paid anywhere in United States and possessions 



$1.60 



KINDERGARTEN MATERIAL 

Send for our Price List 

AMERICAN KINDERGARTEN SUPPLY HOUSE 

276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 










INDEX TO CONTENTS 



Developing Method ..... 

General Suggestions for November Program 

How One November Program Developed Thankfulness 

The Tokyo Kindergarten Training School 

Blackboard Hints - 

The Child's Expression of Animal Life in the Kinder- 
garten ...... 

The Limited Express - 

Toy Making for the Kindergarten 

Patterns for Doll Houses .... 

The Committee of the Whole 

Thanksgiving Day ..... 

Study of a Picture - 

Mother Play "All Gone" 

A Beautiful Chain ----- 

Straight Line Cutting - - - . . 

A Pilgrim Play ---... 

A Thanksgiving Exercise 

The First Thanksgiving - 

Hurrah for Thanksgiving - 

The Kindergarten Gift Known as Rings, Correlated with 
some of the Kindergarten Occupations, .Adapted to 
Primary Grades - 

I Have a Little Heart of Gold 

Standards for Kindergarten Training 

Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers 

The Camel has Two Dreadful Humps 

A Finger Play — The Kindergarten 

Suggestive Gift and Occupation Lessons lor Primal') aad 
Rural Teachers ..... 

Ted's Ride 

The November Booklet .... 

Problems vs. Subject Matter as a BasiB for Kindergarten 
Curricula ...... 



Dr. W. N. Hailmann 

Harriet B. Dithridge 
Harriet B. Dithridge 



Dr. Je>my B. Merrill 
F. G. Sanders 
John V. 'Dun lop 
John Y. 'Dunlop 
Bertha Johnston 
Mai y E. Lava 
Mary E. Cot ting 
Bertha Johnston 

Carrie L. Wagner 
Laura Kountree Smith 
Edith Gray 



Lillian Claxton- North 
F. G. Sanders 
Luella A. Palmer 
Grace Doiv 
F. G. Sanders 
Carrie L. Wagner 

Alice C. Rodeiuald 
Marguerite Jl . JSutton 

Luella A. Palmer 



70 
71 
72 
73 
13 



78 
80 
si 
81 
82 
SI 
85 
86 
86 
86 
67 



87 
88 
si) 
93 
94 
94 

95 
96 
97 

99 



Have You A Quarter To Invest? 



Would you send 25 cents away if 
you knew yon would get back $75.00 
in a ?hort time? If you are a teacher 
you need to know the main points 
in present history quite as much as 
past history or arithmetic or lang- 
uage. If you are a citizen of a great 
country you need to be intelligent 
about the condition of the country. 
It is worth while to be considered 
intelligent— brighter than the ordi- 
nary person. Can you figure what 
it would be worth to you next year 
to be more intelligent? It will be 
worth $25.00 to you the poorest year 
you ever will see. 25 cents will bring 
The World's Chronicle Weekly, for 13 
weeks. Send for it today. This is one 
of the things an ambitious person 
ought to do. Thirteen weeks will 
show its real value to you. One man 
had to attend a meeting and on the 
way read the Chronicle. At that 
meeting he found the knowledge 
just gained was new to the others 
and marked him as a superior per- 
son. It meant much more to him 
than $25.00 — how much more, he has 
not figured out yet. Whybe ignor- 
ant of the most vital matters when 
so small a sum places them within 
your reach. The articles are written 
so you can understand them readily, 
and they put you in line for ad- 
vancement. 

On trial 13 weeks, 25 cents. ^Or send 
$1.00 for a full year. 

THE WORLD'S CHRONICLE, 542 S. 
DEARBORN STREET.sCHICAGO 



THE CLUB WOMAN'S MAGAZINE 




BOWIDEN BELLS 

FOR SCHOOLS 

From $8.00 to 825.00 

FOR CHURCHES 

From $25.00 to $125.00 

Write for free 

catalogue. 

AMERICAN BELL S 

FOUNDRY CO. 

Northville, Mich. 



WHITE MOUNTAIN 
=EDUCAT0R= 



LANCASTER. N. H. 

A new periodical devoted to 
Interests of education in Vermont 
and New Hampshire and all New 
England. 

Circulation extending through 
South and West. 

Terms: $1.00 a year. 

Advertising rates on application. 



THE KINDERGARTEN 

By SUSAN E. BLOW 

PATTY S. HILL 
ELIZABETH HARRISON 

This Report of the Committee of Nine- 
teen of the International Kindergarten 
Union should be carefully studied by 
every kindergartner who purposes to 
keep abreast of the times. ^ 

$1.25 postpaid. Address, 
J. H. Shults Co., Manistee, Mich. 



DUBLISHED monthly at Cincinnati, 0., 49 Bodmann 
* Building-. Contains articles of literary value to the 
general reader as well as the club woman. Full reports 
of National and State Conventions of important organ- 
izations appear during the year, and letters from club 
presidents and chairwomen of committees give des- 
criptions of the work being accomplished by the Gen- 
eral Federation of Women's Clubs; Suffrage Associa- 
tions: The Women's Christian Temperance Union; Pa- 
triotic Societies and miscellaneous clubs. Terms, $1.50 
per year, payable in advance. 



Address 



M. B. C0RWIN, Puk, *J*ss™*« 



Knows no Competitor. Published for 4 1 Years. Carefully edited 



-THE- 



N ATIONA L HUMANE JOURNAL 

"THE MAGAZINE WITH A MISSION" 

Representing 

The Anti-Cruelty and Humane Societies of the United States 

•'Speaks for those who cannot speak 
for themselves" 

Subscription price, one dollar per year, ten cents per copy. 

SPECIAL LOW RATES 

TO ADVERTISERS OF 

Notions, Novelties, Post Cards, Specialties, 

Supplies, General Mail Order and Agents' Goods 

FOR THE NEXT THIRTY DAYS 

160 N. Fifth Avenue, CHICAGO, ILL. 



THE LITERARY INSTITUTE 

The Dennison, COLUMBUS, OHIO 

PRODUCTIONS AT POPULAR PRICES 

Address, Speeches, Orations, Debates, Oulines, Programs, 

Sermons, Lectures, Essays, Poems, Sketches, 

Articles, Stories. 

The Oldest'and Best Literary Agency in the United States 

Write us your needs and ask for particulars. 



SOMETHING TO DO 

A MAGAZINE 
For Primary and Elementary teachers. It furnishes 25 kinds of 
useful and instructive things to do every month. Pronounced the 
most remarkable magazine of its kind ever produced. Edited by 
Henry Turner Bailey on the same high plane as the School Arts 
Magazine. 

SOMETHING TO DO--$1.00 A YEAR 

School Arts Publishing Company 

BOSTON, MASS. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergar ten 

Institute 



Class Rooms and 
Students' Residence 



GERTRUDE HOUSE, 

54 Scott St., CHICAGO. 



t 

Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course (two years), 

and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for 

Home-making Course, non-professional (one year). 

Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 

Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, 54 Scott St. 



NATIONAL 

KINDERGARTEN 

COLLEGE 

ELIZABETH HARRISON, Pres. 

Summer School June 1 6 to Aug. 8 

Kindergarten Course 

All Kindergarten subject's. jMontes- 
soii Methods. Art. Folk Dancing. 

Primary Course 

Primary Methods. Montessori Me- 
thods. Art. Folk Dancing. 

Credits applied on Regular Courses # 

For full information address 

Box 600, 2£»44 Michigan Blvd. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

2108 CONNECTICUT AVE. 

Kindergarten and Primary Courses 
A limited number of resident pupils 

MISS HARRIET NILE 

Successor to Miss LAURA FISHER 

Training School for Kindergartners 

Normal Course two years. Graduate 

and Special Courses. 
319 Marlborough st. Boston. Mass. 

EVERY KINDERGARTNER 

Who can read and play simple music 

correctly, can add to her usefulness 

and income. 

For particulars write to 

MRS. ANNA KEUERMANN HAMILTON 

FULTON, MISSOURI 
Author of First Piano Lessons at Home 



Kindergarten Teachers and Students 

will be interested in my investigation and study of 
the MONTESSORI METHOD IN ROME, and my 
practical adaptation of the Method to the American 
School for little children. I will be glad to send il- 
lustrated pamphlet on request. 
Mrs. J. Scott Anderson, Dircctoress,Torresd ale House 

Training course begins October 1st. 

AMERICAS MONTESSORI TEACHEft-TRAMKG SCHOOL 

Torresdale, Philadelphia, Pa. 



=PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL= 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

6 1 6-622 So. Mich. Boul. Chicago 

(New Location Ovelooking Lake Michigan.) 
DIPLOMA COURSE 2 YEARS 
Post-Graduate, Primary and Play- 
ground courses. Special courses by 
University Professors. Includes oppor- 
tunity to become familiar with Social 
Settlement Movement at Chicago 

Commons. 

For circulars and information address, 

BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER. Supt. 

Box 51. 616-622 South Michigan 

Boulevaul, Chicago, III. 

KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident homo for a limited number of 

students. 

Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Hlglnbotham, Pres. 
Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 
8AKAH B. HANSON, Principal. 
Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago ('diversities. 
For particulars address Bra B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 
've.. Chicago 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 

Richmond, V? 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 

Two years' training in Theory and 
Practice of Froebellan Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Conrse, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 

MRS. W. W. ARCHER. Sec. and Treas. 



THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 
Two vears normal curse accredited 
by State B"ard of Regents. 
SUMMER COURSES 
Pay be taken for Kindergarten Train- 
ing School and University credit. 
New York University, 
University Heights 

July 1, August 11 

For information address 

MISS HARRIETTE M.MILLS. Principal 

New York University 
Washington Square, New York City. 



Connecticut Fro cbe I Normal 

Kindergarten Primary Training School 
Academic, kindergarten, primary and 
playground courses, Boarding and day 
school. Extensive facilities for thor- 
ough and quick work. 14th year. Book- 
lets. State certificates. Address. 

MARY C. MILLS, Principal. 

181 West avenue. Bridgeport, Conn. 



GRAND RAPIDS KINDERGAR- 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 

NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 

MAY L. OGILBY. Registrar 

New Quarters, - 508 Fountain St. 

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 

Two Tears' Coarse of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WTLLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal. 
M» Peaebtree Street, ATLANTA, OA. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 1914 

1516 Columbia Road, N. W. WASHI NGTON, D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollock, Principal 

Teachers' Training- Course — Two Years 

Summer Training Classes at Mt. Ghatauqua— M ountain Lake Park- 
Garrett Co., Maryland 



The Elizabeth K. Matthews Kin- 
dergarten Training School 

Lucretia Court, - Portland, Ore. 

(Regular course two years. Theory and 
practice in private, public and settle- 
ment kindergartens. 
For circulars address 

MISS ELIZABETH K. MATTHEWS 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



THE NEW YORK 

KINDERGARTEN 

ASSOCIATION 

WILL OPEN A 

garten Training 

OCTOBER 1st, 1914 
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

MISS LAURA FISHER 

NORMAL COURSE, TWO YEARS 

OBSERVATION AND PRACTICE TEACHING IN 

THE KINDERGARTENS OF THE ASSOCIATION 

For Circulars address 

524 W. 42nd St., New York City 



Annie Coolidge Rust's 23rd Year 

Froebel School of Kindergarten 

|f nm o 1 ninecpe BOSTON, MASS 

mormai viasses PJEFrE building 
coplev SQ. 

Prepares for Kindergarten, Primary and 
Playground positions. Theory and practice 
strong. Special work under best educators. 
Graduates are holding valuable positions. 
Circulars. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

BfOHTBNSB M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

*4ie Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 826 Bull Street. 

Savannah, Qeorgla. 



Springfleld Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

Vearn' t'oiirne. Termn, $100 pflr year 

Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL. 
<rPBrNGFIE!L,D — LONGMEADOW. MASS. 



Kindergarten Training School 

Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association. 
Two Years' Course. For particulars ad- 
dress 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER 
86 Delaware Avenue - Buffalo. N. Y. 



■THE- 



Teachers College 

OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for all grades 
of teaching. Two, Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This College specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary and Intermediate 
Grade Teaching. 
Special classes in Public School Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art. and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

MRS. ELIZA A. BIAKER, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS. IND. 



COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

TWO YEARS' COURSE 

Instruction in Primary Methods. 

STUDENTS' RESIDENCE. 



SARA K. LIPPINCOTTi 
SUSAN C. BAKER • 



Principals 



2108 Conn. Ave 



Washington, D. C. 



Miss Hart's 



MINING SCHOOL 

For Kindergartoers 
3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses, Practice Kinder- 
gartens. Opens October 1st. 1914. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 

The Pines. Rutledtfe. Pa. 



■CLEVELAND- 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kindergarten Colleg-e 

2050 East 96th Street, Cleveland. Ohio 

Founded in 1894. 

Regular course of three years prepares 
for Kindergarten and Primary posi- 
tions. Lectures in Montessori methods 
with observation in Montessori School. 
Address, 

MISS NETTA FARRIS. Principal 




law froebel Kindergarten 
Training School and School 
of Culture for Young Ladies 

Forty Practice Schools. 
Medical Supervision. 
Certificate and Diploma 
Courses. 
2313 ASHLAND AVE. 
TOLEDO, OHIO 



Ethical Culture School 

Central Park West and 63d St. 

Kindergarten and Primary Nor- 
mal Training Department 

Prof. Patty S. Hill, of Teachers College, 

Educational Advisor and Instructor 

in Kindergarten Theory. 

Two years' Kindergarten course. Af- 
ternoon courses in Primary methods 
for Kindergarten teachers, leading to a 
Kindergarten-Primary diploma 
For particulars address 

CATHERINE J. TRACY 

Principal 

The NEWYORK KINDERGARTEN 

ASSOCIATION 

Offers unusual advantages for Graduate 

Study. 

SEASON OF 1914-1915 

PUBLIC LECTURES 

Subject 

MOTHERS' MEETINGS AND VISITING 

Miss Fanniebelle Curtis, Director ol Public School 
Kindergartens. 

GRADUATE COURSES 

DANTE'S DIVINE COMEDY 
GAMES KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

KINDERGARTEN GIFTS PROGRAM MAKING 

LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN 
TUITION FREE Apply for Prospectus to 

WilSS LAURA FISHER 

Director Department of GRADUATE STUDY 
524 W. 42nd Street, N EJV YORK CITY 

Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
Training School 

Child Welfare course one year. 
Regular course two years. 
Full course three years. 
Address 

LUCY WHEELOCK 

IOO Riverway, BOSTON 



Pratt Institute 

School of Kindergarten Training 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Normal Courses for Kindergarten, two 
years. Special Courses for Teachers 
and Mothers. Plays with Kindergar- 
ten and Supplementary Mate rial s. 
Kindergarten Games. Outdoor Sports. 
Tennis and Swimming. Gardening. 
Nature Study. Music, Voice and Pi- 
ano. Literature for Children. Sto- 
ry-telling. Educational Subjects. Psy- 
chology and Child Study. Practice 
Teaching and Observation inthe Kin- 
dergartens of Greater New York 

ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Fall term opens Sept. 23, 1914 



AGENCIES FOR KINDERGARTNERS AND PRIMARY TEACHERS 

HPHIS list of Teachers' Agencies is published for the benefit of our subscribers. It includes only those who claim to be able 

to secure positions for Kindergartners or Primary Teachers. We advise those in need of positions to write one or more 

■of these agencies for particulars. Even though nowemployed you may be able to secure a position in a larger or better school. 



The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teacher*, Tutors and 
School*. No. 120 Boylston street. 



THE REED TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Can place Kindergarten and Primary- 
Teachers in New York, New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania at good salaries. 

H. E. REED, Manager, Syracuse, N. Y. 
641 University Block. 



THE PRATT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Recommends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and'other^ teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advisee pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 
70 Fifth Avenue New York 



MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

Station A. Spokane, Wash. 
We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of rimaryand Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 



REGISTER WITH US. 

We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt., 
Principals, Teachers of Science, Math- 
ematics and Language. 

OHIO VALLEY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

A. J. JOELY. Mgr. MENTOR.. KY. 

ALBANY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Provides public and private schools 
with competent teachers. 

Assists teachers and kindergartners 
in obtaining positions. 

81 Chapel Street, ALBANY. N Y. 



THIS IS THE TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR OF 

The CLARK TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Which proves conclusively its 

standing. Try them. Address, 

Steinway Hall, Chicago; Lincoln, Neb. 

Spokane, Wash. 



-THE 



NORTHWESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

310-311 PKOVTDENCE BUILDING 
DULUTH. MINN. 



RELIABLE TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Trained rimary and Kindergarten 
Teachers needed. Good positions, er- 
manent membership. Write to-day. 
612-613 Majestic Building, 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 



INTERSTATE Teachers' Agency 

501-503 Livingston Building, Rochester, 
N, Y. Gives special attention to plac- 
ing Kindergarten and Primary Teach- 
ers in all parts of the United States. 
T. H. ARMSTRONG, roprietor. 



SOUTHERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

COLUMBIA, S C. 

There is an increasing demand for Pri- 
mary Teachers and Kindergartners 
throughout the South. Our agency is 
one of the largest and best known in 
this splendid territory for teachers. Ask 
for booklet, A LAN. 
W. H. JONES. Manager and Proprietor. 



WESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY SEES 

We wantKindergarten, rimary, Rural 
and otherteachers for regularor special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit- 
erature and enroll for the coming year. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manager, 



The J.D.EnglcTcachcrs ? Agency 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

A Placing Agency for Teachers. Estab- 
lished 20 years. Register for Western 
Kindergarten-Primary positions. Send 
for circular 



DEWBERRY 

SCHOOL 
AGENCY 

1892-1914 



CPECIALLY trained Kindergarten and Primary 
^ teachers in demand in the best schools through- 
out the South and Southwest. Teachers interested 
should get in touch with us. 

Address, K. A. CLAYTON, Manager. 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA 



HIGHEST SALARIES-BEST OPPORTUNITIES KMntWe 

need KINDERGARTEN, PRIMARY and other t-achers for private and public schools. 
Write for "POSITION AND PROMOTION PROBLEMS SOLVED." No Regis- 

tr.tior.fee, WESTERN REFERENCE & BOND ASSOCIATION, 

667 Scarrett Building, KANSAS CITY, Mo. 



WESTERN POSITIONS FOR TEACHERS 

We are the agency for securing positions for Teachers in Colorado, Oklahoma, 
South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, California, Nebraska, Nevada, 
Arizona Montana, Kansas, Idaho, Utah, North Dakota, and New Mexico. 
Write us to-day, for our Free Booklet, showing how we place most of our teach- 
ers outright. Our Booklet, "Mow to Apply for a School and Secure Promotion" with 
Laws of Certification of Teachers of Western States, free to members or sent 
prepaid for Fifty cents in stamps. Money refunded if not satisfied. 



■RpciorMT Teachers Age/vcy 

EMPIRE B£-D'G, OE/VVEJR, COLO. 



Kindergartners and Primary Teachers 

Are in constant demand in the South at 
good salaries. We can place both. 

The Teachers 3 Exchange 

P. O. Box 283, Nishville. Tenn. 



QUR OPPORTUNITIES for placing 
Kindergarten and Primary Teachers 
exceed our supply. No charge until you 
accept position. 

Lewis Teachers 3 Agency 

41 Lyman Block, Muskegon. Mick. 



Sabins' Educational Exchange 

(Inc.) DES MOINES, IOWA. 

Wants to hear from kindergarten or 

primary teachers desiring places west 

of Mississippi river. Write fully. Will 

answer frankly, 

AN AGENCY K8SS& 

its influence If it merely hearsof va- 
cancies and tells TU AT is some- 
you about them • n^ I thine, 
but if it is asked to recommend a?teach- 

you^at RECOMMENDS 

is more. Ours recommends. 

Tbe School Bulletin Agency 

C W. BARDEEN. Syracuse. N. Y. 



WE PLACE 



rnrl \ \v ary 
Teachers each 
year. Some Kindergartners. No charge 
until teacher is located by us. Send for 
registration blank. A. H. Campbell, 

American Teachers' Ag-enoy 

Myrick Building, Springfield, Mass. 



API AN Whereby the Teacher 
' ■— »** ■ ' is brought in touch 
with opportunity at that critical mo- 
ment when each is in search of the oth- 
er, is set forth in our forty.page booklet 
celling all about the South as a field for 
rimary and Kindergarten teachers. 
Get it. 

Southern Teachers' Agency 

Columbia, S. C. 



The South and West 

Offer good opportunities for Primary 
and Kindergarten teachers. For infor- 
mation write CLAUDE J. BELL, 

Bell Teachers' Agency, 

Nashville, Tenn. 



THE OKLAHOMA TEACHER'S 
AGENCY 

GEARY, OKLAHOMA 

Only Competent Teachers Enrolled. 
WRITE US YOUR WANTS 



CENTRAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

COLUMBUS. OHIO. 
A good medium for trained primary 
teachers to use in securing promotion. 
W rite to-day. E. C. ROGE RS. M «r. 




"ALL GONE" 

MOTHER PLAY PICTURE 



(See Page 82) NOTE— Thispicture can be detached and placed on the wall or used otherwise In the Kindergarten 



—..,->„ ,»■.« -- — ...»-- ..-■■ nagaaa^aag i..-..i..M..-iy,.v<-i.wT<.->-vf»r?, 



-■ - • ■•• ■■ ""i 





THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY- 



MAGAZINE 



Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust, at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa* Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c, and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 



NOVEMBER, 1914. 



VOL. XXVII—No. 3 



EDITORIAL NOTES 

Another excellent article entitled "Developing 
Method" by Dr. W. N. Hailmann appears elsewhere in 
this issue. 



Our picture study department is a comparatively 
new feature of this magazine. Un£er the direction of 
Mary B. Cotting it is meeting with success. 



Dr. Jenny B. Merrill has several most excellent 
articles in this issue and is arranging for others 
along special lines, which will appear during the 
year. 



The Committee of the Whole by Bertha Johntson, 
will be found especially interesting this month. 
Kindergartners, Primary and Rural tiachers are in- 
vited to ask questions, which will be answered with- 
out charge. 



Unless you regard your work as a Kindergartner 
the most important thing in your life you are not 
likely to become a real success. Think about your 
work, read about it, study it, be constantly on the look- 
out for information, for improved methods. Try all 
things that seem to you adapted to your work, hold fast 
to that which is good, keep out of the ruts, be alive, 
have vision enough to realize your responsibilities and 
opportunities. Do not expect to accomplish all this 
at once, but work toward these goals, if you would be 
a real Kindergartner. 



With an overwhelming vote the state convention of 
the national progressive party of Michigan placed in 
its platform an unequivocal denunciation of the saloon 
and furthermore favored a submission of amendments 
providing for state-wide and nation-wide prohibition 
of the liquor traffic. This is certainly a most whole- 
some indication of the trend of public sentiment. 
— Moderator-Topics. 

The same political party showed its good judgment 
by nominating Hon. Henry R. Pattengill, editor of the 
Moderator-Topics, at tha August primary, as its can- 
didate for Governor of the State of Michigan. 



The United States Bureau of Education is doing 
much important work by way of bringing the value of 
the kindergarten to the attention of the educational 
interests of America. It has carefully compiled and 
published much needed statistics of kindergartens; it 
has furnished information to the thousands of school 
officials who have sought aid, and it has supplemented 
the bare information at hand, wherever possible, with 
that constructive suggestion which is the justification 
for statistical work of any kind. Throughout this 
task of compilation and distribution, the Bureau has 
endeavored to maintain that intimate sympathy for 
kindergartners and the kindergarten that makes in- 
formation welcome and advice eagerly sought. 

No one who does not see the work lrom day to day 
can realize the varied opportunities that come to 
spread the tidings of the kindergarten ; to help in 
special cases, here, there, and everywhere, to make 
kindergartens grow where none erew before. One 
State's law becomes another's inspiration; a simple 
answer to a simple question starts a chain of kinder- 
garten interest little dreamed of by che inquirer or by 
the person who phrased the reply; lists of books, 
handed on from one worker to another, find new soil 
and make a new growth of the Froebelian spirit. 
Frank, unprejudiced comparisons of kindergarten 
work with Montessori, and other methods; the prob- 
lem of the two-session kindergarten; the reorganiza- 
tion of training-school courses; to furnish accurate in- 
formation and enlightened opinion on such points as 
these is to stimulate interest in kindergarten edu- 
cation in a hundred new channels and advance the 
cause accordingly. 

What are the methods by which the Bureau gets its 
information out to those that need it most? First of 
all, there is the bulletin series, originated in 1907. 
Bulletin No. 6 of the 1914 series wan devoted solely to 
kindergartens — a statement of present conditions, 
statistics, opinions of school superintendents, and 
contributions from the meeting of the International 
Kindergarten Union. This is the forerunner of a line 
of bulletins to be issued on kindergarten work. „ ■■> 

The annual report of the Commissioner of Educa- 
tion contains a chapter on kindergarten progress, and 
copies of this are also reprinted seperately fttr 
pamphlet distribution. A number of shorter leaflets 
will soon be issued; and, in order to reach all kinder- 
garten teachers, a special series of kindergarten 
letters is inaugurated herewith. These letters are to 
be mailed at regular intervals to kindergartners'; 
school superintendents, university professors of edu- 
cation, editors of school journals, and others. An ad? 
dress list of individual kindergartners is being ,pr©/ 
pared for this purpose. 



76 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




By De. W. H. Hailmann. 

There is an ambiguity in the term, depending on 
the object of the development. We may place stress 
upon the development of the child's powers or upon 
that of a given subject of instruction. In a measure, 
it is true, the one will involve the other; neverthe- 
less, it is desirable, if not imperative, that the dis- 
tinction be borne in mind, lest one or the other suffer. 

A brief review of the bearing on each will render 
the distinction clearer. In the development of the 
subject of instruction we follow the well-known laws 
that bid us pass from the concrete to the abstract, 
from the known to the unknown, from the near 
to the remote, from the simple to the complex, etc. 
Our method is essentially inductive and analytic, pro- 
ceeds from facts to principles, from wholes to de- 
tails. 

Thus in arithmetic we deal primarily with things, 
then with pictures of things and ultimately with 
conventional number symbols; in form-study we be- 
gin with solids and descend through surfaces to lines 
and their relations; in geography we start with 
facts and rise through an analysis of these to general 
laws and principles which we may or may not apply. 
The antithesis of our procedure is the didatic meth- 
od which is essentially deductive and synthetic, pass- 
ing from the abstract, from definition and law to the 
concrete facts in actual experience. 

Classical instances of the application of the de- 
veloping method we find in the dialogs of Socrates as 
reported by Plato where the teacher by skillful 
questioning leads the learner through an analysis of 
facts to the establishment of valid principle. A 
modern instance I find in an address by Edward 
Thring which I am tempted to report in its entirety. 
It runs as follows: 

"Teacher begins: Do you ever think? — Pupil: I 
believe so. T. Do you ever think your thoughts 
worth telling? — P. Sometimes. T. What do you do? 
—P. Why, I tell them. T. How, pray?— P. I talk. 
T. Indeed. What is talking?— P. Why, talking, to be 
sure, talking's talking. T. No doubt. But how do 
you do it? — P. I open my mouth and talk. Good. 
T. You open your mouth and talk. A dog opens his 
mouth and barks. Is that it? — P. No. I talk sense. 
T. But how do you talk sense, if opening your mouth 
and barking won't do? — P. I tell what I think about. 
T. Do you? Well, think about something. — P. I do. 
T. Name it. — P. I thought about a horse. Well. 
But I know nothing of your thought. You have 
named a horse, but I am no wiser. — P. I must tell 
you something about a horse. T. Do so. — P. A 
horse runs. T. Now I know. What two things have 
you had to do in order to talk sense instead of bark- 
ing? — P. I named what I thought about first, and 
then I told something about it. T. True. Suppose 
we call every name a noun, and every word which 



tells us what the noun does a verb, what is the word 
'horse'? — P. A noun. T. And the word 'runs'? — 
P. A verb." And so on. 

With reference to the child, the developing method 
implies on the part of the teacher respect for inner 
potentialities and for their unfoldment within. This 
involves encouragement and helpful guidance of self- 
activity, self-expression and self-realization. In motor 
life the movement of this self-unfoldment is from 
play through productive to creative activity, and, 
from another point of view, from mere mobility, 
through many-sided alertness, to purposeful direct- 
ness. In intellectual life it passes from perception 
to reflection, from experience through thought to 
purposeful adjustment of means to end, or — as Froe- 
bel puts it — "from particular to general and from 
general to particular." Esthetic life begins in pleasure 
and rises through interest to aspiration, proceeds 
according to Goethe's formula fromi interest in the 
useful, through appreciation of the true, to the love 
of the beautiful. Ethical life rests primarily upon 
impulse, is capricious, learns gradually to yield to 
necessity and ultimately attains obedience to prin- 
ciple, to the dictates of good-will. Throughout there 
rules a transition from self-establishment through 
many-sided self-expansion to the heights and depths 
of self-devotion. 

For a comprehensive summary of these considera- 
tions we may turn to Froebel's significant maxim 
as our guide in child-development: "From life, 
through life, to life," i. e., from the life of experience, 
through the life of thought and feeling, to the life 
of achievement and conduct. Possibly, too, a closer 
analysis of the Head — Heart — Hand formula may 
throw additional light upon our problem. Such an- 
alysis, however, demands a change or extension in 
the formula. Sentient life begins not in thought 
as symbolized in the term head; it begins with sen- 
suous activity of which the exploring hand, as the 
chief organ of touch and of the muscular sense, is 
a proper symbol. Sensuous impressions are held fast 
and assimilated in thought and, in the heart, stir 
attitude and purpose. The realization of such pur- 
pose demands appeals to the treasures of thought, 
of assimilated experience, that the hand, now the 
symbol of achieving activities, may find the way. 
Thus the three will appear in extended arrangement 
as 

Hand—Head — Heart — Head — Hand, 

fully coinciding with Froebel's lucid principle of 
life-development that bids us "make the external 
internal, the internal external and show the unity 
of both in life." 

Such considerations of life-development should 
guide us at every point in the education of the young. 
This does not in any sense invalidate the principles 
that guide the teacher in developing subjects of in- 
struction. Yet, these should never lead, but ever 
remain means to the end which lies in the develop- 
ment of the child. 



When in doubt what to do — don't do it. 




GENERAL SUGGESTONS FOR NOVEMBER PROGRAM 

ByJENN B. MEnRILL, Pd D. 

Supervisor of Public School Kindergartens, New York City: Special Lecturer on Educational 

Topics 




SUGGESTIONS FOR A NOVEMBER PROGRAM. 
Jexny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

We take it for granted now that many of our read- 
ers are making their own programs adapting them 
to their own environment, to the children's previous 
experiences and to their own, too. 

This is a privilege that no true follower of Froebel 
should yield to another. 

However, we love to exchange experiences, we love 
to compare notes with our fellow teachers. We are 
glad to take and to give hints — from year to year. 

One of the more recent innovations is letting the 
children help too in making the program. How can 
this be done, do you ask? 

Recently I visited a kindergarten where the child- 
ren were asked what they would like to do tomorrow. 
The very question set them thinking, and the exper- 
ience of looking ahead had a tendency to establish a 
good habit. The children's interest in what they 
had been .doing, naturally led them to suggest 
something connected with it, and so continuity of 
thought and work was secured. Naturally the wise 
kindergartner would ask such a question at a time 
when the children were anxious to go on with a cer- 
tain kind of work. 

Kindergartners often give Friday to the children 
depending upon the work of the week to incite them 
to good choices, and with a little skill on the kinder- 
gartner's part this usually works well. 

In planning the work for November we have an 
unusually interesting goal ahead to work towards. 
Write "Thanksgiving Day" at the bottom of a sheet 
of paper and draw a series of steps to represent the 
weeks to reach it. The objective point will guide you 
in selecting songs, stories, games, pictures, conver- 
sations and occupations. 

These you will keep in mind as the month advances 
yet some you selected may drop out and others 
come in as suggested by the children or the unex- 
pected developments of a day. 

Home and Nature interests are to be the dominant 
factors in every good program throughout the year. 
They seem to unite in November even more fully 
than in any other period of the year. 

Nature comes first as in talking of the colder days, 
the sheep that gives us wool for our warmer cloth- 
ing, the wood and coal for our fires. The flowers 
and birds have gone. We talk a little about them 
as we did in October. We walk out to see if any 
tree near by has one leaf still clinging. We may 
find the sparrows have not gone. We look for a 
cocoon if we have not one already. 

Again we plan to visit our friend the grocer. We 



see how many vegetables and fruits are still in 
market. We paint and model a few that we did not 
have time for in October. 

We decide to have a barn and store our clay vege- 
tables as the farmer stores his, or we decide to build 
stores with our blocks and sell our clay fruits and 
vegetables as our grocer does. The children like 
to use the colored beads for fruits. 

Now we have reached the middle of the month, 
and Thanksgiving seems pretty near. We want to 
have some "home" experiences, and what can be bet- 
ter or more interesting than a kitchen experience in 
simple cooking? Perhaps there is a kitchen in your 
school. The older girls cook; may not the children 
try a little? 

Even in a kindergarten room, grape and cranberry 
jelly has been made many a time. Therefore take 
courage. Apple sauce, too, is an easy dish. In one 
kindergarten, the children bought the apples from 
the apple vender who passed by, carried them in, 
were taught it was proper to wash the apples first, 
and they did it too. Then an apple was cut so as 
to show the pretty star in the center. The seeds were 
removed and counted. A child suggested planting 
them and it was done. Such a happy time it was. 

The children watched quietly while the kinder- 
gartner pared the apples and quartered them for the 
saucepan. A child added the water and others added 
the sugar and the spice. All went to the kitchen in 
the basement to place the sauce pan on the fire, thank- 
ing the cook who presided there. This kindergarten 
happened to be in a settlement house in a big city. 

There have been kindergartners who enlisted a 
janitor's stove or a next door neighbor's stove when 
no other accommodation was possible. 

Again "Nature and Home" suggest "Malcing butter" 
for this our November program. Churning needs no 
kitchen. If any kindergartner who reads this article 
has never had the pleasure of making butter herself, 
she will have a rare treat with the little ones. It is 
so easily done. 

A little churn is an addition but not a necessity. 
Simple shaking in a bottle well closed will bring the 
butter. Pass the bottle of cream from child to child 
or to avoid accident let each child come in turn to 
the table, and if butter does not come, let each child 
have another turn at shaking. 

One teacher thought all the cream would 
all turn into butter. She was wiser for her effort, but 
it is just as well to experiment once at home before 
trying with the children. I once found a kinder- 
gartner on the point of giving up just as butter was 
coming. 



72 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



There are kindergartners who forget the salt; let 
ehildren taste the fresh butter and note the difference. 
(Salt, too, is a gift of Nature but this is not the age at 
which to tell of salt mines. Leave that for a later 
grade, but a reference to taste is admissible in 
kindergarten. Froebel gives us games for all the 
senses.) 

Have a pretty dish for the butter. Place it where 
it Is cold that it may harden. Have a feast of 
crackers and butter. 

Next morning after the real experience talk it all 
over, and let the children tell step oy step what was 
done. 

Have good pictures of the milk-maid and the churn 
at hand if possible, not forgetting pictures of a cow, 
and of the farm. 

"Peter goes out fresh and early 

Mows the grass so long and sweet, 
Shining with the dew so pearly 

Brings it for the cow to eat. 
She will give us milk and butter 

For the little children's supper. 
Forth the maiden goes at even 

Milks the cow with skillful hand 
Brings the pail in fresh and foaming, 

For the eager little band. 
Think, my little children, said the mother, 

Whence so many blessings fall. 
Thank the farmer for his mowing 

Thank the cow in meadow lowing. , 
Thank the maiden and the baker, 

But the Lord, our Heavenly Maker. 

We must thank for each and all." 

Thus our churning brings us close to Thanksgiv- 
ing Day. Note also how we have reached Home by 
means of these experiences with food. 

Possibly you have been teaching the never to be 
forgotten song, "Over the River," the children are 
ready to play it all out in the kindergarten room 
for this song story makes one of the prettiest drama- 
tic plays of the year. Let the children make it. 

One corner is chosen for Grandfather's house. 
Grandma puts on paper spectacles and watches at the 
window for the merry load. Chairs and tables and 
children combine well for an automobile ride, if not a 
sleigh ride. Perhaps a train is formed for the jour- 
ney. The song tells its own story, and any kinder- 
sartner can work it into dramatic form. Let the 
ohildren help give suggestions. 

Indeed it is much better to let tlnm make simple 
suggestions, and add to them from day to day modi- 
fying and expanding the play as the month advances. 
The play should be started at least a week or ten days 
before the holiday, and should be played every day 
until Thanksgiving arrives. 

I have known this play to develop further than the 
Terse of the song. This is done by having the 
ehildren play cirele games for grandma. Then grand- 
ma or auntie tells them all a story before they go 
home. 

The whole dramatic play would then be: 1. The 



ride to the farm. 2. Grandma's welcome. 3. The 
Thanksgiving dinner. 4. Playing circle games with 
grandma, uncles and aunts. 5. Grandma tells a story. 
6. Going home. In some kindergartens the feast may 
prove to be a real one, the day before school closes, 
especially if it is probable that there will be no feast 
at home. 

In some such case it is good occupation work for 
the week previous, to fringe paper napkins, cut cir- 
cular plates, possibly decorate them with touches 
of paint and make decorations for the room in ap- 
propriate fall colors. Stringing popcorn and cran- 
berries is popular. 

Sometimes odds and ends of red paper are crushed 
and used for stringing instead of the real cran- 
berry. Orange and brown should predominate. 

The decorations of the room should, if possible, in- 
clude much nature material suggesting the harvest — 
the grains and nuts as well as fruit, and vegetables 
should be massed together in a corner or window 
ledge in as efficient a manner as art can suggest. 

These may be secured by asking different children 
to bring an apple, an orange, a potato, a banana, a 
pepper, a carrot or any thing mother can spare to 
send to a particular family where father has been 
sick and so could not work to earn money. Use those 
that are brought first for decorating, and then let 
the children help pack a basket ready to be delivered. 
If no family is known, select an inhabitant as near 
the school as convenient. 

LIST OF QUESTIONS ON THE PROGRAM. 

All through the month keep the points mentioned 
in September in mind as guides, namely, 1. Locomo- 
tion. 2. Nurturing. 3. Communicating or talking. 
4. Constructing. 5. Experimenting. 

1. Locomotion.. Have you planned sufficient active 
exercises and plays for this month? What are they? 

2. Nurturing. Does caring for the needy suggested 
at Thanksgiving time come under this head? What 
else have you planned? Have the children fed any 
animals? 

3. Communicating or Talking. Do you talk too 
much? Do the children talk enough and connectedly? 

4. Constructing. What have the children made? 

5. Experimenting. Was not butter-making an ex- 
periment? 

HOW ONE NOVEMBER PROGRAM DEVELOPED 
THANKFULNESS. 
Harriet Dith-ridge. 

We started with the thought of how we wero going 
to keep warm, in cold weather. Indoors we use fire, 
burning wood and coal. We talked about wood, where 
it comes from; what else it is used for besides fuel. 
For wood, and wooden things, we must thank the 
wood-man, carpenter, cabinet-maker and cooper. 

We talked about coal, where it is obtained. For 
it, we thanked the miner and the coal man; and the 
janitor for keeping the fires going in the school. We 
can see the furnaces, and the coal and wood, every 
day when we go down to recess. 

We keep warm outdoors, by wearing warm, woolen 
clothing. We talked about the sheep, how the wool 



THE KlNDEMAlfcTEtt-MtMAM MAGAME 



n 



comes to us, and the changes it undergoes. 

A little toy sheep, with real sheep's wool on its 
back came to be our playmate. For the woolen cloth- 
ing we must thank the sheep, shepherd, farmer, 
spinner, weaver; Mother, who maker our clothes; 
and Grandma, who knits for us stockings and mittens. 

Some of the older children were taken to the 
Williamsbridge Tapestry Mills, to see how cloth is 
woven. 

We keep our feet warm by nice warm shoes. They 
are made of leather, which comes from the cow. 

For our shoes we must thank the cow, the farmer 
who cares for the cow, and the shoemaker. We all 
went to visit the shoemaker, and saw how he makes 
the shoes. 

Besides leather for our shoes, the cow gives us 
milk and cream. We made batter; and one day we 
went out to see the cow and her calf. We saw a 
churn, up at the house. 

If we want to eat our butter, we must have bread 
to put it on. We made some bread trom flour. The 
flour comes from the wheat, for which we must thank 
the farmer who planted it, the miller for grinding 
it, and the baker for baking the bread. Some of 
the children were taken to visit a grist mill in the 
neighborhood. 

Flour will also make a cake; so we made one; 
telling where the eggs and sugar came from, and 
whom we have to thank for them. 

Other good things to eat are fruits of all kinds, 
including cranberries and pumpkins; turkeys and 
ducks. We talked about all these things, leading up 
to Thanksgiving; going to church to thank God for 
all things, and then to Grandma's for dinner. 

Note. Miss Harriet Dithridge is new principal of 
a kindergarten training class in Tokyo, Japan. The 
above outline was carried out by her in one of her 
first kindergartens in New York. We are pleased to 
publish a recent letter from her sent to the kinder- 
gartners of America, concerning the progress of her 
work in Japan. 

J. B. M. 



THE TOKYO KINDERGARTEN TRAINING 
SCHOOL. 
101 Haramachi, Koishikwa., 

TOKYO, JAPAN. 

June 3, 1914. 

TO THE KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS OF 
AMERICA. 
Dear Friends, 

It has been our earnest purpose and desire for 
some time to write a letter, taking you into our 
confidence in regard to kindergarten work in Japan, 
and giving you the privilege of helping in this work, 
if you so desire. Thinking that the work among 
poor chlidren would appeal to you most; we have 
chosen for the subject of this letter the "Fukagawa 
Christian Kindergarten." 

Will you come with us into the poorest, dirtiest, 
and most destitute district of Tokyo, that called Fuka- 
gawa? At present plague and typhus are raging there; 
but you do not need to be afraid, for you are going 



only in spirit. As we step from the trolley, and walk 
down a wide street, you say; "This does not look 
dirty or poor; these little shops are quite neat!" 
True, but let us step into these little side streets — or 
rather alleys. Muddy, isn't it? The sun seldom en- 
ters here, but the rain does; and, of course, there are 
no sidewalks. Notice the open drains at the side of 
the alley; see how they are stuffed up and the water 
(and other things) stands stagnant. What is that 
awful smell? That comes from- — well, you know there 
are no sewers in Japan. We hurry past, only to come 
to the end of a blind alley, which is crossed by a wide 
drain, the water stagnant, and absolutely too foul for 
description; the refuse on the surface of the water 
is alive with maggots. 

It is getting to be almost too much? Let us turn 
back down the alley, and notice the houses and the 
people. The houses stand wide open, so we can look 
right in. See this tiny, dirty room, only rough, refuse 
matting on the bare board floor (none of the soft, 
thick mats of the ordinary Japanese house.) If you 
lift the coarse matting, you will find cracks as wide 
as your hand between the boards. What is this tiny 
place? Why, that is the kitchen; not as big as the 
top of your kitchen table, is it? Here is an empty 
house; it is unlocked, and it is quite proper for us to 
push aside the wooden shutter and go in. What! you 
don't care to go in? Well, I don't blame you; it is 
dirty! But this little room can't be all; where is the 
rest of the house? Yes, this is all the house; and a 
family of seven may rent this place. 

But time is flying; so let us hurry on to the kinder- 
garten. Notice the children we are passing. What 
are those boys doing? They are playing a gambling 
game. Yes, they ought to be in school; but there are 
no truant officers in Japan. See that little girl, stagger- 
ing under the weight of that big heavy baby on her 
back. And here are some little girls bowing to us; 
they must be members of our Sunday School. 

Follow me down this alley; we have to go single 
file it is so narrow. Here is our Kindergarten; slip 
off your shoes and come in. Hear the children, "Ko- 
cho Sensei ga kita; Kocho Sensei ga kita." (The 
principal has come; the principal has come.) See 
them squat on the floor and bow. That's right, drop 
to your knees, and bow to them. You did very 
well. My! what a lot of children! This is Makino 
San, the teacher of this kindergarten; the two assist- 
ants are students in our training school. Let us 
watch Makino San's first gift lesson; she is playing 
with the babies, 19 of them, all babies, and all new this 
spring. See, she hasn't enough balls to go around; 
but she keeps every child busy all the time. There; 
can you beat that lesson in America? Yes, she is a 
graduate of our Training School, class of 1913. See 
what a sweet face she has; this kindergarten has done 
as much for her as for the children. 

Look over the house, what do you think of it? See 
the two tiny yards, one is even big enough for a little 
sand-box; and a spindling three. This place is two 
houses thrown into one, and we hunted through these 
vile streets two months, before we found it; and we 



74 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



pay eight dollars and a half month rent for it. But, 
you say, it is too small and dark; you ought to have 
a bigger place for these children. 

Then you will help us to get a bigger place. You 
will help us to realize our dreams for the children of 
this neighborhood. Think of a big, kindergarten room, 
all sunshine and light; and a big, big play-ground 
with plenty of swings, and seesaws. Think of Moth- 
ers' Meetings (we have already started them) ; in 
which the mothers can learn the proper care of their 
homes and children, as well as the worship of the true 
God. Think of a free bath, and a day nursery, and a 
dispensary, a visiting nurse and doctor (the younger 
brother of two of our kindergarten children died of 
pneumonia last winter, without any medical aid) — 
think of all this, and more, Sunday Schools and re- 
ligious instruction, too; and tell me, will you put 
your hand down into your pocket — will you lessen 
your bank account and help us to get a building with 
plenty of land around it? We want at least $12,000; 
and we are asking you for it. If you will help, send the 
money directly to us by postal money order; and you 
will be kept informed of the progress of the work. 

Some of you who read this know us; some of you 
don't; but whether you do or not, you know now 
that the poor children of Tokyo need help. Will you 
help? 

Signed: 
Habkiet Dithridge. 
Amy R. Ckosby. 

KlRK ISHIIIARA. 

BLACKBOARD HINTS. 
Continued from October. 

In October we drew trees with autumn foliage, 
changing colors as the month advanced. 

As November comes in, we watch out of our window 
and pay particular attention to the huge trunks of 
trees that pass by in loaded wagons. 

We make more pictures of trees and soon have a 
forest. 

We find the part of the tree that is called the 
trunk. 

We do not cut down our trees at first even in the 
picture. 

To surprise the children, we draw, after they had 
left, a few squirrels, here and there in the trees. A 
bear prowling around looking for his winter quarters. 
How delighted the children were next morning when 
they spied them in our forest 

What were the squirrels doing? Storing nuts away 
for winter? What trees had nuts for them? 

Later a few evergreen trees were added in an- 
ticipation of December and Christmas. 

With our forest for a setting we tcld the good old 
fairy tales that are set in the forest, Red-Riding 
Hood, Ludwig and Marleen, The Hut in the Forest, 
Hop 'o My Thumb and others. 

The first snowstorm, reached our forest, and the 
surprise on the children's faces when they first saw 
the snow on our picture, was delightful. 

Just before Thanksgiving, came a merry sleighful of 



children through the woods on the way to grand 
mother's house. 

When the children returned after Thanksgiving, 
they found many more fine trees for the December 
story. Evergreen trees predominated more in our 
blackboard picture, though the change was gradual. 

The "Discontented Fir Tree" was there, the one 
that wanted to change its leaves. 

Soon the woodman appeared with axe over his 
shoulder. What was going to happen? Several 
Christmas trees are chosen by the children to be cut 
down. 

They are tied together and piled on the woodman's 
wagon. He carries them to the train which we 
build with our large blocks on the floor near the 
blackboard. 

Then we began to watch for the real wagons loaded 
with evergreens as they, too, pass our window. Now 
It was easy to follow the story of our Christmas tree 
and its coming to us from the forest. 

S. Q. 



WAR AND PEACE. 

Today a world's at war. Across the fair fields of 
France is heard the march of men. They come from 
peasant homes on the steppes of far off Russia; from 
the unhappy Danube where children play and women 
weep; from a million German firesides; from proud 
Belgium, brave and bleeding; from England with 
laws and language parent to our own; from France 
where still is seen the blot left by an earlier war. The 
Rhine sweeps on past camps and forts; there rises up- 
ward through the smoke of battle the cries and 
groans of men; the sun shines down upon the un- 
marked graves of thousands whose lives have gone 
out in a quarrel not of their making and in a cause 
they do not understand. 

Through the centuries, on the way from savagery to 
civilization, men have warred for conquest, for re- 
ligion, for glory. But today an unjust war has 
smitten a happy, contented, prosperous people. The 
weak are made to suffer for the strong and future 
generations shall bear the heavy burdens imposed by 
the arrogant, the powerful and the perverse. 

This war shall cease. Europe will emerge broken 
and bruised. Monarchs shall be brought low and 
there shall be proclaimed the brotherhood of man. But 
today a world's at war. — Arthur Henry Chamberlain. 



The Pestalozzi Froebel Kindergarten Training 
School of Chicago opened its 18th year with the lar- 
gest attendance in the history of the school. Through 
the generosity of a friend of the school it is now 
located in the new building on the Lake Front at 616- 
622 So. Michigan Boulevard. The class rooms com- 
mand a beautiful view of Lake Michigan and have 
been specially fitted up for the work of a Kindergarten 
Training School. One of the new features of the year 
is the enlargement of the Playground Course into a 
Playground Workers Department that will grant a 
special Playground diploma. 



The borrower is servant to the lender. — Bible. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRlMARt MAGAZINE 



75 



THE CHILD'S EXPRESSION OF ANIMAL 
LIFE IN THE KINDERGARTEN 

By Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 
(Second Paper.) 

In my previous article upon the value of living 
animals in the kindergarten, I dwelt especially upon 
impressions received by our little ones in the care of 
pets, in listening to stories about them and in looking 
at picture-books illustrative of the habits of animals 
principally of domestic animals and birds. 

In this article it is my purpose to write of the 
means which are employed in the kindergarten in 
leading the children to express their impressions of 
animal life. 

Our readers may recall that I stated a marked im- 
provement has been noted in oral expression in 
games, as well as in drawing, brush-work and free- 
cutting in kindergartens, when the children have 
really lived with bunny or kitty or any other pet. The 
child's keen interest in the little living creature re- 
sults in a clearer mental image of its form and 
movements. Dr. Lukens has made it plain that the 
young child draws from the image in the mind and 
not consciously from an object. Hence in the results 
secured in handiwork, we test the image which has 
been impressed through observation. When kinder- 
gartners fully realize this, they will understand 
better how useless it is to expect good results when a 
child is asked to reproduce unfamiliar scenes and ob- 
jects. 

It is true, however, that the mental image is often 
cleared by the very attempt to express one's self 
either orally or by means of any form of manual ex- 
pression. 

Before proceeding to consider the child's represen- 
tation of animal life in the kindergarten, let me brief- 
ly recapitulate the means we have employed to 
secure good impressions and clear mental images. 

First and most important is the actual presence of 
the living animal in the kindergarten room for several 
days or weeks if convenient, — second, interest in some 
animal at home or in the street or park, — third, toy 
animals used in play or in scenes upon the sand 
table, — fourth, well-chosen pictures of animals at play 
with children or at feeding time in a natural environ- 
ment, — fifth, plaster casts and pictures used in 
decoration, — sixth, well told stories of animals, finger- 
plays and Mother Goose rhymes in telling which the 
kindergartner imitates both sounds and movements 
of animals as naturally as possible. 

It is not, of course, intended to use all of these 
means necessarily before any attempt at expression 
is made by the children, but it is desirable for the 
kindergartner to have in mind the various possibili- 
ties through which good impressions are to be secur- 
ed, in order that she may employ any one or all as 
occasion arises. 

MEANS OP EXPRESSION. 

The simplest means of expression of animal life for 
the child is to play he himself is the animal by imi- 



tating the sound it makes, or by making one or more 
of its characteristic movements. 

This simple, natural expression of the child should 
precede any formal game or even any song about the 
animal. It should, indeed, be used as the basis of the 
game or song. In this way the kindergartner should 
gradually develop a game. By so doing the child's 
own expression is secured in play. 

For example, during the first few days or weeks 
after hearing a story of kitty, the children may mew 
and run softly as kitty does; they may play horse 
and driver as the simplest expression of their know- 
ledge of a horse; later they may lead the horse to an 
imaginary barn or stable and feed him with oats. 

A little later, when the stories and pictures, if not 
real experiences, have enlarged the child's notions of 
the life of the horse, the kindergarten room may be a 
field and the pony may run freely, all the child's in- 
genuity being aroused to catch him before he can be 
harnessed. After playing thus freely until many of 
the children have entered into this spontaneous ex- 
pression of the horse's life, a well organized pony 
game with music and song may be taught. Or the 
game comparing pussy's and pony's feet may be 
taught. 

Children love contrasts, and Froebel, knowing this, 
introduces comparisons of hard and soft in the first 
and second gifts. In a similar manner the children 
always respond with great interest in imitating 
pussy's cushioned feet and pony's hard and clattering 

hoofs. 

"We are little pussies, 

Running round and round; 

We have cushions on our feet 

And never make a sound." 

"We are little ponies, 

Running round and round; 
We have hoofs upon our feet 
And stamp upon the ground." 

All animal games should thus unfold gradually, 
beginning with the child's spontaneous expression of 
sound or movement, and should not be forced upon 
him by direct imitation of the set form of a game 
which the kindergartner has learned from a book or in 
a training class. The kindergartner will, however, 
be greatly helped by knowing the fully developed 
game, and with this knowledge, she may by sug- 
gestion lead the children to a more complete ex- 
pression than they would reach themselves. 

It is quite noticeable that children play games more 
naturally and with keener interest when they do not 
sing, but concentrate their attention upon the 
dramatic representation. Hence it is becoming more 
and more popular in the kindergarten to sing the 
words after the play is over, or at times to sing while 
standing still, and then play as the words have 
suggested. 

Little Boy Blue lends itself well to the latter plan. 
After reciting or singing this familiar Mother Goose 
rhyme, the kindergartner asks "Who wants to be 
Little Boy Blue? Where are his sheep? His cows? 
What noise do I hear his sheep making? His cows? 



76 



THE KIKDERGARTEtf-PItlMARY MAGAZINE 



I wonder if we will soon hear his horn? Who will 
wake him? or in preparing to play "Little Miss 
Muffet," the kindergartner asks "Who wants to be 
Miss Muffet? Where will you sit? Who will he the 
spider?" The child's love of fun and make believe 
finds full satisfaction in this way, and, in turn, the 
bodily expression of the animal life puts lively ex- 
oression into the tones used in repeating the rhymes. 

After the children have become acquainted with 
the names and sounds of all the domestic animals, 
their joy is great in making a veritable farm-yard 
with mooing cows, and sheep that baa, ducks that 
quack, turkeys that gobble, and crowing roosters. 
The pretty pigeons in the sun with their gentle coo, 
coo, help to restore quiet after all the noise. There 
are no greater favorites among animal games than the 
games of the squirrels and the chicadees. 
EXPRESSION IN HANDWORK. 

The five occuptions which may be used in securing 
expression of animal life are coloring, modeling in 
clay, free illustrative drawing, and free cutting. 

1. Coloring. Children love color and love to fill 
in an outline if it is large and not too restricting to 
the sweep of the crayon or brush. Some of our 
kindergartners secure the best patterns of animals 
for this purpose by tracing the forms of animals in 
the picture books with which the children are famil- 
iar. These the kindergartner cuts out, preparing one 
for each child. The children recognize their old animal 
friends, but miss their pretty coats of colored 
feathers, or fur. At the kindergartner's suggestion, 
they gladly proceed to color the animals, matching 
the colors in the book if possible. 

If any of the older children become sufficiently 
skillful, they may be trusted to do the cutting out 
themselves either before or after coloring the animal. 
It will be found easier for the little ones to color the 
animals after they are cut out, for the> do not have 
to work so hard to keep within a drawn line. Sets of 
animals for coloring may be secured, but they are 
usually rather small for the wee tots who cannot con- 
trol the finer muscles well enough to keep within 
small spaces. (Place the cut out animal on a sheet 
of paper so that the coloring will not soil the table.) 

We find it an advantage to have the children con- 
nect the animal they color, with some picture they 
have seen. This gives more life to the work. 

After coloring, an animal may be mounted upon an 
appropriate background made by the children to re- 
semble the picture in the book. 

The animal form having been supplied in this case, 
the result does not represent as much self-expression 
as the later work in free cutting and drawing. It 
answers a good purpose, however, e<irly in the term, 
and resembles the color work recommended by Dr. 
Montessori. It serves as an aid in impressing the 
forms of animals as well as expressing the coloring. 

It is an inexpensive occupation. Either colored 
crayons or paints may be used. The following list 
of animals used in summer work may prove sugges- 
tive to other teachers: (1) A horse, mounted on 
paper washed green to represent grass, the horse 



standing on lower half; (2) After mounting the 
horse lines may be drawn to represent a fence. (3) 
Similar, adding a colt. (4) A duck, goose, or swan 
mounted on paper, with blue wash below, to represent 
water. (5) A squirrel, mounted on paper washed 
brown to represent the ground; cut out a tree from a 
green wash, and mount near the squirrel, or paint a 
tree. Other arrangements will suggest themselves. 

Let the children look at an animal picture book to 
help them suggest. 

This occupation will serve to impress the form and 
coloring of animals in a more active way than by 
merely looking at pictures, and a little skill in hand- 
ling tools and materials will be developed. Such 
work must not be continued very long, because our 
aim is to secure a free expression on the part of the 
child. Hence the kindergartner should introduce free 
drawing and free cutting of animals as soon as pos- 
sible. 

(2) The free drawing should follow a story of 
some sort, the children being asked to draw some- 
thing they remember in the story, or, a more specific 
direction may be given, as, "Now make a picture of 
bunny eating his carrots," or, "Draw the three bears 
walking out in the woods," or, "Draw a horse and 
wagon with a little dog following it." The children 
will attempt anything, and the sympathetic teacher 
can see wonderful stories in very crooked lines. The 
children naturally prefer to draw people and animals, 
not squares and angles. The crudest form should be 
praised, and the children encouraged to talk about 
their own drawings, for the wisest kindergartner 
will never guess all that they may mean to a child. 

Mother Goose rhymes are full of active animals 
and make excellent stories for the children to draw — 
such lively cows as I have seen jumping over the 
moon! and very remarkable spiders frightening 
"Little Miss Muffet!" 

Here are a few specimens! 

(3) In developing the occupation of free cutting 
we have reached success by allowing the children 
first to cut out their own free drawings. Many kin- 
dergartners report this to be a favorite occupation, 
that is the child draws and then cuts out. This is 
also in the interest of economical use of paper. There 
is no especial value in trying to cut easy forms at 
first, for it is the animal that the child knows best 
and loves best that will inspire good results. But 
even if the results are not good, the effort to pro- 
duce is full of importance. The cow sometimes has 
one leg, and sometimes six, but if the teacher says, 
"See how I cut one," the children will soon improve. 

The child seems to be able to imitate the motion of 
the teacher. He gets an idea of how to begin. Here, 
as always, the teacher should be able to set the 
model. It is well to talk as you cut, as, "I think I 
will begin at the tail — now I am cutting the back of 
the horse, now I am going up to his ear, now around 
to his mouth, etc. 

The children need, however, to learn to cut by 
cutting, no amount of talking will take the place of 
practice. Let the child experiment freely. Often, the 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



77 



children are encouraged by seeing resemblances in 
little scraps they have cut unexpectedly. This is a 
great means of inducing them to experiment further. 
Snipping to get control of the tool usually is neces- 
sary at first.. 

(4) Best of all the occupations for freedom in 
expression is the modeling in clay. Children need 
not, should not, be kept modeling balls and marbles 
and cubes and modifications of these. They love to 
model animals and are not afraid to attempt to do 
so. If no one suggests difficulty they find none. We 
have secured the best results in squirrels and rabbits, 
in which the children are so deeply interested. They 
have also made the three bears, trying to show the 
different sizes. Pussy, mousie, birdie are all hopeful 
possibilities. The caterpillar, the cocoon, and even 
the butterfly are frequently modeled, and snakes and 
fishes are not despised. Occasionally we use color on 
the clay, more often on fruits and vegetables than 
on animals. In the absence of toy animals, those 
made of clay are used in scenes on the sand table. 

(5) At Thanksgiving time kindergartners often 
show a number of animals made from vegetables. 
Mothers are interested in this suggestion, as it can 
be best carried out in the home. A turtle is made of 
a raisin with cloves for feet, the stem answering 
for the tail. Apple seeds and thread make dainty 
little mice. Chickens and turkeys are made with 
corks, cranberries, and small sticks with a feather 
for a tail; a pig from a lemon. 

In all these methods of expression the teachers as 
well as the children should constancy be suggesting 
new possibilities. Much must be learned by imitation 
of the teacher. A good model is most desirable, but 
the teacher should never forget the distinction be- 
tween "mechanical copying and the sradual imitation 
of methods of handling tools and materials." Of 
this distinction Dr. John Dewey says: "The child 
may learn much from the incidental and mainly un- 
conscious imitation of the methods used by others. 
There is all the difference in the world educationally 
between that unconscious assimilation of the mode of 
handling used by another better trained person and 
the mechanical and set copying of that persons work. 
One imitates the process, and tends to set free the 
child's powers; the other imitates the product, and 
tends toward slavishness." 



ilELiSElO 



This is the Limited Express, 
It is the fastest train I guess, 
It goes at seventy miles an hour, 
The engine has tremendous power. 

P. G. SANDERS, 
Toronto. 



TOY MAKING FOR THE KINDERGARTEN. 
By John Y. Dunlop, Glasgow, Scotland. 

Match boxes can be put into use in the making of 
toys which can be often used in connecting the handi- 
work lesson with something else taught. 

For example the class may make the furniture for 
a doll's house which would include paper work and 
needlework, and a set of furniture would be most 
essential. 

A very unique set of doll's furniture can be made 
from the match box. 

BOX. 

Take one match box; the outer case is cut along 
the one edge to make the lid. 

The inner and outer parts are then stuck together, 
four short bonnet pins make the legs. 

STOOL. 

One match box is required for this model. 

The inside case of the match box is inverted. 

The outer case is cut across the middle into two 
equal parts. 

Gum the portions of the outer case inside the in- 
verted part. 

SMALL CHAIR. 

To make the chair three boxes are required. 

Two of these are gummed together on the narrow 
edge while the box which makes the seat is fixed on 
the lower edge so that the lower part of the back 
forms an even surface underneath. 

GRANDMOTHER'S ARM-CHAIR. 

Five boxes required. Two boxes are stuck together 
to form the back. 

One box fitted on to the lower end for the seat 

One box stuck on each side form the arms 

Four laundry pins form the legs. 

SUGGESTED CONVERSATION. 

Why do we call it an arm chair. 

A little girl is invited to sit in an imaginary arm 
chair. 

Another little girl represents grandmother. 

Grandmother comes into the room. What a thought- 
ful little girl to jump out of grandmother's chair. 

What does grandmother say. 

Teacher recites the first two verses of the quaiDt 
poem, "The Old Armchair." 



When around again came Autumn, 
A plenteous harvest saw the band, 

And a joyful feast they made there 
In that free but foreign land. 

Ever since, with joyful feasting, 

Thankful hearts for all God's giving, 

In remembrance of the Pilgrims. 

We have kept the glad Thanksgiving. 

— M. L. PESCOD. 



Borrowing is the mother of trouble. — Hebre\ 



Be thankful for many things you didn't get. 
Business neglected is business lost. 




PATTERNS FOR DOLL'S HOUSE. By JOHN Y. DUNLOP 







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THE COMMITTEE SfTHE WHOLE 

CONDUCTED BY BERTHA JOHNSTON 

THIS COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE, of which all Subscribers to the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine are members, 'will consider those various prob- 
lems -which meet the practicing Kindergartner — problems relating to the 
School-room proper. Ventilation, Heating, and the like; the Aesthetics of 
School-room Decoration; Problems of the Physical Welfare of the Child, in- 
cluding the Normal, the Defective, and the Precocious; questions suggest- 
ed by the use of Kindergarten Material, the Gifts. Occupations, Games, Toys, 
Pets; Mothers-meetings; School Government; Child Psychology; the relation 
of Home to School and the Kindergarten to the Grades; and problems re- 
garding the Moral Development of the Child and their relation to Froebel's 
Philosophy and Methods All questions will be welcomed and also any 
suggestions of -ways in which Kindergartners have successfully met the 
problems incidental to kindergarten and primary practice. All replies to 
queries will be made through this department, and not by correspondence. 
Address all inquiries to 

MISS BERTHA JOHNSTON, EDITOR, 

389 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y- 



Chairman of the Committee of the Whole: 

A comparatively recent addition to the sum of 
scientific knowledge should be of interest to the 
training teacher and the student when taking up the 
subject of color. It has been discovered that many 
fishes, more pronouncedly those of tropical latitudes, 
are capable of instantaneous changes of color, 28 
tropical species having been observed in captivity to 
make anywhere from three to seven alterations. 
These can be seen by a visit to the New York 
Aquarium, the tanks containing fish subject to such 
rapid changes of costume, being labelled to that effect. 
The color cells of the inner skin appear to be under 
the control of the fish, and seem to be used for this 
purpose only by fish that can see. Blind fish do not 
change according to environment since unconscious 
of color, and it is the effort to adapt themselves to 
changes in the environment that induce the modifica- 
tion in the fish. If frightened, or excited, or if in dis- 
tress, the changes occur instantly in many cases; 
more slowly in others. In the case of fish that are not 
so brilliantly colored but are distinguished by marks 
or blotches, an instant change may be noted in these 
markings, stripes or spots, appearing or disappearing 
as the case may be. In the natural state, the light 
or dark-colored bed of a stream, the yellow or green 
tone of seaweed, and the like, induce the change. 
Among northern sea fish that change their pattern 
are the sea-bass, tautog, porgy and puffer. It can 
readily be seen that this capacity for change implies 
ability for successful concealment either as a means 
of escape from a foe, or for approach upon their prey. 
An article describing these "Chameleons of the Sea" 
was published in 1910 in the Century Magazine, 
written by C. H. Haskins. It can be obtained at the 
Aquarium in pamphlet form for 15 cents. 

While of interest and value for the teacher and 
older children we would not make much use of it in 
kindergarten. It is well to reserve some of Nature's 
wonders for a plane of development when they can be 
better appreciated than at the kindergarten age. 



To the Chairman of the Committee of the Whole: 

Why not have the children in the country schools 
save a few ears of corn, and at Thanksgiving time 
shell them, and make their own festoons by soaking 
and stringing? Exercises in color discrimination 



can be had by letting the children select and make 
short strings of kernels of same hue. Some kernels 
are darker than others in tone and some are actually 
different in colors, as the black Mexican variety. 
Group work could result in a portiere, several chil- 
dren combining their strings of different length. A 
rose-haw or cranberry could be inserted between the 
tenth and eleventh, to make variety. 

Cornhusks are extremely decorative, and are beauti- 
fully appropriate for the schoolroom, at this season. 
Remove husk from the ear, so that they still hold to- 
gether, and arrange singly or in clusters, as fancy 

dictates. 

S. T. 

To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

In a recent daily we read that Eleanor Gilbert 
suggests that "Experience in business should stand 
for more than 'so many years' work' ". What do our 
teachers think of such a plan for judging capacity? 
It is certainly true that two teachers may begin their 
life-work at the same time and in the same school, 
and when the year is completed one will be very 
much more valuable to the State than the other, just 
because she has seized every opportunity to enlarge 
her experience and hence her capacity, while the other 
has stood still. The question is, as Miss Gilbert puts 
it, "How much do you remember and apply so that 
the same mistake is never repeated?" We would also 
ask, how much are you able to profit by the mistakes 
and successes of others? A new school year begins. 
The children will profit much, of course, under your 
instruction. How much will you yourself have 
profited at the end of the year? That is the question 
I ask myself as the new term commences. 

H. M. B. 
The Editor would add to the above statement and 
query, the remark that one object of THE KINDER- 
GARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE'S existence is to 
supply vicariously, to pool, as it were, the experiences 
of many, that the many others may benefit thereby. 

To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

I think an interesting exercise would be to have 
some child recite the part of "Hiawatha's Fasting" 
which relates to his wrestling with Mondamin, and 
while so reciting, let him hold a choice stalk of corn, 
with its leaves and an ear or so, and the tassel, still 



80 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



intact. Possibly it would be necessary to arrange 
some weeks before, to have the stalk saved, but this 
would be an excellent lesson for the children in fore- 
thought. A. T. L. 

To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

I would suggest that at Mother's Meetings there 
should be discussion as to the seating of children at 
moving-picture shows. The films move so smoothly 
now, that if seated at the proper distances, the eyes 
need not seriously suffer, but when children seat 
themselves as close to the screen as the seats admit, 
one can readily understand that the focus of the eyes 
may be severely srained. Should not the parents 
protest against placing seats so near that injury re- 
sults? 

J. M. 
Any one who attends the Motion Picture shows can- 
not fail to observe the large attendance of children 
and that some seats are placed too near the screen. It 
would seem that when grown to adulthood, the eyes 
would prove very defective, and thus handicap a 
life career. It is a matter well worth consideration at 
a parents' meeting, and after discussion a formal pro- 
test might well be addressed to the local Board of 
Health requesting that the seat be placed at the cor- 
rect distance for right vision. 

At the beginning of the season the teacher should 
make sure that the children are seated at such dis- 
tance from the blackboard and platform that those 
with defective sight or hearing mav see and hear 
to best possible advantage, and thus not be mistaken- 
ly blamed for apparent stupidity or inattention. 

(Editor.) 

To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

I am so distressed when I visit the Parks at the 
disgraceful way in which people scatter newspapers 
around or leave their lunchbox wrappings disfiguring 
long stretches of otherwise beautiful lawn, that I 
think a really patriotic service will be done, if every 
teacher determines to impress upon her pupils the 
wrong of littering up (often within a few feet of a 
waste paper receptacle) the property that belongs to 
the community. I would suggest that tiny parks be 
laid out in sandbox, or even a green paper for grass 
can be stretched upon a desk; then make paths and 
plrce tiny trees, and then ask if the makers think it 
an improvement to scatter paper around? Make tiny 
paper receptacles and let tiny dolls eat their lunch 
and then carefully pick up the papers and place them 
in the little box or tin provided. This would react 
also, in a desire for better kept streets. 

To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

What part does fear play in the desire of the 
nations to be armed against each other? If fear of 
Nature's harmless creature's could be eliminated 
would this aid in the movement for the disarmament 
of the nations? This question arose in my mind 
when I read that extremely interesting article by H. 
D. Bailey, "Children and Bugaboos", in the Indepen- 
dent for August 10. After numerous tests Prof. 



Bailey arrives at the conclusion that little children 
have no innate antipathy "for creatures such as call 
forth dread in adult man." Several delightful pic- 
tures from photographs show a child less than four 
years old, handling with cool curiosity a hissing 
viper; another exhibits his interest in the viper 
"playing dead." Others show him stroking a toad 
and studying a caterpillar. We recommend this 
article to the consideration of every mother and 
teacher. 



THANKSGIVING BAY. 



By De. Maby E. Law, Toledo. 

Like our national holiday the Fourth of July, 
Thanksgiving Day is essentially of American origin 
and unique in its manner of celebration. Not that 
feasts and fasts were uncommon in those days, but 
the wild turkey, the Indian corn, the potatoes and 
tobacco which graced the feast were novelties to the 
beef-eating Pilgrims. The story of the first Thanks- 
giving is of rare interest to the child. The teacher 
should prepare herself by reading a good history of 
the United States or of the early settlers and settle- 
ments. 

The story of the Mayflower is of thrilling interest to 
children of all ages. As soon as a foundation has been 
laid by the story, the children should begin the work 
of making the first settlement, rude log houses out of 
the sticks and furniture with the gifts and occupa- 
tions. Songs and games should be sung and played 
relating to the day. The carpenter, blacksmith, 
baker and other primitive occupations. 

A sand table should again form the center ®f the 
picture. The coast of Holland should 'be made with 
its dikes, windmills and tulip beds. On the opposite 
side the coast of Mass. with Plymouth rocks in the 
foreground. Of course Mary Chilton who was first 
to spring upon the rocks is the chief figure and later 
Priscilla, who cooked the Thanksgiving dinner. 
Miles Standish and Squanto the good Indian who 
brought the popcorn, must not be forgotten, nor must 
we forget little Oceana White who was born on the 
Mayflower coming over. 

It is well to have the children dramatize the little 
play especially the leading characters. A feast should 
be prepared by the children, corn popped and a fowl 
roasted if an open fire place is available. Nor must 
we forget the little children all about us who may have 
no fine dinner on that day unless the Kindergarten 
children provided it for them. Each child should 
bring something and a basket prepared for some par- 
ticular family. Sometimes it is a delight to the 
children to hollow out a large pumpkin and fill it 
with goodies, for it makes a vivid and lasting impres- 
sion upon the children, both the givers and recipients. 
Children should be taught the spiritual meaning of 
Thanksgiving Day. 



Choose an author as you choose a friend. — Earl 
of Roscommon. 



The empty vessel makes the greatest sound,- 
Shakespeare. 




The Sheepfold — C. F. Pierce 



STUDY OF A PICTURE. III. 
By Mary E. Cotting. 

Ask as the picture is placed — What do you see here? 
Why where are the sheep Why are they in the 
shed, or sheep-fold? No, it isn't night — do 
you think the door would he left open at 
night? It is cold weather and they kept 
all summer? Who took care of them? Will the 
shepherd and his dog still care for them? Can you 
see those racks along the wall? Find out what is in 
them. Do the sheep have nothing but hay to eat? 
(Meal, corn and salt). Where is their drinking- 
trough? Funny one? 

It looks as if it had been made from what? Maybe 
some of the boys at the farm made it — they love the 
sheep. What animals are those with the horns? They 
are the rams. They're the "lambs' fathers." See where 
the lambs are — can you? What are the fowls doing? 
Do they stay here all night? Maybe, they like to be 
where these animals are, and they will n®t disturb 
them. Sheep, you know, are timid, and would be 
frightened if they were put with large, noisy, animals. 
These sheep seem to be happy and contented, don't 
they? Why, there is a window! What is it for? Of 
course, for sheep and even fowls need to have air 
and light just as much as we do. Has someone forgot- 
ten to shut the door? No, that is left open on pleasant 
days because the sheep must go in and out the sheep- 
pen just outside. They must have exercise during 
tie winter. On very fine days they are all driven out, 
the door is closed and the dog set on guard for 
nearly all day. When it grows colder in the afternoon 



they are put in the fold again. Why does their own- 
er take such good care of his flock? Would Paul 
have had his new, warm coat if there were no sheep? 
Now you can guess why the sheep are well treated. 
Have any of you ever seen any sheep? Where? Be 
sure, the next time you go to the park to visit them.. 
Try to find out what they eat; watch them as they 
eat; notice their lips and teeth; als© look carefully at 
their feet. If you are allowed to do so toucn their 
wool and find out all you can about that on the back, 
sides and under part of of the body. 

It is not necessary to give one exhaustive lesson 
on this picture of Mr. C. F. Pierce, who is one of the 
foremost painters of animal pictures of this character 
in America. Several lessons may be developed aug- 
menting those given upon preparation for winter. 
Stories and games depicting the life and character 
of sheep may be taught. 

THE LITTLE GIRL (BOY) AT OUR HOUSE. 

Thumb — "This is the little girl (boy) at our house. 
Pointer — "This is the mother who made the warm 

dress (coat) for the little girl (boy) at our house. 
Long-man — This is the weaver who wove the cloth 

from which the mother made the warm dress (coat) 

for the little girl (boy) at our house. 
Ring-finger — "This is the spinner who spun the 

thread from which the weaver wove the cloth, etc. 
Little-man — "This is the sheep thai gave its wool 

from which the spinner spun the thread from which 

the weaver, etc." 
Direction For Playing — 

Hold left forearm upright. Close hand. Raise 
thumb which touch with tip of index finger of 
right hand. As the story progresses raise each finger 
which touch with index finger. Touch each finger 
every time the person or animal it represents is nam- 
ed. When the game is finished the hand is upheld 
open, and fingers and thumb are outspread. 



82 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




Translated from the German by Bertha Johnston 
ALL GONE 
(See Page 68.) 
(Motto For The Mother) 
How may the Baby's soul and brain 
The enigma of All Gone explain? 
Sense and meaning therein must be 
Else not so attracted he. 
Oh, puzzle strange to baby mind; 

What but now he saw, 

Is here no more; 
And what was above, below he'll find; 

That which was here 

Doth disappear: 

Where can it be? 

Oh, mystery; 
See thus beholding one in two * 
Attracts and contents our Little Boy Blue. 

(Song For The Child) 

All gone, my child, all gone; 

The supper is all gone. 

Where, O Baby, show to me — 

What, inside the mouth so wee! 

Yes, then tongue the morsel guides 

Till down Baby's throat it slides 

Down it slips; is churned and churned, 

Then to bones and blood is turned. 

Making Baby plump and sweet 

Almost good enough to eat! 

When his dimpled cheeks and eyes 

Laugh to see our great surprise. 
The movement of the hand turning from almost hor- 
izontal to almost vertical is universally known as a 
gesture of negation or one which signifies that of a 
certain thing nothing more remains or that a certain 
person is no longer present. 

This little play, it is true, exercises the child's 
wrist in only one direction, and this direction, to- 
gether with the accompanying illustration and reflec- 
tions is the complete opposite of the one preceding. 
(The Weather Vane). In that one there was a wide- 
ly-diffused Presence: here, is a lack. As there was 
something that endured, so here, there is a general 
end of things. As there was there a lively sugges- 
tion of the present, here, there is a general remind- 
er of a "had been", the Past; throughout, the pointing 
to something earlier, or something gone before, in con- 
trast with Now. Everywhere is the suggestion of 
something that was there, but now is gone: the sup- 
per is gone — the plate is empty — the candle extin- 
guished — no salt is left. 

Even the dog, Watch, who accompanied the father 
to and from the field, has eaten his meal. He appears 
to be hungry yet, but — all's gone. The boy is thirsty: 
"please sister, give me some water." "It's all gone," 
she says, holding the glass upside down before him, 
to convince him, to convince herself. This unexpect- 
ed and unwelcome news has drawn his attention from 
the bread and butter lying behind him; the cunning 

♦Literally, "one is in both (or two). Therefore is 
the child contented. 



cat seems to have noticed this, she creeps slowly to- 
wards it, and snatches the bread away to eat it. 
When the boy turns at last to get it, it will be "all 
gone." 

I am sorry, indeed, for the little girl there; she 
meant so well, intending to feed her bird, but she care- 
lessly left the tiny door open as she looked down on 
the empty glass of her sister. "Where is your canary, 
my child?" "Oh dear! it is gone! It flew away." 
"Come with me, little sister," says her brother, con- 
solingly. "Outside, in an old tree, I know where 
there is a nest with a lot of little birds. I will fetch 
it to you: in place of just one, you will then have 
many. Come, only come!" See! there they stand, 
so lost in expectation that the still hungry dog, follow- 
ing the children, eats the bread from the boy's hand, 
un-noticed so that when he turns round again hence 
we hear it is "all gone!" 

The brother is already up the tree. "But what do 
I find? there is nothing here: the birds have flown." 
"But one of the nestlings shall be mine," said the 
other brother. "See, I have caught it and- hidden it 
here beneath my hat. How glad sister will be, bye 
and bye, when I give it to her. Just as glad as I am 
at sight of you, you beautiful raspberries, that I find 
here! How good you will taste! Just be patient 
awhile, in your darkness, little bird!" But now the 
wandering wind comes stealing long, turns the hat 
over, sets the bird free, and when the boy returns 
"Alas, the bird is gone." 

"Mother, I don't want to look at the picture any 
more: everything in it disappears and no one keeps 
what he has or wants." "Ah, my child, if we would 
keep anything we must be as careful and watchful 
as possible and never let oneself be misled by covet- 
ousness. If we wish to possess something in the future 
we must exercise foresight in season. In the expect- 
ancy, unfulfilled, of quenching his thirst, the boy for- 
got his bread: through carelessness the canary escap- 
ed from the little girl: the boy had no right to take 
the birds from the nest and cage it: it gained its free- 
dom through its strength and courage: the dog ate the 
bread from the hand of the boy who had given him- 
self up to expectancy: and, unable to resist the temp- 
ting raspberries, the boy lost the pleasure which he 
thought to give his sister. 

"Mother, let me look again at the fluttering, es- 
caping bird!' 

SUPPLEMENTARY REMARKS 
ALL GONE* 

All gone! 
All the blossoms fair of Spring — 

Bloom of apple, peach and pear, 
Which to gladden Mother Earth 

Sent sweet fragrance through the air. 

All gone! 
All the dandelions bright 

Fearless 'mid green spears of grass, 
Beckoning with their golden crowns 

Every little lad and lass. 

*We give these verses as supplementary to the first 
literal translation. The teacher may find them useful 
in her autumn lesson. 



THE KINDERGARTEK-PBIMiRY MAGAZINE. 



83 



All gone! 

But the lost may soon be found 

Though in quite another guise; 
Changed by Nature's magic wand 

But discerned by seeing eyes. 

Blossoms turned to luscious fruit, 

Grassy blades to fragrant hay! 
Dandelion's flowers wee, 

Changed to airships, flew away. 

All the precious hours of Spring 

Passed away to ne'er return 
But their seeds rich fruit may bear 

If their lessons we can learn. 

And my girlie's temper lost 

Causing grief to self and friends, 
May, regained and self-controlled, 

Be a power for noble ends. 

This play is preceded in Froebel's plan by one upon 
the weathervane, which fact explain^ references other- 
wise obscure. Inasmuch as we are publishing this 
series of translations with special reference to grade 
work we will not always take them in the exact order 
given in the original but will be regulated by what 
the seasons may suggest and by the requirements of 
the grades. 

It will be seen that in this case the Commentary 
does not in its thought exactly coincide with the 
verses for the child. The supper disappears indeed, 
but its elements still exist although in a form of much 
more value — bread and milk have become transmuted 
into baby's flesh and muscles which are again trans- 
muted into thought and smiles and pretty play. But 
in the Commentary, that which disappears seems to 
have gone with no suggestion of retriving the loss — it 
is gone for good and all. There are thus two points 
of view suggested and the teacher can therefore study 
and use the picture for two distinct purposes as will 
be pointed out below. 

PHYSICAL EXERCISES AND GAMES. 

The physical exercise of which the play is the basis 
is a simple wrist movement and we would here re- 
mind our readers that the exercises and plays were 
planned primarily for the little infant just learning 
to get control of his body through play. But the ex- 
ercise is an excellent wrist-movement for all ages. 
Older children may vary it by a vigorous waving 
"good-bye" to the friends they have made during the 
summer vacation — a farewell to someone who is "go- 
ing away." They may also vigorously shake their 
hands as if .flipping off water. "Where does the water 
go?" \ 

A little mystery play that children enjoy is the old 
nursery play, "Two Little Blackbirds" which we here 
describe for those to whom it may be unfamiliar, it 
being appropriate to this subject. 

Two Little Blackbirds — Upon the nail of each fore- 
finger paste a tiny bit of paper. Place the two fore- 
fingers side by side upon table or lap repeating: 

"Two little blackbirds sitting on a hill 
One named Jack, the other named Jill; 



Fly away Jack — ■ 
Fly away Jill — 
Come back Jack — 
Come back Jill." 

At the words "Fly away Jack, Fly away Jill" jerk 
the right and left hands respectively over the shoul- 
ders. Then bring each back in turn but with the 
middle finger extended, and the forefingers doubled 
beneath the hand, the paper scraps thus being in- 
visible. At the next words, "Come back," etc., bring 
back the forefingers, and the "birds" are again to be 
seen. You will probably hear, "Do it again" repeated- 
ly, as the mystery of the whence and whither puzzles 
and delights the child. 

"The Brown Birds Are Flying Like Leaves Through 
the Sky," by Eleanor Smith; "Fly Little Birdie," 
(Patty Hill) ; and similar bird songs which picture 
the migration of the birds are appropriate here. 

"Welcome Little Travelers," a familiar kindergar- 
ten game, can be played thus: Send a group of chil- 
dren away, to whom the remaining ones w&ve a good- 
bye. Upon the return of the absent ones (who have 
been in this case coached by the teacher) they are 
welcomed with the usual question: 

"Welcome little travelers, welcome, welcome home. 

Tell us, little travelers, from which land you come." 

They will reply: 

'We have come from Tadpole Land where people 
all were Tadpoles," etc., but instead of representing 
tadpoles they will now act the part of frogs. Similar- 
ly, they may sing: "We have come from caterpilar 
land," but will act the part now of butterflies. The 
teacher may ask, where have the tadpoles gone? 
What became of the caterpillars? 

This may be varied by suggestions from the vege- 
table world. The children may reply, "We have come 
from Lily-bulb Land, where people once were lily- 
bulbs." Let the children themselves also suggest 
different forms of life that have apparently "gone" 
but have in reality simply undergone a transfor- 
mation. 

Hide-and-Seek games and others such as "Hiding 
the thimble" may be played also. 

Tidying-up — The teacher may, when it seems fit- 
ting, playfully suggest that she would like to see the 
scraps of paper or other things out of place "all 
gone." Let us see if the dead leave? that dropped 
from the window-plant are "all gone;" also the grime 
from dirty hands. 

Let the teacher have a quiet game in which she 
suggests that she is thinking of something one foot 
tall, green, but in a few months it is yellow, is cut 
down, for awhile makes the air fragrant and then is 
"gone." But later it is found in the city where the 
horses eat it. What is it? Hay. Have similar guess- 
ing games centering around the things that disappear 
from one place and one form only to reappear in 
another. 

MENTAL SIGNIFICANCE 

The thought hinted at in the child's verses is closely 
akin to that known in the world of Force as the 
"conservation of energy." Here we have suggested 



84 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



the conservation or rather the indestructahility of 
matter, the transmutation of material things. The sup- 
per disappears, it is true, but it is by no means lost; 
it reappears in a very different form — in the baby's 
bright eyes and glowing cheeks. Let the older chil- 
dren study the picture and determine if the bread and 
butter, the birds, the candle are completely "gone," or 
merely gone in the sense that the baby's supper is. 

A side question of ethics may come up by discussion 
upon what happens to the bird unused to caring for 
itself, when it gets in the open, unable to recognize 
the right kind of food and in danger of being caught 
by the cat or killed by native birds, as an alien. In 
a later song Froebel points out graphically the re- 
sponsibility of wisely protecting and caring for the 
animal that we have made dependent upon our 
thoughtfulness. 

Older children may be able to tell what has become 
of the nestlings. "What of the burnt candle? Instead 
of trying at once to gratify childish curiosity regard- 
ing this mastery, let the children feel that it is 
mysterious but that when older, through experiment 
or study they will be able to find for themselves the 
different elements into which it has been resolved. 

A burnt candle and a burnt house both are "all 
gone." What is the difference to man? In one case 
the consumption has been to him a gain, in the other 
case a loss. A comparison may be made between the 
light-giving candle in this picture and the oil-lamp 
in the one preceding. In the September, 1909, Phili- 
stine, Elbert Hubbard gives a sprightly historic sum- 
mary of the different illuminants in order of their 
succession. 

When the children make soap-bubbles let them feel 
the mystery of the sudden disappearance of the filmy 
sphere. 

ETHICAL SIGNIFICANCE 

As said above, the picture lesson may be viewed 
from two aspects. In the one case we see the natural 
Gonsequences, so well illustrated by Froebel, that 
follow carelessness and unthinking greed or cove- 
tousness; we see a future good lost because of present 
want of care, and forthought — a fault common to 
childhood, if not to too many that are supposedly 
mature. It is the teacher's privilege as it is that of 
the parent, to train the child to rightly measure the 
comparative importance of things and events and 
the picture is an aid to this end. Let the children 
give examples of home experience in finding things 
"all gone." The boy comes late to breakfast and 
finds things cleared away; the girl forgets to fill the 
lamp in the morning and it soon burns out in the 
evening. (Wise and Foolish Virgins.) The boy 
whose money goes in foolish evannescent pleasures — 
the penny slot-machine, and frequent sodas, has noth- 
ing left for things worth while. The drinking, ca- 
rousing Hessians in the Revolutionary war, lost an 
important position by foolish inattention to business, 
and England's short-sighted King lost the American 
colonies by inability to weigh matters wisely. Lost 
time and lost tempers may also form a sub-topic 
of this subject. 



But a larger thought and one more constructive id 
character, is contained in the child"s song, i. e., in- 
destructahility of matter, as before suggested. Al- 
though apparently lost, matter is never "all gone;" it 
simply changes its form, sometimes becoming in- 
visible gas. The baby's supper becomes blood and 
muscle, bone and sinew. The leaves which flutter 
down from the sighing tree become rich soil for fu- 
ture generations, and in time the tree itself, fallen, 
disintegrates and Mother Nature beautifies it with 
moss and lichen. The lost canary may never return 
but the child may garner a lesson from sad experi- 
ence that will enrich future life. Time once gone, 
never returns; let us improve each moment that for 
good or ill leaves an impression upon the future. 

Closely linked with this thought is that of the 
resurrection, the mystery of the ages. When life 
departs from the body is it "all gone?" The wise, 
thoughtful teacher must decide for herself which 
of the many suggestions in this Mother play best 
suit her children's needs. 



CONFERENCE ON TRAINING TEACHERS. 

The United States Commission of Education has 
called a conference of specialists in charge of depart- 
ments in State universities, normal schools and other 
institutions for the training of teachers for vocational 
schools, and presidents or directors of such institu- 
tions, to be held in connection with the 1914 annual 
convention of the National Society for the Promotion 
of Industrial Education, Richmond, Va. 

The conference will be held, by invitation, in the 
rooms of the Richmond Business Men's Club, Friday 
evening, December 11. The conference will be pre- 
ceded by an informal dinner at 6 p. m.,; tickets, $1. 
Application for copies of the programme of the con- 
ference and cards of admission, should be addressed, 
before December 1, to W. T. Bawden, U. S. Bureau of 
Education, Washington, D. O, who is in charge of the 
arrangements. 



A BEAUTIFUL CHAIN. 

• An Ethical Lesson. 

Children are like links in a beautiful chain. Every 
smile, every kind word or action adds more beauty 
to the link. 

Impatience, anger, disobedience, shirking of 
duties, quarreling, telling falsehoods, all tarnish and 
blacken the links. 

Let each one keep his link bright and beautiful 
and we shall have a splendid chain. 

A little girl once said to herself: "I shall always 
try very hard to obey my parents and teacher 
cheerfully and quickly in everything they ask. I 
know they are given to me by my Father in Heaven 
to teach me what is right. I shall always try to do 
what I know my parents and teacher would like 
me to do even if they do not tell me about it. 1 
will try to be always kind and patient with my 
little sister and brother." 

That little girl was loved by all who knew her, 
and so if you want to be happy and kept from 
trouble and harm always remember to obey your 
parents quickly and cheerfully and to do nothing 
to grieve them. 







STRAIGHT LINE CUTTING 

By Carrfe L. Wagner. 

The kindergarten children enjoy talks on Thanks- 
giving, and find pleasure in an occupation which sug- 
gests the festive time. The paster pictured here is 
made from a four inch square, folded into sixteen 
squares. Cut from one side four squares in a straight 
line from the bottom, then cut off in the lines. Paste 
the two end squares on the diagonal, and cut off. This 
forms the boat. Cut the sails from the twelve squares; 
fold the two upper corners to the center of the first 
line from the bottom, then cut off on the lines. Paste 
these two triangles on the boat as illustrated. 

To make the house: cut off the square and triangle 
from each side of the piece left after making the boat, 
then cut off the triangle at the top. Divide the four 
squares into eight equal parts, and cut into strips, 
Use the triangular piece for the roof; paste two of the 
strips perpendicularly at each side, and paste five of 
the strips horizontally for the cabin. To form the door 
cut half an inch from three of these strips before past- 
ing. The remaining strip may be cut into two pieces 
for the door facing. The chimney is a small strip 
cut from one of the triangles left from the boat, and 
the canoe is cut free hand from the other triangle. 
The wigwams are also cut free hand from the squares 
and triangles left from the sides of the house. 



A READING LESSON CORRELATED WITH JACK 

AND JILL. 

By Harriet Kahn. 

Suggestions for a "Reading lesson" correlated with 
the teaching of the nursery rhyme "Jack and Jill." 

Teacher writes: on the blackboard. 

I wish the children to listen to me while I read this 
story to them. Teacher reads the whole story to the 
children with expression. "Now, the children may 
read the story to me." 

Henry may read the first line, Ed may read the 
third line, Florence may read the fourth line and 
Josie the second. 

The children of the first aisle may come to the 
blackboard and see how quickly they can find the word 
I ask for, "Jack." "That's right; next boy find Jack 
again. Yes, that's a different Jack. Find Jill, 



Another Jill, Find water. Find up the hill, etc., etc. 

Now watch, what word did I rub off? Watch again, 
etc., etc., till whole rhyme is erased. 

Who can come to the blackboard and make a pic- 
ture of the word "Jack," of "Jill," of "hill"? 

Suggestions for a Phonic lesson, correlated with the 
teaching of the nursery rhyme "Jack and Jill." 

Teacher writes the word ill on the blackboard. She 
says: The name of this word is ill and any word 
that look like that, but has other letters before it, 
belongs to he same family. We'll call it the ill 
family. Look at your reading lesson and see if you 
can find any word that belongs to the ill family. 
"Yes, J-ill." Teacher writes Jill under ill as indicat- 
ed. 

ill 
J-ill 

What is the sound of that first letter? Children 
give sound of J. Now, say that sound and then say 
the word ill. Now say one right after the other J-ill. 
Now run them together — Jill. Find another word 
belonging to the ill family. Yes, hill. 
ill 
J-ill 
h-ill. 

Teacher goes through same process. Can any- 
body think of a word that is not in your reading 
lesson that belongs to the ill family? Children sug- 
gest 6-ill, /-ill, fc-ill, etc. Teacher writes them on 
blackboard in a column and drills upon them 

Spelling lesson may follow the phonic lesson. 

"First, child spell ill. Next, fill, kill, rill, bill, 
Jill," etc. 

Presuming that the and family had been treated in 
the same manner as the ill family, children may be 
taught to spell and, hand, sand, land, band, stand, 
etc., etc. 

Suggestions for a "Geography lesson," correlated 
with the teaching of the nursery rhvme "Jack and 
Jill." 

Laura may go to the sand-box and make a hill. 
Make another one, William. Who can tell me what a 
hill is? What is higher than a hill? Amy may make 
a mountain. What do we call the land between the 
hills — or the mountains. Milton, show me the valleys. 
Suppose it should rain on the top of the hills or the 
mountains, what would the water do? Yes, run down. 
They form a stream and run down into the valley, 
a mountain. What do we call the land and between the 
etc., etc, 




All- 



1 st- 



Snd- 



Srd— 



4th— 



5th- 



(All 
All- 



A PILGRIM PLAY. 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 
Book Rights Reserved. 

We are litle Pilgrim mothers gay, 
We meet to keep Thanksgiving Day, 
We bow to you in stately way, 
Upon this glad Thanksgiving Day. 

We are the Pilgrims, as you know, 
We came from England long ago, 

We turned the spinning wheels around, 
With very pleasant humming sound. 

We helped to plant the oats and corn, 
We worked away from early morn. 

Some friendly Indians we met, 
Who helped us as did Samoset. 



Song. 



On Sundays then we used to go, 
Marching to church in solemn row, 
rise, march toward the front.) 

The Little Pilgrims of today, 
Are not as solemn as they say, 
They used to be, so long ago, 
But still we pause and courtesy low, 
We will sing a song if we are able, 
Of little Peregrine in his cradle. 
Tune "Lightly Row." (All wave arms.) 
To and fro, to and fro, 
Rock the little babies so, 
To and fro, to and fro, 
Singing as we go, 
Pilgrim mothers quiet keep, 
When the babies are asleep, 
To and fro, to and fro, 
Rock the babies so. 



A THANKSGIVING EXERCISE. 

For 12 Little People. 
By Edith Gray. 
1st Child— T stands for Turkey 

A splendid big bird. 
Thanksgiving without it 
Would be quite absurd. 
2nd Child— H stands for Harvest 

The grand time in the Fall 
When the barn and the storehouse 
Are full — wall to wall. 
1. 
3rd Child — There are Apples, and Nuts, 

Grapes, some still on the Vine, 
If Jack Frost does not Kiss them 
They will ripen in time. 



6th Child— S is for Sunshine 

We can't live without it. 
Thanksgiving's a good time 
To be thankful about it. 
2. 
8th Child — I is my letter, and mine too, 
You can see. 
It stands for Ice-cream, which 
Our desert's going to be. 

11th Child — N is to Never forget 
Who has given 
These wonderful blessings, 
'Tis our Father in Heaven. 

12th Child — G stands for His name— God; 
And His Goodness to all. 
Let us now bow our heads 
As to Him we do call. 

All together — "Father, we thank Th.3 for the night 
And for the pleasant morning lisht, 
For rest and food and loving care 
And all that makes the world so fair. 
Help us to do the things we should 
To be to others kind and good 
In all we do in work or play 
To grow more loving every day. Amen." 

Directions — Have the children in line with the 
letters which, at the close of the exercise show the 
word, THANKSGIVING. 

1. — Let the one holding A say this verse while four 
of the smallest children hold up their letters at the 
the words, — Nuts, Grapes, Vine, and Kiss. The var- 
iety of having letters shown in different places in 
the line is a pleasant change from the regular order. 

2. — Have tenth child now hold its letter up and join 
in balance of verse with eighth child. 

All with bowed heads sing or repeat softly the 
familiar prayer. 

THE FIRST THANKSGIVING 
By Laura Rountree Smith. 
Over the sea, in England; 

Some people, brave and true, 
Left home and country, that they might 
Serve God, as they should do. 

In Holland first, they found a home, 

But soon they left that shore; 
Their children all were growing Dutch, 

They'd English be no more. 

So to a country new and strange, 

Where they could English be; 
This little band of pilgrims 

Set sail, across the sea. 

With vessels two they started, 

Speedwell, and Mayflower, they; 
But the Speedwell leaked, so the Mayflower 

Bore all upon their way 



THE KXNDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



87 



On Plymouth Rock they landed, 

Their houses built of wood 
And thankful hearts they had, that they 

Might worship as they should. 

But the ground was hard and rocky, 
No corn or wheat would grow; 

And they gathered in no harvest 
For the winter's frost and snow. 

Cold and bitter was the Autumn, 
And the children hungry grew 

Those poor but faithful Pilgrims, 
Could not think what they should do 

But a ship brought more provisions 
And the Indian's friendly were; 

Taught them how to plant their grain, 
And in their labour took a share. 



The Kindergarten Gift Known as Rings Correlated 

with some of the Kindergarten Occupations, 

Adapted to Primary Grades 



A PRAYER. 

Father, we thank Thee for our mothers, 

And for our fathers, too; 
For our sisters and our brothers; 

For all our friends so true. 



Second Gift Game. 

I'm a little farmer, 

My field I must prepare; 
My horse and roller I must use — 

The ground is now all bare. 

My horse is now all ready 

To help me work today; 
He pulls the roller back and forth 

As tho' it were mere play. 

My work is now all finished, 
Of my horse I must take care; 

He must be very thirsty now, 
So we'll to the trough repair. 



HURRAH FOR THANKSGIVING 

Tune: "When Johnny Comes Marching Home" 
Thanksgiving Day is here once more, Hurrah! 

Hurrah! 
Of fruits and grains we have a store, Hurrah! 

Hurrah! 
We come from the north, we come so gay; 
We come from the south, on this bright day, 
For we all will greet Thanksgiving Day again. 

We bring you pumpkins big and fair, Hurrah! 

Hurrah! 
A.»d turkeys good and chickens rare, Hurrah! 

Hurrah! 
And pies and cakes, all crisp and sweet, 
And apples red, so good to eat, 
For we all will greet Thanksgiving Day again. 



"Had I Thought" died in the poor house. — Ger- 
man. 



Better a mistake avoided than two corrected. 



By Lileon Claxton-North. 

The kindergarten gift commonly spoken of as rings 
is one of the gifts that can be used in the primary 
grade with satisfaction. It is comparatively inex- 
pensive, durable, occupies little storage room and 
adapts itself to regular lines of grade work; all of 
which are important factors to a Primary teacher who 
is considering introducing kindergarten materials into 
her program. 

The gifts consist of iron rings, one inch, one and 
one-half inches and two inches in diameter; also 
halves and quarters of each of these. 

The keynote to successful work with rings is that 
the children grasp the underlying principle of 
opposites upon which the gift is based. This is not to 
say that the teacher need attempt to explain what 
is meant by opposite or that she talk much about it to 
her class. A method of dictating that has been tried 
with marked success is this: Take two rings, one in 
right hand, one in left hand. Place them side by 
side, touching. Take two more, place one in front and 
one in back of the first two, touching. Continue this 
method, using both hands and occasionally introduce 
the term opposite; as place one at right side, one at 
left side, opposite each other. Wher. the pattern is 
finished call it a true pattern. Thus the principle of 
opposites becomes the child's working principle. 

Lesson may be: 

I. — Dictation — (a) Teacher; (b) Pupil. 

II. — Imitation — Some design placed before class. 

III. — Combination of dictation and imitation. 

IV. — Original work of children. 

V. — Imitation of the best original design of chil- 
dren. ( In this case if the child's name be kept before 
the class it acts as an incentive to original thinking.) 

And now is there any new way to say we must in 
this work as in all other go from the simple to the 
complex? If there be let us have it, for that is 
absolutely essential to satisfactory work with the 
rings. At first the designs must be simple indeed. 
Gradually they grow more complex both as to pattern 
and material. At times the class has limited material 
and then again an unlimited amount is placed at the 
disposal of the individuals, the aim being that the 
pattern be perfect. 

Again new life is given by naming some special 
use for the design, as an oilcloth, dress silk, tiling, 
wall paper, or a pillow top; also to name a purpose for 
which a given design would be suitable. In this con- 
nection it should be kept in mind that the real pur- 
pose of this gift is to make beauty forms rather than 
forms of life, though no great crime has been com- 
mitted if the children are allowed to make Mrs. 
Pussy or the snow man, and they do get so much real 
enjoyment from these and similar forms. Another 
opportunity for variety is afforded by naming a given 
space and having the class make patterns suitable to 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PEIMARY MAGAZINE 



that space, or after completing a pattern let children 
determine the amount of background it requires. 

A dictated pattern need not always be finished; 
gi-ve directions for part and let the children finish the 
design. Examples: In a design for a pillow top direct 
the center and let children make corners or border; 
again, give the children the center of the design to be 
completed with limited material or, later, unlimited 
material. 

In order to have the children see a large variety of 
designs it is well to allow the class to pass around 
and look at all the work in the room, taking care that 
all incorrect work is first corrected or removed. The 
rule in designing that a prevailing purpose should 
govern the whole pattern must be always kept as a 
guide to the children in original work, and as a basis 
of criticism by either teacher or pupil. From the 
first grade the children should sort their own mater- 
ials at the close of the lesson. It can be collected 
while marching, recess or blackboard exercises are 
being conducted. 

So much for the gift as a gift. Now let us see in 
what way it may be related to kindergarten occupa- 
tions that are either already in the primary course or 



circles or drawing models, and should be done with 
both hands. 

Drawing on designing paper is a very interesting 
development of the ring work. Later the children 
could rule in the squares with given dimensions and 
place the patterns at required distances. 

Color may be introduced in drawing as well as 
painting. 

Spinning the rings like a top shows the form of a 
sphere. 

Painting — Watercolor washes can be made for 
backgrounds for the drawing, cutting and pasting or 
laying of rings. The whole design may be painted for 
silk, tiling, etc. Colors being chosen by teacher first 
and later by the pupil. After reproducing exactly the 
ring patterns, some of them could be changed into 
conventionalized flower patterns. The figures on the 
sewing cards may be painted in with splendid effect. 

Cutting and Pasting — Cutting may be either to the 
line, free, or a combination of these with or without 
given dimensions. The circles traced as indicated 
before may be cut and pasted to reproduce designs 
made with rings. After much practice with cutting 
to the line the children should cut circles without the 



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may easily be added. 

The following is a list of the occupations that are 
practical for the grades in connection with this gift: 

Drawing Painting Cutting Pasting Sewing Clay 
Sand. 

Drawing — The patterns and designs that the chil- 
dren make can be drawn to a greater or less extent, 
according to the grade. The children in any grade 
could make many patterns, however, that they could 
not reproduce with pencil or brush. Aside from 
variety of design, the factor of measurement can be 
introduced by calling for circles of a given size. 
After practice in the work, using rulers or compasses, 
children should be allowed to draw given sizes with 
only the eye to guide. These should be tested with 
measures when complete. A step still further in ad- 
vance of that is to require children to draw patterns 
without having first made them with rings, allowing 
them rules and compasses in the beginning, then not. 
Such drawings should very often be reproduced with 
the rings to allow children to see the perfect patterns. 

For blackboard drawing these patterns are very 
effective and can be done with either hand and later 
with both hands working at once. 

Tracing should form part of the work with pencils. 
The patterns could be traced around rings, cardboard 



line. Later the children should divide them into 
halves and quarters, thus introducing the factor of 
measurement again. 

The pasting should be carried on to a limited extent 
and for short periods, as at best it is taxing to the 
finer muscles and nerves of the hand and eye. Paper 
rings already gummed may be secured at the kinder- 
garten supply house. 




I have a little heart of gold 

It hangs upon a chain, 
I got it for not being bold, 

And pleasing Cousin Jane. 

F. G. Sanders, Toronto. 



Better lose the anchor than the whole ship.' 
Dutch. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



89 



STANDARDS FOR KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING 

Problems of the Present, Hopes and Ideals for 

the Future 

By Luella A. Palmer 

(Concluded from September issue) 

Tho requirements for entrance to a kindergarten 
training school should be, then, that the candidate 
be eighteen years of age, have a high school diploma 
or its equivalent, a certificate of health from the train- 
ing school physican, and show musical ability. 
Where a course in Child Study has not shown adapt- 
ability for the profession, a year's probation is re- 
quired. Probation of one year is also required to 
show: (1) Ability to co-operate with adults; (2) 
General culture; (3) Intelligence. 

Now, we come to professional training. Here is 
the knottiest problem. We want to turn out kinder- 
gartners who are fairly good at the start and war- 
ranted to improve; those who have had practice 
enough with the children to know what to do now 
and who have had theory enough to form a good 
basis for future growth. In what does improvement 
consist? In raising one's own ideals and also in 
studying children to find better methods to help them 
to develop. This means getting a better content for 
education and a more developing method. This sug- 
gests two points which need attention in every train- 
ing school: (1) A study of the development of ideals 
and principles in order that the general trend of de- 
velopment can be the guide as to future educational 
movements; and (2) The study of children in such 
a way that a means can be found by which to test 
the values of methods. 

A training school should provide not only for 
courses in educational principles, but also for courses 
dealing with the growth of these principles in hu- 
man consciousness. Other courses should be given 
which allow for the first-hand testing of principles 
and methods, the reaction of the children to the stim- 
ulus applied. 

It is said that there is "more teacher study by 
pupils than pupil study by teachers." This, I think, 
reveals the most glaring defect of our training school. 
We should imbue the embryo kindergartner with 
the idea that her first and most important duty is 
to study the individual child and provide him with 
the material, the situation, which will help in his 
development at this particular time. The old idea 
of education was the "pouring in" process; the 
new idea is the selection from what the child has to 
give and then the improvement of its expression. 
Some training schools do not give enough theory; 
the kindergartners these turn out will not be able to 
improve the child's expression successfully. In 
training schools which provide for sufficient theory, 
we have given it in solid lumps when it should be a 
crystalization out of practice. To change the figure, 
we give our students a mass of theory that is undi- 
gested when leaving the school — and much of it is 
never assimilated. 



There is too great a gap between "subject matter" 
and "method of presentation." We should teach sub- 
jects in a professional school so that the student will 
learn how to select the subject matter of education 
from a child's experience and interests. We give 6ut- 
and-dried principles and methods and say such reac- 
tions should follow when a certain material is present- 
ed to the children: we do not give the student an idea 
that she should be continually testing the value of 
her principles and methods by the reaction which 
the children make, nor do we show her that she must 
question the value of those very reactions. We 
must give to our students more of Froebel's spirit 
and less of his technique. We must show them how 
he was continually studying little children, how he 
built up out of this study his educational principles. 
We must not teach about Froedel's method but give 
the training in such a way that his method will be- 
come a habit of life. 

A kindergartner said to me: "I could write reams 
on the gifts, but I don't know how to help the child- 
ren to play with them. I can tell them to do certain 
things or get the children to suggest doing certain 
things, but I see it isn't play, it's just moving things 
about; there is no imagination connected with it." 
In her training school the subject of the course was 
probably designated The gifts, their principles and 
methods of use. It might have been called Play 
materials for the kindergarten, and the explanation 
read: This course provides for experimentation 
with play materials selected for educational pur- 
poses. Its purpose is twofold: (1) To show the 
natural experimentation with materials as they 
touch the play interests; (2) To shape these towards 
the school arts." A course so described would pro- 
bably help a student to feel the educational value of 
the blocks and sticks and yet approach this in such 
a way that she would understand how to use the na- 
tural interests of the child to appreciate these val- 
ues. 

Kindergarten training schools are not the only 
ones that are questioning their own methods of teach- 
ing. The normal schools in Wisconsin feel it as one 
of their problems. They say:- — 

"We seem unable to solve two main problems. The 
first is, that the professional work is all thrown on 
the department of psychology and education by the 
teachers of the academic subjects, who claim that 
they have time to give only the subject matter of 
their particular subjects, and no time to devote to 
methods of teaching. And we of the professional 
department are making our courses in psychology 
and tneory too technical, with too little vital bear- 
ing on the problems which these young people will 
meet as teachers; are meeting right now in their 
practice work in the training school." 

In any normal school, subjects should not be 
taught in an "academic way" for subject matter only. 
While the content should not be neglected, it should 
be learned by such a method that its relation to 
presentation in a class room could be plainly seen. 
The "problem" method is the one that seems to 



90 



THE KINDEKGAKTEN-PKIMARY MAGAZINE 



answer this demand. It might be well to take an 
illustration far afield from our own special subject 
in order to show this method clearly. If a training 
class were learning history, instead of taking the 
Revolution as a center around which to gather dates 
and facts, the problem would be, "What are the facts 
you would wish a class of sixth grade children to re- 
member about the Revolution? Why would you select 
them? How would you preserve them? The training 
student would need to read widely in order to make a 
wise choice; would need to bring the facts gleaned 
into some scheme of organization in order to find out 
the purpose — the possible modification of the child's 
bent of mind and character; and besides she would 
need to bring all into relation with the main point of 
her training course, the teaching of children. 

As an illustration of the "problem" method in the 
kindergarten, we might use the subject of color. We 
would ask a student the question, "How does a little 
child learn to distinguish color?" From observa- 
tion, helped by memory of her own childhood the 
student would see that it was by having a blue dress 
which was a favorite, or a brown book which con- 
tained a certain song. Questions might then be 
given to the student such as, "Why is it wise to learn 
to discriminate color?" "What is there about color 
that it would be well for a little child to know?" Here 
would enter adult theorizing, but to counteract this 
the next question might be. "Why should you select 
these facts?" "Of what use will they be to the child 
nowV After eliminating some of the adult theoret- 
ical facts in the light of the possibility of the child 
desiring the facts and using them and so drilling him- 
self upon them, the last question for the student 
would be, "How will you help the child to learn 
these facts in such a way that the purpose of learn- 
ing to discriminate color is fulfilled?" 

A student with such problems would need to study 
children attentively and read books, but, above all, 
she would need to use her own reasoning powers. 
Yet, after she has formulated her deductions, she 
would not only have facts and a theory of teaching 
about them, she would have a usaoie method for 
this particular point in technique which could be 
put into immediate practice, and also a method by 
which she could test any new situation which present- 
ed itself after she left the training school. 

This method does not admit of cramming facts, it 
necessitates reasoning, working over the facts, and 
so it requires a longer time than the old method, but 
it insures success and the prospect of continuous 
growth after teaching has begun. 

To use such a method will reqmre a training 
course of three years. In advocating this, we must 
remember that it is our duty to think, not only of the 
individual student but also of raising the teaching 
of little children to a professional standard. As a 
basis for discussion, the following is offered as a 
suggestive minimum course: — 



Training Course For The Teaching Of 

Little Children. 

Minimum Requirement 

First Year. Hours* 

Observation in kindergarten and first grades.... 90 

Observational child psychology 30 

Adult psychology 60 

Play materials for young children — Balls, blocks, 

toys, etc 60 

Constructive and artistic interests of young child- 
ren — Making of toys, cutting, painting, etc 60 

Play interests of little children — Free plays, games, 

rhythms, dances, dramatizations 60 

Language interests of little children — Conversation, 

stories, rhymes — also songs 60 

Nature interests of little children — Animals, plants, 

etc 30 

Hygiene of childhood 30 

Froebel's Study of Childhood 60 

540 
Second Year. 

Assistance in kindergarten and first grades 90 

Psychology of Childhood 60 

Dramatic arts. Principles and adult standards, 

function of festivals 60 

Application to young children, (a) With regard to 
stories, songs, etc 60 

(b) With regard to games, dances, etc 60 

Educational principles as seen in the work with 

little children 60 

History of Education with special emphasis upon the 

theories of Pestalozzi, Rousseau, Herbart, Froebel, 

Dewey 90 

Curricula for first school years 60 

540 
Third Year. 

First half. 

Practice teaching 225 

Consultation with director or training teacher ..90 
Second Half. 
Methods of teaching in elementary schools, with 
special reference to subjects of first two years. 60 

Observation and practice in first two grades 60 

Theory and practice of teaching 60 

Home and conservation of childhood 60 

555 
Elective Courses. 

Selected because a student is deficient or because 
she prefers some special line. 
Music, instrumental. 
Music, vocal. 
Voice training. 
Physical culture. 
Drawing, painting, design, etc. 
Literature. 
Playground methods. 
Methods for defective children. 
Biology. 

* On basis of 150 days of actual work per year. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



91 



EXPLANATION OF MINIMUM COURSE. 

1. Amount of observation and practice teaching. 

A kindergartner's business is to lead children, she 
should know them thoroughly. All subjects should be 
taught with relation to the children and the child- 
ren discussed in the class room should be no mere 
abstractions, but living, concrete realities. 

Observation by a young student with no problem 
in mind, no particular point to be watched for, is 
almost wasted time. During the first year the days 
of observation should be arranged so that the teacher 
of psychology will give the "problem" for certain days, 
the teacher of "play materials" the question for an- 
other day, and so on. By thus simplifying the pur- 
pose of the observation, the student will define her 
ideas of child nature more quickly and clearly. 

The assistance of the second year should be the 
care of the play before nine o'clock, taking the child- 
ren for walks and sometimes taking charge of a group 
of children. Both "observation" and "assistance" 
periods would be of more value if arranged so that 
the student saw the consecutive work of a whole day. 

Practice teaching occupies all the morning hours 
of the first half of the third year. It is arranged in 
this way so that if necessary, a student may take a 
regular position and be paid a salary. Little work is 
required in the afternoon; young teachers are often 
exhausted by the first responsibility of a class, and 
they should be careful to keep in good health, to be 
fresh, full of the play spirit, and mentally alive when 
they go to the children. They need more time to 
think over their work and more time to react from 
its nervous strain than will be found necessary when 
more control has been gained over the technique of 
teaching. 

In the last half of the third year arrangement is 
made to do practice teaching in the lower grades. 
The psychological period of a child's development 
seems to connect the years between four and eight. 
The break does not come at six as we now cause it 
by transition from kindergarten to elementary. Our 
teachers should go out trained to teach anything that 
a child needs to learn between his fourth and eighth 
years. The plea of both kindergartners and lower 
elementary teachers is that they may understand each 
other's work better; they realize that whatever 
causes the change in methods for a six-year-old child 
hampers his development. All subjects in the above 
training course are given with regard to the educa- 
tion of the child between four and eight years. 
2. Psychology. 

The observation in the kindergarten and grades 
gives the material for the course in observational 
child psychology. Such questions will be given the 
student as, "To what does a child pay attention?" 
"How does he show that he is paying attention?" 
"How long is he attentive?" 

The study of "adult psychology" is for the purpose 
of bringing to the consciousness of the kindergartner 
how she can improve and educate her own self, how 
she can break undesirable habits, how she can learn 
to think more clearly, etc. 



The psychology of the second year broadens the 
line of thought taken up in observational child psy- 
chology by showing how the same general principles 
underlie the thinking of children and adults. 

3. Children's Interests. 

The five courses, "Play materials," "Constructive 
and artistic occupations," "Play interests," "Language 
interests," and "Nature interests" are all related 
in- some degree to the observation in the kinder- 
garten. At the beginning of the year the stud- 
ent will be asked to observe what the children 
choose, perhaps bringing out the difference in 
materials called for by younger and older child- 
ren. Again, the student will be asked to listen 
for the topics about which the children converse 
freely. She will be asked to observe how the child- 
ren show their interest in nature. The teachers hav- 
ing these five courses in charge will occasionally 
visit the kindergarten with the students and help by 
questions and suggestions to make them more keen in 
their observation. 

Branching out from the observation of what the 
children actually do, the student will experiment with 
the same materials, discuss the possibilities of certain 
topics of conversation, etc, and so find in what 
direction the childish activities may be led. Grad- 
ually she will formulate her ideas of the values of 
the childish expressions and how these can be im- 
proved. 

During the second year in the subject of Dramatic 
Arts, will be discussed the principles underlying the 
best expression of the child's and adult's interests. 
Much time will be devoted to the study of adult 
standards in literature, dances, drama, pictorial and 
plastic art, and song. 

4. Care of Childhood. 

The course on the "Hygiene of Childhood" will give 
a student respect and reverence for the physical well- 
being of the child and an understanding of the scien- 
tific care needed to make, or keep, the children's 
bodies fit agents for healthy minds. 

Kindergartners should see their particular voca- 
tion in its broadest relations. They have the care of 
the children for only a few hours each day, but they 
should consider all the agencies and influences that 
are brought to bear upon the lives of the children. 
They should realize that the conditions of the home 
make the most lasting impressions upon the child's 
personality, and the community as the school which 
is open all day, every day in the year. The topic given 
iii the last half of the third year, "Home and the Con- 
servation of Childhood," should give a student the 
power to see her particular work in its proper pro- 
portion in the education of children, and should deter- 
mine her to take active share in everything that per- 
tains to the welfare of all children. 

5. FroebeVs Study of Childhood. 

This course should be based upon the writings of 
Proebel to encourage in the student Froebel's attitude 
towards children, his reverence for their individual- 
ity, his belief in the divine nature of their creative 
impulses, his attentive observation of their actions, 
his search for means to help in their development, 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



6. Educational Principles. 

These principles are indicated in the direction 
which all of the subjects take in the first year, but 
they are not definitely formulated as principles until 
the second year. In this way the rules are crystalized 
out of experience, they have become habits of thought 
and a name is given to the habit. They bear such 
a vital relation to experience that any new situation 
can easily be brought into connection with its illumi- 
nating principle. 

In the third year, the principles which have been 
found eperating in the education of young children 
are considered in relation to all education, they are 
generalized to give fundamental pedagogical theory. 

7. History of education. 

If a student is to continue her development after 
she leaves the training school, she must realize that the 
theory which she is studying is but the present mo- 
ment's view of a ceaseless movement. In order to re- 
alize this, she must study the theory in its process of 
formation, she must gain an inkling of how public 
opinion and current philosophical ideas reshape edu- 
cational theory and practice. She must understand 
that there have been many false starts in unprofitable 
directions. This will make her alert to the significance 
of any new pedagogical movement. If she studies 
only the present theory she may become bigoted and 
unprogressive; if she sees it in its proper place as 
one step in the advance of civilization, she will weigh 
and consider the new and adopt judiciously. 

8. Curricula. 

After studying during the first year the likenesses 
and individual variations of children, a student will 
be able to outline in her second year tentative plans 
for the work of the kindergarten and first grades. 
She will be willing to formulate these on very general 
lines; she will be able to command plenty of details 
to fill them in, but will appreciate that this detail 
must depend upon the needs of any particular group 
of children which she teaches. 

9. Year of probation. 

It was suggested that the first year of training 
should be one of probation in different lines. The 
year would not be wasted if a student was dropped 
at the end. The subject studied would be valuable 
for nurses, homekeepers, social workers, playground 
teachers, teachers of defective children, etc. 

10. Sedentary occupations. 

Much of the hand work given in the present train- 
ing classes is eliminated, but sufficient is given for the 
kindergartner to know what can be developed out of 
childish efforts along various lines, and it is given 
in such a way that the kindergartner will be con- 
stantly watchful to seize upon any valuable contri- 
bution from the children. Our children might be 
more creative if the kindergartner did not have con- 
secutive series of work that she thought the children 
ought to follow out. 

11. Last half of third year. 

This is a very valuable culmination to the training 
course. It is possible to reconstruct the student's 
understanding of principles in the light of practice. 
This opportunity to discuss actual happenings and 
problems is a most valuable means of bringing de- 
finitely and clearly to consciousness the fundamental 



principles that may be revealed in the seemingly most 
trivial acts 

When a student is graduated from the training 
school the training teacher should be able to recom- 
mend her without qualification as regards her char- 
acter and her fitness for the work Most permanent 
failures are found to be kindergartners who as stu- 
dents were weak along some lines and whose gradua- 
tion was doubtful 

Mr. McKenny in 1912 read a paper before the nor- 
mal department of the National Education Associa- 
tion on Standards of Measuring the Efficiency of Nor- 
mal School Students. These standards cover physical, 
intellectual, moral, temperamental, executive, social, 
and teaching factors. If we marked somewhat on 
these bases instead of on written papers we should 
have fewer kindergartners that do not approach the 
ideal. 

Dr. Suzzallo says: "Society demands general cul- 
ture preliminary to the study and practice of a pro- 
fession. This means it requires that the professional 
practitioner, because of his peculiar powers and temp- 
tations, must be given a fundamental knowledge of 
those values, ideals, and traditions which are funda- 
mental to our social life. Hence the youth may not 
start his work as a teacher, lawyer, or doctor before he 
has passed through the high school. "As a doctor pro- 
tects life and health, as a minister faces down -the dan- 
ger of spiritual sin, so the teacher protects the divine 
potentialities of childhood, conquers the deathlike 
touch of error and discouragement, fosters intellectual 
courage and the passion for goodness. The teacher is, 
in short, a minister to the intellectual, moral, and spir- 
itual crises of childhood. Only as we approach child- 
hood with the traits of full sympathy and versatile 
imagination can we serve little children, ministering 
to their difficulties so that their protentialities have 
a fair chance to reach a full stature." "Expertness 
in teaching, therefore, consists in four typical super- 
iorities: (a) in a scholarly command of subject mat- 
ter; (b) in a better organization of character; (c) in 
a larger and more versatile command of conscious 
modes of transmitting facts and ideals; and (d) in a 
more potent and winsome, forceful and sympathetic 
manner of personal contact with other human beings." 
"As a creative work, teaching builds with precious 
human stuff. It is for us teachers to bring the quali- 
ties of professional life into our daily practice and 
to make the term 'teacher' mean four things in one: 
master, expert, servant, and leader." 

The kindergarten problems of each year are reflect- 
ed in the programs of the I. K. U. When it was start- 
ed the technical kindergarten theory and the techni- 
que of materials were the main points for discussion. 
Gradually the character of the papers has changed; 
we have gained control over that side of our work and 
are turning our attention to broader things — "the 
development of initiative," "the necessity of initia- 
tive." These are topics which might be considered 
at any educational gathering whether of elementary, 
high, or college teachers. The kindergarten and the 
school and the college, — we are outgrowing our ex- 
clusiveness! "The kindergartner's responsibility to- 
ward social problems," "the training of the kinder- 
gartner for social cooperation" — this far transcends 
technical kindergarten theory. We now see that the 
kindergarten spirit is not in materials nor education- 
al theory, but it is in the living of principles and 
these in relation to all life, the school, the home, the 
community, the nation. To be leaven in the world we 
must make the question of training kindergartners 
not a question solely of dealing with individuals, but 
of preparing women who can be an educational force 
in a community. We must reconstruct our training 
so that we can send out women who can spread the 
spirit of Froebel in the land, a spirit peculiarly ad- 
apted to raise up good citizens for our democracy. 



HINTS^SUGGESTIONS FOR RURAL TEACHERS 

CONDUCTED BY GRACE DOW 

DEAR RURAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
rural schools and ray subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children.and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
to use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc. , will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 



NOVEMBER, 1914. 
November days are stealing, 

All swiftly on their way; 
The squirrels now are working, 

The leaves are out at play; 
The busy, busy children 

Are gathering nuts so brown, 
And birds are gaily planning 
A winter out of town. 

— Selected. 
NOVEMBER THOUGHTS. 
Call attention on the first day to the new month. 
To what season does it belong? How many days has 
November? Call attention to the shorter days and 
longer nights. The preparation of plants and animals 
for rest. What changes in animals' clothing for 
winter. What preparations do men make for winter 
in homes, in food, and in clothing. 

Has November any days of special interest? When 
does Thanksgiving come? How and why do we ob- 
serve it? 

Make a November calendar, and decorate it with 
pictures suggestive of the month, such as harvest 
scenes; or the picture page of squirrels and turkeys in 
the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine, Nov. 1913, may 
be used to decorate a calendar pad for the month. 

An excellent calendar will be found in the Novem- 
ber number, 1912, which can be easily sketched upon a 
blackboard for a suggestive model, and left for use 
during the month. 

BEADS AND SEEDS. 
There is no reason why the children in the rural 
schools cannot furnish most of the material used in 
this work themselves. Beans, peas, and corn, also 
flower seeds such as the sunflower and the very small 
black seeds of smaller flowers. Fruit seeds may be 
used especially those of the apple and pear. Red 
berries and pumpkin and squash seeds combined with 
other small seeds may be made into attractive neck- 
laces. 

We suggest first the use of beads and seeds in com- 
bination for necklaces or boy's watch chains. Use 
one or two kinds of seeds with several colors of beads. 
Pumpkin seeds may be colored and used in the center 
as a pendant. 

Shell and bead mosaic work is also very 
interesting. Draw the design upon a thin piece of 
board or stiff card board, cover with liquid glue, then 
arrange in outline only, or if small designs are given 
fill in the background with the light colored seeds 
and the designs in brown or black peeds. 

BUSY WORK. 
Represent a poultry yard. Give each child a 



large piece of drawing paper. Have the outline of the 
yard made of sticks, lentels, or seeds. Make coops 
and hen houses of paper, also boxes in which a few 
pieces of dried grass may be placed for nests 

Make cuttings or paintings of different families of 
fowls. Paint one corner blue to represent the duck 
pond around which and in which the ducks are 
placed. Make the turkey a special feature, as it is 
the favorite fowl for the Thanksgiving dinner. 

THE TURKEY— OUTLINE FOR STUDY. 

How does it compare in size with the other fowls? 
Which has the prettier plumage, — male or female? 
What do we call the male bird and why? Food: — 
Grass, grain, berries, insects, etc. 

Wild turkeys live in flocks. The wild turkey was 
the principal animal food of the Pilgrims when they 
first came to this country. 

The Indians used the wild turkey for food and its 
feathers in making their headdresses. 

THE DISOBEDIENT TURKEY. 
Once a little turkey, 

Fond of her own way, 
Wouldn't ask the old ones 

Where to go or stray. 
She said, "I'm not a baby; 

Here I am, half grown; 
Surely, I am big enough 

To run about alone!" 

Off she went; but somebody, 
Hiding, saw her pass 
Soon, like snow, her feathers 
Covered all the grass, 
So she made a supper 

For a sly young mink, 
'Cause she was so headstrong 
That she wouldn't think. 

— Phoebe Cary 
ANIMAL WORD GAME. 
Arrange the smaller children in a circle with one in 
the center. The one in the center starts the game by 
touching a pupil who is to give the name of an 
animal or fowl. If he names one quickly he takes his 
place in the center, and in the same manner indicates 
one who is to respond with another name. Repeat 
the same until a large number of names have been 
given. No name shall be given more than once. If 
the name has been given the pupil repeating it for- 
feits his right to the place in the center of the circle. 
This may also be used as a review in spelling. The 
child naming the animal may be required to spell 
the word. 



94 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



REED AND RAFFIA. 

We notice that rural teachers are making more use 
of this form of manual training. This may be made 
easy for the youngest pupils, and sufficiently intricate 
to tax the ability of the older ones. 

Thanksgiving time will suggest many uses for this 
material. Allow the younger ones to make many dif- 
ferent sized mats. Cut the foundation of cardboard or 
bristol board, place a hole in the center, and wind 
from this to the outer edge, keeping the strands as 
flat as possible. Napkin rings will also be easy work 
for the little folks. 

The older pupils may combine the reed and raffia, 
making baskets for fruit, flower-pot holders, lamp 
shades, card cases, brush-broom holders, photograph 
holders, etc. 

INDOOR AMUSEMENTS. 

Cold weather is near at hand and every rural 
teacher should be planning some forms of amusement 
or entertainment for the noon and recess hour. 

All children should be sent out of doors if well for 
at least a few minutes, at which time the doors and 
windows should be opened, that the room may be 
thoroughly cleansed of the impure air. 

Books and games should be provided for recreation. 
Postal cards showing scenery and the principal build- 
ings, also sets of bird pictures should be in every 
room. 

More attention should be given to the school library, 
no school can afford to be without at least a few good 
children's books. 

Arrange sets of picture cards using the inexpensive 
Perry or Brown pictures, mounting same upon 
bristol or the regular mounting cards. During 
November give them the following: — The Exiles, The 
Landing of the Pilgrims, Priscilla and John Alden, 
Plymouth Rock, Puritans Going to Church, The May- 
flower, Angelus, and a variety of Indian pictures. 

Bean bags, and if possible a rubber ball should be 
in each school. The children will enjoy the games, 
and the exercise will be beneficial. 



A FINGER PLAY— THE KINDERGARTEN. 
Carrie L. Wagner. 



w 



The camel has two dreadful humps, 
I wonder where he got them, 
Perhaps they grew from two small bumps, 
And that he couldn't stop them 

F. G. Saundees, Toiounto 



Brevity is the soul of wit 
And tediousness the outward lips, and nourishes. 

— Shakespeare. 

The m;nn who minds his own business will al- 
ways have business to mind. 




Here is our kindergarten 



0v, A 



And these the children dear, 
Skipping gaily down the street, 
For they may be late they fear. 




These are the little chairs, 

For the children great and small, 
This wee one for the baby 

And this for the boy so tall. 




Here are the great long tables, 
And these the blocks and balls, 

We work and play together 
Until the piano calls. 



Then we go marching, marching 

And have such loads of fun 
Till playtime is over, goodbyes are said, 

And to our homes we run. 



FIRST GIFT, Continued. 

LESSON NO. 6. 

After the balls are distributed call attention to the 
covering and talk about sheep, wool, how it is made 
into yarn and afterwards into cloth, etc., letting the 
other grades use the talk as a subject for their written 
language work for the day. 

Exchange colors brought and make yellow the color 
study for the day, or review the orange. Conclude 
the lesson with a review of all the motions learned, 
singing or repeating these or similar words: 

Swing so, 
To and fro, 
Right and left, 
The little balls go. 

Now back and forth, 
In perfect time, 
We swing the balls. 
Straight in a line. 

Now round and round, 

Round and round, 
See the balls, 

Go round and round, 

Now back again, 

In circle true, 
The pretty balls, 

So swiftly go.. 

Follow general plan outlined correlating with lan- 
guage work, also number work if desired, until all 
the colors have been taught. Little talks on objects 
suggested by the different colors, etc., can be given 
and used by pupils of other grades ror written lan- 
guage work. 

It may be well to close lessons with an exercise with 
the balls, which may be suggested ny the following: 

Place a ball of each color on the table or desk. Let 
the children stand around the table. During the sing- 
ing of the song one of the children designated closes 
her eyes and another child or the teacher removes one 
of the balls. 

Six little balls are lying here, 

Lying here, lying here, 
Six little balls are lying here, 

This bright and pleasant morning. 

Or, this dark and cloudy morning. 

Close your eyes, one'll disappear, 

Disappear, disappear, 
Close your eyes, one'll disappear, 

This bright and pleasant morning. 



Now open wide and can you say, 
Can you say, can you say, 
What little ball has gone away. 

This bright and pleasant morning. 

And if you rightly call the name, 
Call the name, call the name. 

We'll clap our hands and sing again, 
This bright and pleasant morning. 

If the child gives the right color of the missing ball 
repeat. 

We'll clap our hands and sing again, 

Sing again, sing again, 
We'll clap our hands and sing again, 
This bright and pleasant morning. 

The children clapping their hands during the sing- 
ing of this last stanza. This can be repeated until a 
ball of each color has been taken away and each child 
has had an opportunity to name the missing ball. 

This exercise can be abbreviated as may be desired. 

Place the balls on the table the children standing in 
a circle around it. While singing or repeating the 
following lines a designated child attempts to pick 
up the balls as the colors are mentioned in the song: 

First, a ball of red I'll choose, 
Next the yellow, then the blue. 

If the pupil fails to select the correct colors he is 
required to place the balls back on the table. Otherwise 
he can retain them until all the balls have been taken 
from the table. 

Another child attempts to select the right colors 
while the following lines are being repeated or sung: 

For me I'll take the orange first, 
Then the green — the violet, too. 

Thus continue until all the pupils have been per- 
mitted to select the color. 

ANOTHER SUGGESTION. 
LESSON NO. 7. 

The aim of the lesson is to develop the powers of 
observation and concentration of the children through 
color. 

The material necessary are six card board sheets 
upon each of which is mounted one of the primary 
colors. 

The time limit is ten minutes. 

Place these mounted colors in a row on the black- 
board. Give the children time to observe the po- 
sition of the colors. Children close their eyes or turn 
their backs to the blackboard and sing while the 
teacher changes the position of two colors: 

When we play here together we are happy and glad: 
We don't care for the weather and we never grow sad. 



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f ItE KINDEHGABtEN-PRiMABY MAGAZINE 



One of us has disappeared, you shall guess who it is, 
And if you guess rightly you then shall he cheered. 

Repeat this song several times, changing the posi- 
tion of the colors each time the song is sung. 

"Hold up the fingers of one hand. Let us call the 
thumb the red bird, the pointer the oriole, the middle 
finger the canary, the ring finger the blue bird, and 
the baby finger the parrot:" 

Sing the following song: 
Five little birdies sitting in the door, 
Red bird flew away and then there were four. 
Birdies, birdies, happy and gay, 
Birdies, birdies, fly away. 
Four little birdies sitting in a tree, 
Oriole flew away and then there were three. 
Birdies, birdies, happy and gay, 
Birdies, birdies, fly away. 
Three little birdies looking at you, 
Canary flew away and then there were two. 

Birdies, birdies, happy and gay, 

Birdies, birdies, fly away, 

Two little birdies sitting in the sun, 

Blue bird flew away and then there was one. 

Birdies, birdies, happy and gay, 

Birdies, birdies, fly away. 

One little birdie left all alone, 

Parrot flew away and then there was none. 

During the singing of this song the children nod 
their heads slowly and rhythmically. This incidental- 
ly modifies the thought of motion in the first gift. 

The lesson may close with free play with the balls. 

ANOTHER REVIEW SUGGESTION. 

Tie the balls to the cross beam as shown by the 
illustration, the three primary colors on the lower 
line, and the three secondary colors just above them. 

Teach words primary and secondary orally. We 
call red, yellow, and blue, primary colors because we 
cannot make them from any other colors. Secondary 
colors are so called because we can make them from 
the other colors. Thus the red and the yellow colors 
combined make orange, the secondary color hanging 
just above them. Yellow and blue make the green, 
and blue and red make the violet or purple. Teacher 
should have tubes of the primary colors in oil or tab- 
lets of water colors and illustrate to the class. The 
children will be much interested in this and it will 
materially assist in fixing the colors in their minds. 

SUGGESTIVE FIRST GIFT STORY. 

Look at the balls, and see if you can tell what they 
are covered with. Yes, with woolen yarn. Do you 
know where woolen comes from? Yes, from sheep. 
Do you know what young sheep are called? Yes, 
lambs. 

Once there was a farmer who had a little daughter 
named Nancy. He gave her a little lamb for her birth- 
day present. Nancy named her Woolly, and treated 
her so kindly that she soon became very fond of 
Nancy and would run to her whenever she appeared. 

One day her father drove Woolly and all the other 



sheep iown to a brook, and put them in a pen leading 
to the brook. Taking one sheep at a time he led them 
into the water, and washed them until their wool 
was quite clean and white. 

After this work was done he opened the pen and 
they all went home. 

A day or two after a man came to shear the sheep. 
He had a very large pair of sharp shears. He caught 
Woolly and placed her upon the barn floor, began to 
cut off her coat of wool. Woolly was greatly fright- 
ened and began bleating and struggling to get away. 

In consequence of her struggling it was impossible 
for the man to avoid cutting her in several places. 

Nancy heard Woolly bleating and ran out to the 
barn to see what was the matter. As soon as she saw 
what was being done she begged the man to let her 
finish cutting off the wool. 

He consented, and Woolly followed her to the wood- 
shed, where Nancy first dressed her wounds with vas- 
eline and afterwards placed a piece of court plaster 
over each. She then took a pair of shears and Woolly 
stood very quietly while she clipped off her coat. 

The next day her father took the wool to the woolen 
mills, where it was cleansed very thoroughly, and 
afterwards made into rolls; the rolls were then spun 
into woolen yarn, very much like that used in cover- 
ing these balls. 

The yarn was afterward colored, and some of it 
spun into cloth, and some knitted into stockings and 
mittens. 

ANOTHER FIRST GIFT STORY. 

Mabel was a farmer's daughter, who owned a large 
flock of sheep. 

One day she found a poor lamb in the field, almost 
dead from hunger and cold. Its mother had been 
killed by a wolf. 

She brought it to the house and wrapped it in a 
warm blanket, and fed it with nice rich milk. 

She decided to call it Nanny. Nanny grew very 
fast and became very fond of Mabel. 

One day Mabel was in the field near a deep pond. 
She went out on a large flat log to watch the fishes. 
Nanny saw her and came running out on the log to 
meet her. 

Mabel became interested in a large fish and leaning 
over too far, fell into the water. In falling she caught 
her hand in the long wool on Nanny's back, and drew 
the lamb into the water. Mabel was very much fright- 
ened, but clung tightly to Nanny's back. 

Nanny began swimming for the shore and thus re- 
paid Mabel for her kindness by saving her life. 



PARENTAL THOUGHTFULNESS. 

(.Eunice Ward in October St. Nicholas.) 
My big doll is called Hildegarde; 
The little one is Marjorie; 
ihe paper dolls are Evelyn, 

Bettiua ,nd Elaine, 
ihe rag doil is named Claribel; 
The baby I call Gwendolen. 
I've different taste from my mamma — 

She named me Susan Jane. 
'Tis not how much but how well we read. 



THE KDfDERGARTEtf-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



W 



A NOVEMBER BOOKLET 

By Marguerite B. Sutton. 

Any kind of school drawing paper may be used for 
this booklet. 



for the side a bristol board rectangle 19 1-4 inches long 
and 5 inches wide, including the paste flaps, which are 
1 inch wide. The side should be covered with tin foil 
or silver paper to give the suggestion of a tin tub. 
Paste the flaps around the circumference of the circle. 




SUGGESTION FOR NOVEMBER BOOKLET 



Take a piece of paper 6 6-8x3 1-4. Place a light 
dotted line through the sheet so that, when folded on 
this line the dimensions of the covers will be 
3 1-4x3 3-8, and the fold on the left side of the front 
cover. On the front cover draw the outlines of a 
turkey, as pictured, and then cut around the outlines, 
except on the fold. Leave the back cover in the form 
of a square. 

These little booklets may be used as invitations for 
Thanksgiving Exercises, monthly spelling booklets or 
general busy work for the little folks. 



A CONSTRUCTION LESSON FOR MONDAY. 
Nellie Crapser. 

Provide cardboards 7x3 inches. Measure off a half 
inch from each side at one end and place dots. 
From these dots draw lines' 2 1-2 inches long, length- 
wise of the cardboard. Then connect these two lines 
by another. Have the children cut on these lines, 
which will leave the cardboard in this shape. A 
rectangle of corregated paper, 2 1-2x2 inches, is then 
pasted 1 1-2 inches from the top, having the children 
be careful to get it equidistant from both sides. A 
piece of white paper to represent a bar of soap will 
be an added attraction to the children. They will also 
enjoy printing the name of their mother's washboard, 
or a name which the teacher might suggest, across 
the top. 

A tub to go with the washboard can be made in the 
following manner. For the bottom of the tub a 
circle of cardboard 6 inches in diameter, is necessary, 



Next paste the ends of the rectangle together, which 
completes the tub. — Primary Education. 



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pattern foe. washboard 



% 



THE KIM)ERGAMEtt-PRtMAtt? MAGAZINE 




TED'S RIDE. 
By Alice C. Rodewai.d, 
West Brighton, N. J. 

As Mother was haking cake, and sunbeams were 
calling outdoors Ted thought it was just the day for 
trying the New Horse. Ted loved the New Horse 
even better than the rocking-horse, because the 
rocking-horse always stayed in the nursery, and the 
New Horse carried you wherever you wished to go. 
The New Horse had just a stick for a body and a 
gray wooden head, but his eyes sparkled and his mane 
was made of really-truly horse hair. Ted thought him 
very beautiful. 

"Good-bye, Mother," he called. 

"Good-bye, Little Son," answered Mother. 

Then away Ted rode — down the path and out of the 
gate and up the straight road that lay like a white 
ribbon between the green fields. How quickly the 
New Horse ran! The chickens scattered, and a bird 
rose high in the air for fear of him! 

"They needn't be afraid 'cause I am riding him," 
said Ted to himself, "and I'll take care of them." 

It seemed to Ted as if all the world was out riding 
— the butterflies riding on bright wings to the golden 
rod; the brook racing by the side of the road, the 
leaves waving goodbye to the trees as he had to 
Mother), and hurrying to the ground, where they met 
the wind, who started them on new journeys, the 
birds were gathering together as if preparing for a 
long trip, and way up in the sky the white clouds 
seemed to be riding on the blue heaven! 

Ted wondered if the flowers were homes for the 
butterflies — for nestling in the hearts of flowers they 
seemed at home; and if the brook had a home — 
he wished Mother was with him, as she knew every- 
thing, and he decided to ask her on his return. 

Suddenly the little boy's horse started — right in 
front of him — thump! fell a big yellow apple. Ted 
looked up at the tree, it seemed to hold out its apples 
to him, but they were all too high for him to reach. 

"I want one to bring home to Mother," said Ted to 
the tree; the tree had nothing to say to this, but the 
New Horse looked very wise. 

"Oh," said Ted, "I know! My horse can bite one 
off!" he lifted his horse, struck the branch, and, sure 
enough, down fell another apple! 

Just then a squirrel ran across the road. He was 
carrying a nut and Ted watched carefully to see what 
he was going to do with it. Up a tall tree ran Mr. 
Squirrel, then down a hole in the trunk, and Ted 
could not not see him any longer for Mr. Squirrel had 
safely reached his home. 

"I believe he was carrying his nut home to his 
mother! and now she is saying, "Where have you 
been, Little Son?" said Ted to the New Horse, and he 
looked at the apple he was carrying, and thought how 
pleased Mother would be to hear about the squirrel. 



Now they came to the hill, and, as Father always 
stopped the big busy horses on this bill, Ted stopped 
the New Horse. By the side of the road was a plant 
with thick leaves, and on it hung something that 
looked to Ted like a green package which was burst- 
ing open. Ted opened it a little wider, and inside 
were brown seeds with shining, silken wings. Ted 
thought it was pretty enough to bring home to 
Mother, so he pulled it off the plant and put it in his 
pocket. When he did this some of the seeds flew away. 
Ted's mother had told him that when seed babies 
leave their cradles the wind finds new homes for them 
in the brown earth, where they live very happily until 
the spring sunshine calls to them to come back and be 
plants. 

"Good-bye," Ted called to the seeds, as he watched 
them fly away, but the seeds were too busy going 
home to answer little boys. 

When Ted pulled the package off the plant he 
found some sticky, milky juice on his hand, so he 
started down to the brook to wash it. In the brook he 
saw a round white stone, it was very pretty, for the 
water had washed it until it shone and the other stones 
had rubbed it quite smooth. Ted thought Mother 
would like it. Just as he was bending to get it a 
little green snake ran out from behind a rock next 
to him. When the snake saw Ted he raised his little 
green head and moved his tongue in and out as fast 
as he could! Ted thought he was trying to talk, and 
he waved his hand and said, "Hello, Snake," but the 
snake turned and glided swiftly away. 

"He thought I was saying good-bye when I waved," 
thought Ted, "or, perhaps, he just remembered to 
hurry home to tea." 

This made Ted think about going home, and he 
turned the New Horse and started down the road. 
Now it seemed as if all the world was going home! 
The sun was hurrying behind pink clouds — Ted hoped 
he would reach home first, for sundown is supper- 
time and, in spite of the big apple, he felt very 
hungry. Perhaps, Mother was waiting at the door — 
he hoped she would be. Across the fields Ted could 
see the cows going home, they walked slowly, and he 
wondered if they were as tired as the New Horse, if 
so they would be glad to reach home. Ted could see 
the red barn now, and there was a pigeon flying to- 
ward it. 

"If I didn't have the New Horse I should like to go 
home on wings:" he thought. 

There were no chickens to fear the New Horse now 
— Ted knew they would all be in their places asleep 
on the long pole that stretched across the hen-house 
— and the bird, who had flown so high, must be safe 
in the nest by this time. 

Mother was standing by the door — 0! how quickly, 
even, a tired New Horse can run! 

"Where have you been, Little Son?" said Mother 

"Par away!" said Ted, proudly. 

"I baked a little cake for your tea," said Mother, 
"and you can tell me all about Far Away while you 
eat it." 

"See what I brought you!" said Ted. 

Then Mother took the gifts, Little Son, and New 
Horse, too in her arms, and they all went in to- 
gether. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



99 



PROBLEMS vs. SUBJECT MATTER AS A BASIS 

FOR KINDERGARTEN CURRICULA* 

By Luella A. Palmeh. 

What is a problem and how can it be used in edu- 
cation? It has long been thought that subject matter, 
with its characteristics, is the only proper basis upon 
which to plan a course of study. Histories, geograph- 
ies, and other text-books present subject matter in a 
logical sequence and children are required to store up 
bits of information in regular order. This generally 
results in a plentiful supply of encyclopedic facts, but 
when it comes to actual living we find that the know- 
ledge cannot be brought forth when occasion demands 
it, it is not in usable form. In order to have know- 
ledge carry over into action when needed in a 
situation, it must have been acquired through action 
in a similar situation. This is the reason we need 
problems as a basis for curricula. 

Education is to fit for life and living; it must give 
the knowledge needed at the present moment, not 
only that which may be needed at some future time. 
An educational problem is a situation which appeals 
to a child to use what knowledge and effort he has, 
and to acquire and develop more in the process of his 
activity. It is when there is an obstacle in the way of 
reaching some desired end that an individual recalls 
the knowledge which he has gained in similar ex- 
periences; he rearranges this and hunts for more. In 
planning for the child's educational problems, there 
must be a situation which will stimulate a child to 
wish to reach some end and which will be just diffi- 
cult enough to encourage him to put forth his whole 
effort and to search for knowledge. 

A toy train is such a situation for a little child. It 
presents an invitation to his activity and his imagin- 
ation makes him desire that this activity shall result 
in the toy train working like a real train. The size 
of the child's problem will depend upon what he 
knows about trains. A situation which would present 
an educational problem for a child of five would be to 
have building blocks near at hand, so that the child 
would be reminded that he could make stations and 
tunnels for the train. Perhaps a question might pre- 
sent the situation and lead him to discover the neces- 
sity for stations and tunnels in order to perfect the 
train play, and then he would demand materials of a 
suitable form out of which to make them. This latter 
method is for more developed children. Toys which 
excite a desire for increasing skill, such as balls and 
tops, are problems for children. So are dolls and 
wagons, which incite to reliving experiences. 
Familiar activities such as sweeping and washing 
dishes are problems. How to express one's ideas so 
that others will understand is a problem. These and 
many others are the everyday situations which can be 
used for educational purposes. How it can be done is 
for further consideration. 

The two bases for programs suggested by the title 
are not mutually exclusive. Subject matter is a large 
factor in the working out of a problem in kindergar- 
ten, in education, in life; and there are many prob- 
lems for children to consider when the use of subject 
matter is treated as the most essential element in edu- 
cation. The subject matter concerned in a problem has 
richness and a vital relation to an individual's activity 
Any subject matter which is actually used by an in- 
dividual must differ from that of every other indivi- 
dual because part of its content is the knowledge gain- 
ed from past experiences. A problem calls for all the 
relevant knowledge which will interpret and throw 
light upon the topic under investigation. This knowl- 
edge will be in usable form if it has been acquired in 
a living way through the setting of previous prob- 
lems; the knowledge will then be a deposit which has 
been accumulated in the process of arriving at some- 



thing which is more important, a result which will 
be a solution of a dilemma and the wisest possible, be- 
cause it focuses all the energy and control which the 
individual has at his command. 

When the subject matter is prescribed, it is sup- 
posed to have the same content for every individual, 
and usually there is an effort to recall only that re- 
levant knowledge which has been given in the pre- 
vious course of study. The child does not relate the 
subject matter to his daily life; only to that separated 
body of information which he has acquired in the 
class room. The problems for pupils in connection 
with the acquisition of prescribed subject matter are 
usually only indirectly connected with the meaning 
of the information gained; they may be, how to store 
up encyclopedic knowledge, how to surpass one's 
fellows, how to gain approval, or how to avoid un- 
pleasantness. The right kind of a problem unifies 
human energy and allows for the gaining of subject 
matter so that it will be related to action in a work- 
able way. It will have many cues, and can easily be 
recalled when needed in future situations. The ac- 
quisition of subject matter, as such, divides the 
energy, for it is related to one side of the child's life 
only, and it requires a motive extraneous to the mean- 
ing of the thing to be learned. Of the two bases pro- 
posed for curricula, the first seems to promise less 
waste of human energy. 

These two so-called bases for curricula direct at- 
tention to the fact that the education process may be 
viewed from different angles and the point of view 
gives rise to different attitudes towards education. 
All educational theories recognize two factors in the 
process, the child and his environment. Some theor- 
ies stress unduly the share of either one or the other. 
When subject matter is emphasized, as in the so- 
called conservative school of kindergartners, the laws 
and facts found within the environment are con- 
sidered of prime importance, so that the logical aspect 
is presented without due regard to the psychological 
tools which the child must employ to understand it. 
The reverse error is made by the radical school. In 
the latter case the accent is placed upon the child and 
his capacities; no attempt is made to lead him to see 
the more significant aspects of his environment. 
(This point of view is omitted in further discussion 
in this paper.) A point of view midway between 
these two mkes it apparent that an adequate basis 
for educational procedure must take cognizance of 
both factors and give due weight to both. 

Child and environment must be equally considered 
in the educational process, for they are com- 
plementary to each other. It is the child who supplies 
the activity which is to become organized through 
education, and it is the environment which supplies 
the stimuli and means for the organization. Edu- 
cation cannot change the inherent nature of the child's 
activity, it can only plan to develop it to the highest 
degree which it is capable of reaching. All that 
education can do is to modify the environment, but 
any artificial limitation must keep two equal pur- 
poses in mind, a response to the expanding needs of 
the child and guidance towards the understanding of 
the significant features of the environment. 

The point of contact between an individual and his 
environment which has resulted in development 
has always been in the shape of some difficulty which 
needed to be overcome, or some question to which the 
individual wanled an answer in order to satisfy his 
craving for larger life. It has always involved hold- 
ing some purpose in mind strenu )usly enough to carry 
it over into activity, and to result in the changing of 
existing conditions. Race progress has come by 
means of the increasingly more distant and complex 
ends which man has set himself. It is through prob- 
lems, the meeting of a difficulty, the projection of 



100 



THE KINDEftGAttTEH-PKIMAIfct MAGAZM 



possible ways to overcome it and the striving to solve 
it, that a child, like the race, becomes related to his 
world. It is for education to choose the environment 
which will present the problems which in their solv- 
ing will develop right attitudes and habits in the 
individual and furnish the most servicable knowledge. 

This way of looking at education as based upon 
problems makes the relationship between child and 
environment stand out clearly; it is a developing re- 
lationship. It involves activity and also material 
upon which to use it. As the activity works towards 
a unified end it is brought more under control, and 
as there must be a selection of material to 
promote this end more logical relations 
are established; so organization comes to both the 
child and the world which he sees. This third atti- 
tude gives a wide, balanced, and developing view of 
the educational process. 

To look at education from this middle point is to 
gain a dynamic view of both child and environment; 
when viewed from one side of the process some artifi- 
cial vitality has to be introduced. In working out a 
problem a child is conceived as alert, eagerly reach- 
ing for a result, and searching for means to ac- 
complish it. When the emphasis is on subject matter 
the child is thought of as active but in a more re- 
ceptive way; he does not need to reconstruct his en- 
vironment but only to accept and retain it as present- 
ed. When attention is directed to problems, although 
the environment has a certain stability and character 
of is own which conditions change, it is considered as 
a place where adjustments and improvements can be 
made. If the attention is directed more towards 
subject matter or the nature of the environment, its 
static, formal qualities come into prominence, the 
activity is brought to a standstill, while the growth is 
cut up into a series of cross sections. There is no 
organic connection, all seems settled, fixed, with little 
appeal to the child to expend his energy in rearrange- 
ment. It is in working out a problem that the de- 
veloping child is seen in the act of transforming his 
environment. 

The use of the problem method makes for the best 
development at the present time and in the future. 
When a child feels a vital problem, one which calls 
forth all his power, he has the desire to accomplish 
some purpose, but there are obstacles in his way; he 
has to consider how he can overcome the hindrances 
to gain what he wishes. He arrays his past know- 
ledge, selects the most useful, perhaps searches for 
new which will be relevant, he brings these ideas into 
some order and then tests through expression. The 
obstacles divert part of the energy which might have 
been expended in mere ctivity over into thinking out 
how to proceed. This method appeals to the child's 
interests and reasoning; the other method, the use of 
prescribed subject matter, appeals more to his obedi- 
ence and memory. The first works for the develop- 
ment of initiative so that a child can learn to set his 
own ends and work to reach them; the second works 
for comformity in the child so that he will accept 
what is established. 

Children have many incidental interests and not all 
possible problems which children might enjoy are 
valuable enough to be chosen as material for educa- 
tion. The problems in an educational environment 
must appeal to the most fertile interests those which 
promise to bring to the child's consciousness the best 
social values. The best expressions of adult ideals 
should always form some part of a child's environ- 
ment, subconsciously influencing him, but the greater 
portion should present such stimuli as will provoke 
the immediate reaction which provides the step for 
which the child is prepared and along the path which 
the race has already taken in formulating the present 
ideals. 



The most fertile interests of the race have led to 
the formulation of bodies of knowledge called science, 
are and literature, language, social and political in- 
stitutions, and religion. The child delights in: (1) 
Experimenting to find out what he can do with his 
hands, body, tongue, and all the human tools he has 
for finding his relation to the world. Materials of 
various kinds should be convenient so that he will 
learn such truths and logical relations as he is 
capable of comprehending. This will aid in develop- 
ing a child in scientific directions. (2) After a child 
has learned something about the objects and qualities 
in his environment he enjoys at times changing the 
form of his experimenting; he tries to arrange what 
he already knows. He uses color, form, motion, or 
sound and brings them into relation either rhythmi- 
cally or in sequence; for instance, when a child 
strikes a stick twice on an iron railing and then twice 
on a tin can, or when he works up to a climax as, 
"Papa made a kite. We went to the park. The kite 
went so high!" Opportunities can be given a child to 
express what he feels in the most beautiful arrange- 
ment, and encouragement given to those phases which 
have been steps on the road to present artistic ideals. 
(3) The child loves to talk. Experiences which are 
interesting at the time and which supply the best 
kind of happy vivid memories will lead to good topics 
of conversation. Unhurried opportunities for ex- 
pression either in dramatic play, drawing, or 
language, will aid in developing fuller and more 
definite thought, and in putting it into sequences or 
plots, thus making language a more adequate vehicle 
for ideas. (4) The child loves to play with other 
children, and about the occupations of adults near 
him. A right selection of opportunities to associate 
and work with others and to copy or lead them will 
help the child to form the best idea3 with regard to 
social and political institutions. (5) A joyous en- 
vironment with the right attitude towards liberty, 
where the individual is limited by the equal rights of 
others, and one where the truth and beauty of the 
child's world is emphasized, will guide in the path of 
a workable religion. Problems which lie along these 
various lines provide for the acquisition by the child 
of what has been found most valuable by the race. 

A selection of problems gives probable subject 
matter in the environment but in such a form that a 
child may take the kind and amount which it is pos- 
sible for him to assimilate, to work over. The selec- 
tion should also give subject matter which has been 
found of value by racial judgment. 

A theoretical curriculum can only be considered as 
a general guide for actual kindergarten programs. As 
the most vital problems to a five-year-old child arise 
out of his daily living conditions, a general problem 
curriculum cannot be exhaustive; it can only touch 
on the more universal, interests of childhood and the 
typical facts in most environments, and show how 
these can be used to develop thought. It can mention 
the usual stimuli in an average child's environment 
which might give rise to valuable experiences, but it 
could not include many experiences in particular en- 
vironments which it might be valuable to enrich for 
the children in a specific situation. A general pro- 
gram can suggest the probable significance of these 
experiences in the child's development, judged by 
the response they usually gain from the children and 
the amount of value found in them by the race. 
Other experiences might bring similar growth to a 
particular group of children. A general curriculum 
can group together the experiences in such a theoreti- 
cal sequence that each fact will gain its widest mean- 
ing through relationship. In a specific program some 
of the experiences might gain greater significance for 
the particular children by being considered at some 
other time or in some other relation when the fact 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



101 



has been experienced vividly. A theoretical program 
can suggest the different means by which a child 
usually enjoys reacting to the stiumulus, but the parti- 
cular situation must control the actual means pro- 
vided. The theoretical program can give a logical view 
of the child's environment, a practical program must 
allow for the psychological presentation of a parti- 
cular child's environment. 

A problem curriculum must make a choice from the 
child's environment of those stimuli which touch him 
Eiost intimately and which appeal to fertile interests, 
those which humanity has found produced greatest 
growth. For instance, the nurturing of the young 
and the upbuilding of the home has been a great 
means in race progress. To help a child to relive in 
the best way the family life which he sees, and so em- 
phasize through play the values which the race has 
found through ages of actual experiencing, the stimuli 
provided may be dolls, dishes, furniture, etc. Honest 
cooperation in community life is another established 
value. Through the play activities of the kindergar- 
ten the children discover that added pleasure is given 
when this virtue is practiced, although it is the actual 
living together with other children which makes most 
directly for a right attitude. A pair of horse reins 
and possibly a horseshoe will give the opportunity to 
emphasize the work of the blacksmith, an adult type 
of one who works honorably for others. Contact with 
nature is one of the means which has forced man to a 
realization of his power and limitations; he has learn- 
ed that he must work with it in order to conquer it. 
The child will find by means of a pinwheel or the 
hanging of doll's clothes on a line, that with care he 
can make the same wind aid him today that yesterday 
blew off his hat and filled his eyes with dust. 

From a theoretical standpoint it is easy to judge of 
the probable worth of certain experiences for children. 
The mention of a few possible experiences with the 
wind will make evident different types of values. 

Scientific value: Children can make kites and pin- 
wheels, they can try to run against and with the wind, 
they can watch clouds, weather vanes, and flags. The 
senses of hearing, seeing, and feeling will teach the 
strength and direction of the wind and its influence 
on weather. 

Art and literature value: Children love to watch 
the swaying trees or falling leaves, and to imitate in 
action. They like to imitate the sound which the 
wind makes on a winter night or when rustling over 
the grass. They like to draw a kite flying high in the 
sky. As models there are many good pictures, songs, 
and stories interesting to children which have the 
work or play of the wind as a central theme. 

Language value: The effects of the wind are so 
evident and unexpected that children observe it close- 
ly and converse about it freely making their thoughts 
more definite. 

Institutional value: There is very little along this 
line for small children, but the wind helps a group to 
have great fun chasing the whirling leaves or sailing 
the toy boats, and so the social spirit is strengthened. 

Religious value: In playing with the wind, a strong 
force yet an unseen one, the child finds that there is 
power which is manifest in things done yet one which 
is itself unseen. 

Just at the kindergarten age there is a perceptible 
change in the kind of responses a child makes and in 
the character of the problem which he enjoys. At 
four it is usually the material present to the senses 
which suggests a purpose and is also the means by 
which to accomplish it. The process is short, with 
little variety, usually the mere repetition of one in- 
cident, and the end is indefinite. At six the sense 
stimulus may suggest the end, but an end that is en- 
riched with many possibilities found in two years 
more of experience. As the ideas have grown clearer, 



the purpose will probably necessitate search for and 
manipulation of suitable materials other than those at 
hand. Effort can be more sustained, so the process by 
which the end is reached is lengthened and varied and 
the climax is clearly defined. In order to select an 
educational environment for children between four 
and six years, a kindergarten should provide in the 
play room various materials which are stimuli, and 
also means for expression, such as balls, dolls, and 
other toys, also simple tools and materials as scissors, 
crayons, paper, etc. Beside this it should plan for 
giving vivid experiences which incite children to 
search for selected materials to relieve and emphasize 
the experience. These conditions supply the right 
kind of problems and means whish the children can 
choose to work them out according to their capacity. 

Many educational problems are within a child's 
environment and of interest at all times. If possible 
some logical connection should be made between them 
to lift them from their casual plane. It is in festivals 
that mankind has unified his ideas; he needed a 
climax at intervals to bring a rhythm into his life 
and to help him accentuate its value. The deepest 
meanings which man has found are expressed at a 
time of festival. If the experiences in a program can 
be considered in such a sequence that they help to 
interpret the meaning of a festival, each experience 
will gain greater significance by this connection. The 
following is suggested as a possible sequence which 
would lead up to Thanksgiving: — 

(1) Interests in the home. 

Dolls, furniture, washtub and irons, etc., would lead 
to reliving of experiences connected with different 
members of the family. 

(2) Excursions. 

The children can take trips to parks to see fall 
changes in nature, to stores to see the quantities 
of fruits and vegetables, to the farm to see the 
animals and bins, etc. While the social spirit is 
being developed through these enjoyable group 
experiences the children are gaining cumulative 
experience which point toward the bounty of 
harvest time, and they also discover a few links 
in a chain which leads from the well known fact 
to an unknown source. 

(3) Seasonal interests — fall. 

Food:. The children can bring back from the gro- 
cery some cranberries and make jelly, or they 
can mix biscuits for a doll party. Sometimes 
milk can be skimmed and butter made for the 
biscuits. Just as far as possible the children 
should be led to connect their knowledge of the 
farm with the actual objects being used. Toy 
animals will help the child to express what h.Q 
knows of farm life and will help him to carry over 
into another situation, — that of the farmer's care 
of his animals, — the nurturing instinct which the 
child has developed in caring for the live animals 
in the kindergarten. 

Fuel: The children will enjoy a trip to the base- 
ment of the school to see the bins of coal ready 
for the winter. 

Clothing. Warm dresses and coats should be made 
for the dolls and the blankets brought out for the 
doll beds. 

The culmination of the fall program will come at 
Thanksgiving time. If these actual experiences 
have been lived out fully a child will be better able to 
grasp something of the meaning of the festival, which 
is gratitude towards the source of all things, for 
physical comforts, for the beauty of the world, for 
home and friends, for the bounty and care which pro- 
vide for a safe future. This feeling should find 



102 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



childish expression through song, literature, dance, 
and representative art, all the forms of art combined 
in one great climax. 

It is an art to plan and carry out a good specific 
problem program, to know how to balance child values 
and race values, to know when a child is to be left on 
his own plane in projecting incidental purposes and 
when he should be encouraged to accept related pur- 
poses. As an artist holds in his mind a tentative plan 
of his whole work, but rearranges and alters it as he 
is inspired to catch new phases of the subject which 
will fulfill his underlying purpose, so the teacher 
must provide a tentative outline, but change and 
readjust the details as she discovers unexpected needs 
of her children, which in their satisfaction provide for 
more harmonious development. A teacher's work will 
be artistic in proportion to the degree with which the 
children's important vivid experiences of the moment 
are caught up and woven into the central scheme of 
the whole. 

A program which deals principally with subject 
matter emphasizes the mechanieal attitude towards 
education. Facts can be kept in somewhat separated 
yet logical relation, there is no necessity for seizing 
the moment of inspiration for expression. Instead of 
the warm, emotional attitude of the artist in reaction 
towards living things there can be a cool, critical way 
of looking at the passive child and his static environ- 
ment. If feeling is connected with this latter attitude, 
it is forced and becomes sentimental. The mechanical 
method may result in a more orderly appearance in a 
class room, but the well balanced, unified, artistic 
method will provide a more developing atmosphere. 



It is the chief business of men and women in the 
home, in the school, in the church, and in society, to 
perform religious acts and to lead others to perform 
them. The religious spirit may be developed through 
the teaching of music, literature, science, and in gen- 
eral through the curriculum of the schools. The culti- 
vation of the spirit of wonder and reverence, depen- 
dence and humility, spiritual mastery, and faith, are 
legitimate in the schools. Not much instruction, 
either secular or religious, can be given without a 
well equipped teacher, whose personality, learning, 
moral and religious life appeal to those under her 
care. The teacher cannot teach what she does not 
know, and cannot give to others the religious life 
which she does not possess. Neither can she impart 
what she does know unless she has learned to teach. 
The great need of citizenship in both the church and 
the school is a band of strong men and women, who 
are willing to give their lives to young people, who 
have a profound faith in humanity, who believe that 
the heart of the universe is sound, and who believe 



that we are placed in the world for a purpose, and 
who show by their face and feature and every act 
that it is a joy to give a helping hand. Fill our 
schools and our churches with such leaders, and we 
will not need the terms secular and religious educa- 
tion, for the term education will include them both. 

JOSEPH SWAIN. 



The teacher must never forsake the teaching point 
of view, in the view that his duty is not to train the 
boy for business, but to use business as a powerful 
instrument in training the boy. — J. P. Munroe, Bos- 
ton. 



CONTINUOUS CUTTING. 

F. G. Sanders, 

67 Hazelton Ave., Toronto, Ont. 

Cut paper in strips and fold them. If teacher 
draws an outline on the black-board the children can 
cut freehand. 

Cut from white and mount on black or any dark 
color. 

Cut butterflies from yellow, mount on blue to re- 
present sky. 

Cut trees from green, mount on blue or some neu- 
tral shade. 




The children of the kindergartens of Waverly, 
Iowa, will hold an annual Thanksgiving party. 



The Connecticut Valley Kindergarten Association, 
will hold its annual meeting at the Central High 
School, Springfield, Mass., November 7. 



Some of the most valuable work the Bureau does, 
however, is not through its printed material, but by 
correspondence. The highest school officials, State, 
county, city, are constantly writing for information 
not readily available in printed form. The kinder- 
garten division receives a large numDer of such in- 
quiries from most important sources, and the infor- 
mation given in reply frequently forms the basis of a 
new State, county, or city policy in education. 




THE KODERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



103 




beautiful lore that it is with regret we must call at- 
tention to this instance of misinformation. 



THE BIRD STORE MAN, an old-fashioned story 
by Norman Duncan. Boards. 136 pages. Illustrated 
by C. H. Taffs. Fleming H. Revell Co , 75cents. Net. 

Truly a most delightful tale of a quaint Dickens-like 
character who keeps a bird and animal store, and in 
connection therewith, "the Twitter Academy for the 
Higher Education of Canaries, including a Course in 
Polite Deportment and Parlor Tricks, both elementary 
and advanced." Every child will delight in reading 
about the Little Girl and her pet Alexander who 
enters on a scholarship and graduates with honor to 
himself, his instructor, and his little mistress. The 
little girl's loving, anxious care for her veteran 
grandfather, and the delightful comradeship that de- 
velops between her and Timothy Twitters, are de- 
picted with whimsical tenderness and truth to child 
nature. A eharming story to read aloud. 



NEW AMERICAN MUSIC READER, No. 3. By 
Frederick Zuchtmann. Cloth, 147 pages, price 35 
cts. Published by The MacMillan Company, New 
York and London. 

This is the third book in this most excellent series 
of Music Readers, and the method of procedure 
which has characterized the previous volumes is con- 
tinued. The voice is regarded as of the first import- 
ance, and all songs and studies are in such keys and 
within such range that the head quality always em- 
ployed in the high voice may be blended with the 
lower register without recourse to the harsh tones 
of the chest. We advise all teachers having pupils 
of suitable age for this book to examine a sample 
eopy. 



"THE HUMAN SIDE OF PLANTS." By Royal 
Dixon. Cloth. 201 pages. Illustrated with four pic- 
tures in color by Mrs. Ellis Rowan and 32 photographs 
by J. Horace McFarland Co. Published by Frederick 
A. Stokes Co., N. Y. $1.50. 

This exceedingly interesting volume approaches 
the study of plant life from a new standpoint. Many 
writers of animal stories have been accused of as- 
suming too much intelligence and reasoning power 
on the part of the creatures whose experiences they 
recount. Mr. Dixon goes a step further and would 
lead his readers to believe that the plant is endowed 
with mentality and spirituality. The facts he states 
in proof of his claims are such as must surely 
strengthen our sense of the kinship of all life. 
Whether they do it consciously or unconsciously, here 
are plants that set traps to lure their ^rey; that swim 
and fish, keep servants, and live stock; maintain their 
army and navy; carry life-insurance; and the like. 
The weapons with which they defend themselves such 
as daggers, disagreeable odors, sticky excrudescenses 
and mimicry are described. It is painful to 
learn that an aquatic plant is really deceitful 
and imitates the mouth of a mother fish so that 
the frightened baby fish run into it for protec- 
tion, only to be devoured. Then we recall that 
even human beings are equally deceitful when they go 
fishing, and so we have nothing more to say on that 
roint. The chapter on plants that indulge in athletics 
will interest the boys and girls and indeed, the book 
as a whole, will be a valuable aid to the teacher in 
stimulating interest in the investigation of nature's 
secrets. We note, however, one important slip on the 
author's part. He states as a fact that "the sunflower 
always points toward its god," whereas sunflowers 
face every point of the compass, as can be readily 
verified. The book contains so much curious and 



"FIFTY-ONE TALES OF MODERN FAIRYLAND" 
by F. Strange Kolle. Cloth, 270 pages. The Grafton 
Press, N. Y. 

Short Stories of varying merit. Kindergartners 
will be able to use a number of them, altho at times 
the moral is almost too much in evidence. 

MORNING EXERCISES FOR ALL THE YEAR. 
A Day Book for Teachers by Joseph C. Sinderlar. 
Illustrated. 192 pages. Paper. Price, 30 cents. 
Beckley-Cardy Co., publishers, 312 W. Randolph St., 
Chicago. 

This book aims at a systematic and orderly presen- 
tation of the morning or opening exercise in the ele- 
mentary school. Material is provided for every day 
of the school year, beginning with the first day in 
September and ending with the last day of June. 
There are as many exercises as there are days in the 
month, thus leaving the teacher free to choice of 
lesson each day. 



THE PROGRESSIVE SCHOOL CLASSICS. For 
supplementary reading and study. Published by 
Beckley-Cardy Co., Chicago. Published at a uniform 
price of 5 cents each. 

A new series of reading books, which offers the 
highest class of literature for all grades, designed to 
supplement or replace the regular reading books. 

Characteristics — accurate and authentic texts — 
Notes and number lines for reference— Portraits, 
biographical sketches, and illustrations — New, clean 
type, graded in size according to the age of the child 
— Good grade of school-book paper, neat and durable 
binding — Uniform and convenient size 

We have received the following: 

The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. 

Rip Van Winkle. 

The King of the Golden River. 

The Great Stone Face. 

Evangeline. 

The Courtship of Miles Standish. 

Enoch Arden. 

The Man Without A Country. 



BOW-WOW AND MEW-MEW. A supplementary 
reader for First to Third Grades by Georgiana M. 
Craik. Edited by Joseph C. Sindelar. 95 pages. Cloth. 
Price 30 cents. Beckley-Cardy Co., publishers 112 
West Randolph street, Chicago. 

Bow-wow and Mew-mew is one of the few books for 
beginners in reading that may be classed as literature. 
It is the story of a young dog and cat that became 
dissatisfied with a pleasant home and left it. As the 
story tells, "They did not find good in any thing." 
But after running away and suffering hunger, neglect, 
and bad treatment, their characters begin to change. 
They naturally come to reflect their mistress' good- 
ness. They learn the value of companionship and 
friendship and the appreciation of a home — and how 
glad they are to return to it! 

Songs and Verses for a Baby. Compiled by L. A. 
Marsh. Booklet, 71 pps. Published at Belleville, N. 
J. Orders sent to L. A. Marsh. 50 cents. 

This is an attractive little booklet comprising 
selections from the verses of the best authors, such as 
are suitable to the youngest listeners and learners. 
They are classified according to Nature poems, among 
which we find Stevenson, Riley and Christina Rossetti 
represented. "Rhyme and Jingle Story Poems" in- 
cluding Little Dog Rags by Celia Thaxter, the old- 
time favorite, "Oh, Where's my Little Basket Gone," 
and shorter poems and verses. There are several 
pretty sleeping songs, and another section includes 
so-called "Religious verses." It would make an ap- 
propriate and acceptable gift for a six-months-old 
baby's mother, or for a baby's first birthday. 






NEW BLACKBOARD STENCILS 

"We can supply any Blackboard Stencil made at low- 
est prices. The following are all 6c each, i or more at 
4c each, unless the price of loc is given after the name 
of the stencil. In such case the price is loc or any 3, 8c. 

ANIMALS. "We can stipply stencils 
for illustrating all domestic ani- 
mals, wild animals, and animals 
of the field. Send to us for what- 
ever is wanted in stencils. 

Birds. Stencils to illustrate all 
birds of every clime. Also fowls. 
State your wants and will supply 
it promptly. 

INSECTS. All ordinary in- 
sects, including silkworm 
and cocoon will be supplied; 
FISH. Sword fish, Shark, 
Jelly fish, Star Fish, etc, 
FRUITS. All kinds, also plants, trees, etc. 
FLOWERS. Many different kinds. 
MAPS. Hemispheres, Continents, countries 
and states. Each 10c. Any three 8c. each. 

WRITING Charts. Complete set. Vertical or 
Slant. State which is wanted. Per set, 10c. 

Physiology. 1. Skeleton; 2. Lungs-. 3. Heart; 
4, Intestines; 5, Brain; 6. Nervous System; 7, 
Eye; 8, Ear. Price, 10c. Three or more, 8a 

CALENDAR. An appropriate design for each 
month, illustrating principal holiday and birth- 
days which occur. 10c. ; three or more, 8c. each. 
AMERICAN HISTORY CHARTS. Illustrating 
all important historical events. Send for list. 
We can supply any stencil made at lowest prices. 
Christmas STENCILS. A complete list will be found else- 
where in this price list. Also Hallowe'en, Thanksgiving, New 
Years, Washington's Birthday, Easter, Arbor Day, Flag Day, 
Memorial Day, and birthdays'of Longfellow, at. al. See index. 
PATRIOTIC. U. S. Shield, Statue of Liberty, Coat of Arms, 
TJ. S., Liberty Bell, Bunker Hill Monument, Mayflower, U. S. 
Flag, 24x36, Landing of Pilgrims, Goddess of Liberty. 

DECORATIVE. Roll of Honor, "Welcome, Program, Good 
Morning, Good Night, Memorial Day, Queen of May. 
CHRISTMAS STENCILS. Merry Christmas, Same, 24x63, 10c. ; 
Santa Claus Border. Holly Border, Christ- 
mas Tree, New Santa CJaus. Santa Claus, 
Sled and Reindeer. Santa and Stocking, 
Happy New Year, Christmas Morning, 10c. 

Thanksgiving stencils. Landing of Pilgrims. Home 
for Thanksgiving, Mayflower, Pilgrims Going to Church, 
John Alden and Priscilla, Corn, Pumpkin. Horn of Plenty, 
Pheaf of Wheat, Motto, "O, give thanks unto the Lord, for He 
is j. ood ; for His mercy endureth forever," 10c. 

Many other stencils are listed under Special Day 
Roods. 

SPECIAL BRILLIANT CRAYON 

To be used with these stencils. Two sticks each red, 
yellow, orange, green, blue and violet, 12 in all. The 
colors are most beautiful. Per box, 2oc. 

New Busy Work Stenciis 

Designed to be used by children at 
their desks on paper or other material 
and most excellent for teaching draw- 
ing, coloring, literature, language, &c. 
Ten stencils in an envelope, at 10c. per 
set. Sold in sets only, never singly. 
Set 1, Large Animals, Horse, 

Elephant, etc. 
Set 2. Small Animals, Cat, 

Dog, etc. 
Set 3. Flowers, Rose, Lily, 

Tulip, etc 
Set 4. Birds, Robin, Eagle, 

etc. 
Set 9. Fishes from the Sea. Set 23. Vegetables. 
Set 10. Language Stencils. Set 2«. Borders. 

Set 11. Maps of Continents, Set 59. Patriotic. 

etc. Set 28. Snowflake. 

Setd2. Washington Stencils. Set 22. Fruits, 
Set 13. Lincoln Stencil". 
Set 15. Thanksgiving Stencils. 
Set 16. Christmas Stencils. 
Set 17. Valentine Stencils. 
Set 18. Hollowe'en Stencils. 
Set 19, Hiawatha Ptenrils. 
Set 20. Eskimo Stencils. 
Set 21. Indian Stencils. 

Note — Abovs busy work stencils corns ten to the 
sheet. To be used on paper, not blackboard, and can 
only be used with powder, costing: loc for *4 lb. pack- 
atre, postage is. 



THE SCHOOL BULLETIN 



Of SYRACUSE, the old esfablished State edu- 
cational paper of Ne.v York, and the Kindergar- 
ten-Primary Magazine, both one year, pos:age 
paid anywhere in United States and possessions 



SCHOOL AND HOME 

Of Atlanta, Ga., one of the live, progressive educational 
papers of the South, and the Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine, both one full year, for only $1.15. 



>THE=™ 



MISSOURI SCHOOL JOURNAL 

Of JEFFERSON CITY, Mo., one of the best rt>| A A 

State educational papers in the West, and the \| nil 

Kindergarten-Primary Magazine, both one year, il/fltUv 

postage paid in United States and possessions, *.^^^m~ 

THE OHIO TEACHER 

$1.60 



A vigorous, efficient, state educational paper, 
and THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMA- 
RY MAGAZINE, both one year for 




TEACHERS MAGAZINE 

Of NEW YORK, one of the great educational rt> f QA 

periodicals of America, and the Kindergar- \\ All 

ten-Primary Magazine, both one year postage {) i t\j\9 

paid in United States and possessions for only ^_^_^_ 

EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION 

Of NEW YORK, an educational publication of At W QA 

great merit ($1.25 per annum) and the Kinder- \| All 

garten-Primary Magazine, both one year, <P I tvlv 

postage paid in United States and possessions, ^^_ ».™ 






Of COLUMBUS, one" of the best state educa- 
tional journals in Ohio, and the Kindergarten- 
Primary Magazine, both one year, postage paid 
anywhere in United States or possessions, only 



$11 



THE PROGRESSIVE TEACHER 



Of NASHVILLE, Tenn., one of the very best 
educational papers in the South, and the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine, both one year, 
postage paid in United States and possessions, 



$1.20 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE STUDY AND EDUCATION OF 

EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN 



An Eleemosynary Society incorporated under the laws of 
thelState of New Jersey 

In connection with its broad national work for 
exceptional children, this Association has for many 
years been conducting a special institution for the 
POTENTIALLY NORMAL, though "different" child, 
known as 

HERBART HALL 



The objects of this institution are: 

1st. To determine the individual peculiarities 
and tendencies which make a given case 
vary from the average. 

2nd. To harmonize the child with its environ- 
ment and to adjust the environment to 
the child so as to permit creative self- 
expression. 

3rd. To direct'all surrounding'influences to en- 
courage those vocational aptitudes which 
will best prepare the child for independ- 
ent existence. 
Physical and mental tests, scientifically developed, 
are employed so that there is neither guess-work in 
the diagnosis of these exceptional types nor hap- 
hazard methods in their education. 

Many children puzzle parents and teachers. They 
do not respond to ordinary school or home instuc- 
tion. Unless taken properly in hand, they will become 
failures in life. 

(We do not treat feeble-minded, epileptic, degen- 
erate or low types) 

For full information address 



u* L. Lt l/» 



WALDEMAR H. GROSZMANN 

Secretary-General 

Plainfield.N. J. "WATCHUNG CREST" 



Statement of the Ownership, Management, Circula- 
tion, Etc. 

of KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGA7TTVTT ™,ki;«v,^ 
Monthly except July and Anp, t at Manila ' Michigan 
required by the Act of August 24 1912 lldulHlee ' mcmgan. 
Name of Editor.J.H.ShuIt« ■ Post Office. Manistee. Mich 
'/fn; Managing Editor.;. H. Shnlts, Business Manager, 
J- H- Shu Its, Manistee, Michigan. B ' 

of «TnAfci^Hi I £ , l C ?5P oration ' givenames and addresses 
ot stockholders holding one per cent or more of total 

n?£ Un ^° f - S t ock -LJ-S' Shults, Manistee, Michigan; Grace 
Dow Manistee, Michigan. Known bondholders, mort- 
gages, and other security holders, holding one per cent or 
tfes: NONE. am ° Unt °* b ° ndS ' ^^aget, or other securV- 
Signature of editor, publisher, business manager or owner. 
J. H. Shults. 
faworn to and subscribed before me this "30 day of Sept., 1914. 

F. H. Stone, Notary Public. 
(My Commission expires Sept, lst,1915.) 



the KDIDEItGABTEN-PEIMAItY MAGAZINE 
With the Kindergarten Review, now $1.25 a year, 
both for $1.85 



THE COAST LINE TO 

MACKINAC 

DETROIT, T TOLEDO, 

CLEVELAND, BUFFALO, | PT. HURON, ALPENA, 

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"THE LAKES ARE CALLING YOU" 

ARRANGE your vacation or business trip to include our 
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June 25th to September 10th, making no stops enroute 
except at Detroit every trip. Daily service between 
1 oledo and Put-in-Bay June 1 Oth to September 1 0th. 

Railroad tickets accepted for transportation on D. or C. 
Line steamers in either direction between Detroit and 
Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland. 

Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet giving deta'led 
description of various trips. Address L. G. Lewis, General 
Passenger Agent, Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company 

Philip H. McMillan, President. 

A. A. Schantz, Vice Pres. and Genl. 




The Virginia Journal 
of Education r 

Better Than Most and as Good as Any Pedagogical Magazine 

Stands for the highest ideals in the school and home, and meets the 
demands of the teacher, as well as others engaged in educational work. 

What Some Well-known Educators Say About This Journal: 

From California; - '' '" " ' ' » 

"I appreciate very much the coming of the Virginia Journal of 
Education to our magazine table. It is one of the best, most lively, 
interesting and enterprising publications of the kind that I have had 
an opportunity to examine. Certainly it must exercise a great In- 
fluence for good among the schools of Virginia. I am particularly 
pleased at your ellorts to improve school conditions, the grounds, the 
buildings and the interiors of your country schools. We have been 
trying to work in that direction, too, in this State. I hope you may 
long live to publish your journal and I most heartily congratulate vou 
and the people of Virginia for the lively and creditable periodical 
that you are able to give them. " 

From Oregon: 

"I have received as much inspiration and benefit from' reading the 

Virginia Journal of Education as I have from reading any one of 

the numerous ones that come to my desk." 
From Kentucky: 

"I have been reading the Virginia Journal of Education with interest. 

and feel that it is one of the best-educational journals in the country." 
From New Jersey: 

"We regard the Virginia Journal of Education as among the most 

valuable publications received at this office." 
From Missouri : 

"I have been receiving the Virginia Journal of Education for some 

time and have greatly enjoyed reading it. It is an excellent paper 

and should be read by every teacher in the State. It is worth far 

more than your subscription price." 

From the Philippine Islands: 

U, 1 I e i V . a !' iety - of a , rUc ' es which appear in your paper each month, on 
school libraries, the decoration of school grounds and other topics 
are of general interest. The Journal is well gotten up and appears 
to be doing good work." p ' 

It is the official organ of the Virginia State Board of Ed- 
ucation, and is an excellent medium for advertising, as it 
has fully 5,000 regular readers. In addition several hun- 
dred complimentary copies are sent throughout the conn- 
try each month. 

Subscription Price, $1.00 

The Virginia Journal of Education 

Richmond, Va. 



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Books 

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The Young Crusader— Temperance paper for boys and girls; profusely illustrated; and aside 
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latest bulletin. 

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American Primary Teacher 



Edited by A. E. WINSHIP 

Published Monthly Except July and August" 

An up-to-date, wide awake paper for the grades. Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography. New Work in the Grades. 
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For literature, blanks, etc., 
call or address, 

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Both phones Columbus.. O. 
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"WHAT FUN CLAY IS" 

Clay for modeling is a universal favorite; it leads to growth in power of expression. 



ENTERTAINMENTS NEW CHRISTMAS RECITATIONS, DIALOGUES, SONGS, ETC. 




By all means have entertainments; they will help to 
put you out of the hum-drum teacher line Charge a 
small admission Use the fund for the benefit of the 
school. Have every child ttake part if possible and in- 
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wide awake and the people will appreciate it and pat- 
ronize your entertainments. Many entertainments can 
be arranged with but little time for preparation and 
will prove educative to every pupil taking part. 

Little Primary Pieces 

A collection of about 100 simple, bright 
and pretty recitations for children from 
five to eight years of age. They range from 
four to sixteen lines and relate to matters 
of interest to little folks. The book also 
contains a number of exercises, each to be 
given by several children, ill. Price, 15 cts. 

Practical Dialogues, Drills and Hardies. By 
Marie Irish 

Suitable for all grades and all occa- 
'!'. -%r ^mi^iM^ {M sions. Contents: Patriotic Choppers, Our 
\jgjgsgggfiglg Flag, Military Drill. The Blue and the 
Gray, Spring Romance, Mother Nature's 
Party, Picture Gallery, Be Thankful, Pumpkin Pie, At Christ- 
mas Time, Watchingfor Santa, Sunflower March and Drill, 
Bopeep and Boy Blue March, Butterfly Drill, The Tea Party 
Luck at Last. The Meeting of the Ghosts, Slight Mistake, 
Scene at the Ticket Office, The Lost Child, Modern Mid Sum- 
mer Night's Dream, Midsummer Fairies. Illustrated with 
diagrams. Anyone can use the drills without difficulty. 15a 
pages. Price, 25 cents. 

All the Holidays, By Clara J. Denton 

For all grades. 39 dialogues, exercises 
and plays, 31 recitations for the following: 
New Year's, Lincoln's Birthday, St. 
Valentine's, Washington's Birthday, 
Easter, Arbor and Bird Days, May Day. 
Flower Day, Memorial Day.'ClosingDay, 
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mas. The material is all new. Contents: 
The Minute Men, for 10 boys; Making the 
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in Trees, 3 boys; An Arbor Day Medley, 
33 Children; Keeping the Day, 5 girls and 
2 boys ; In Honor of Thanksgiving, 21 girls 
and 12 boys; Hanging Up the Stockings, 
1 girl and 2 boys ; What Christqias Means. 
201 pages. Price. 25 cents. _ 

Primary 5peaker— Several are for 
girls only, some for boys only, and 
others for both boys and girls. The 
most popular book of dialogues for 
little folks ever published. Price, 
15c. 

Special Days in the Primary Grades, 
By Mary L. Mood. This little work 
contains songs, recitations, dia- 
logues, exercises, etc., for May day, 
»ai Memorial day, Columbus day, Christmas, 
3*» Lincoln and Washington days. Also Mother 
Goose opera, suitable for closing of schools. This last hn9 
over twenty pages, words and music, and will make a line 
entertainment. 64 pages. Price, 15 cents. 

Twinkling Fingers and Swaying Fig= 
ures. By Clara J. Denton. Full of 
amusing finger plays, motion 
songs and exercises to train and 
restthe body. Simple and catchy 
songs to 01 iginal music. The plays 
and songs are about flowers, birds, 
plants, animals, games and vari- 
ous other subjects that will please 
and instruct children. Price, 25c. 
Favorite Primary Speaker— This book contains 
over 100 very bright and fresh recitations for 

1 boys and girls from live to ten years of age. 

CbcjnoSemBrill Being a choice selection from magazines 
they afford great varietv Price, 20 ceivts. 

Games and Exercises— This little work con- 
tains many exercises for playground and 
schoolroom. The former may be used during 
intermission and the latter "for general exer- 
cises, at playtime, or for home recitations. 
These exercises are for all grades, and will be 
found to till a want every teacher has felt. 76 
pages. Price 20 cents. 

History of the United States- A play by K A. 
Crowl. Pupils learn much of history while 
learning the play; price, 15c. 

DOLLY SHOW, THE. A dialog In rhyme for seven little girls 
and two boys. The girls have a baby show with their dollies. 
and each "mother" shows her baby oft* to the best advantage. 
The Judge is unusually wise, awarding the prise to the satls- 
ftaettoa of eeveh one. Tbe saying' of the little ones aj-e ante, 
•ad abe wfceke ■erfe-rsnua* a groat •ueeeaa, li Mat*. 




^CELEBRATIONS >. 






Thirty New Christmas Dialogues and Plays. By Clara J. 
Denton. This is the up-to-date book. For all grades. 176 pps. 
New fresh material. It will please you. Price 30c. 

The New Christmas Book. Right up to date. SixVy recita- 
tion*, 10 dialogues and exercises, i drills, 10 songs, some with 
music, 5 tableaux, 4 pantomimes, 50 quotations and a novel 
entertainment. 165 pages, 30c. 

Little Plays and Rhymes for Little People, Contents: Plavs; 

Court of the Little New Year; The Christmas Snow Flake; 
A Christmas Play for the Tiny Folks; May Day Play; Easter 
Exercise; Memorial Day Exercises; Bargains for Scholars; 
A Closing Exercise; Christmas Stories; The Vegetable Par- 
ty at Rofs; Lazy Kitty; The Keward of the Cheerful Candle; 
Memory Gems; Rhyme for Free Hand Cutting; Drawing and 
Seed Laying; Price only 6c. postage ic. 

Christmas Chimes, with Kindergarten Exercises, 6c. 

Feast of Lights, for Primary Classes, 6c. 

Christmas Crowns, 6c. 

Christmas Recitations, 6c. 

Select Readings and Recitations for Christmas, thirty-two choice 
readings and recitations, 10c, postpaid. 

Filmore's Christmas Recitations and Dialogues— Very satisfac- 
tory. Prepaid 10c 

FindeSiecle Christmas Exercises— Great variety. Postp'd 15c. 

CHRISTMAS DIALOGS, UUFTILL'S ORIGINAL. By Elisa- 
beth F. Guptlll. Few persons have the ability to write dialogs 
as successfully as the author of this collection. Here are many 
of her choicest productions. The contents are not only In- 
tensely Interesting, but the dialogs can be given anywhere, and 
with few requirements. For children of all ages. 35 cents. 

CHRISTMAS DIALOGS AND PLAYS. A superb new collection 
of strictly original dialogs and plays, all expressly for Christ- 
mas. Written by the most successful authors, such as Jean 
Halifax, Faith Dennlson and Catherine Wentworth Rothaay. 
Original, clever, appropriate, delightful. 16 cents. 

Th~ Cnming-ofthe Christ- r hild. The story of the com- 
ing of Christ and of the first Christmas, told in such a way 
as to acquaint thecbild with the faces that figure most prom- 
inently in Madonna and Holy Familv pictures. Well lllus. 
trated"; 32 pages. Third grade. Price, 6c. ; postage, 2c. 

Christmas Celebrations 

The matter in this book is all new. 
It is 1-v far the largest, clioie-tandbest 
arranged collection for Christmas pub- 
li Tied. 'Ihree parts. Part 1 for Pri- 
mary Grades contains 1 acrostic, 4 dia- 
logues and exercises. Waiting for 
Santa (drill), 29 recitations, new songs, 
and 16 primary quotations. Part II, In- 
termediate Grades, has] acrostic, 6 dia- 
logues and exercises, Stocking Drill, 
3 new songs, 9 quotations. Part III, 
Higher Grades, contains 1 dialogue. Ev- 
ergreen Drill, 17recitations, 3 new songs 
the origin of Christmas, a Christmas 
Prayer, and eight quotations. The book 
also contains i tableaux for all grades. 
Illustrated 160 pages. Price, 25 cents. 

CHRISTMAS PLAYS 

TUB HIGHWAY ROBBERS. A play for twelve boys, by 
Eleanor Allen Schroll. Nine of the boys have speaking parts. 
Three larger boys appear only In the first scene, but have no 
speaking part. This Is a thrilling play for boys, teaching a 
good lesson impressively. Time — 20 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

A CHRISTMAS RAINBOW. A play for four girls and four 
boys, six or seven years old. by Adaline Hohf Beery. The chil- 
dren play Sunday-school, and at the close represent the rain- 
bow In tableau, In colors, with appropriate recitations and 
action. Time — II or 16 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

HOW SANTA CAMS TO THE HOMB. A play fer small 
ohildren, by Llssie De Armond. The characters are Santa 
Claus and Brownies (about ten boys in all); also Pollie, Jennie, 
Fannie, and nine other little girls, and Miss Bessie. Time — 
IS er li minutes Price 16 cents. 

THE SHIRKERS. A play for ten or more small children. 
Six small boys and girls represent Mother Qoose's children, 
and four or more boys represent little Moon Men, and Santa 
Claus, by Elisabeth F. Guptlll. Time — 16 minutes. Price II 
eents 

A HOME FOR THE CHRIST. A play for eleven boys, by 
Adaline Hohf Beery. In this play the boys each contribute bis 
services and his talent toward fixing up a suitable home for tbe 
Christ Time — 1J or IB minutes Prioe 10 oents. 

SENDING A CHRISTMAS BOX. A play for six girls and 
ene boy, by John D. McDonald. In this play the girls plan to 
send a Christmas Box to the missionaries, and are compelled 
to call In a boy to help pack the box and address it An Intex- 
eettnc play "Time— II er IB minutes. Price 1* eents 

WHY CHRISTMAS WAS LATE. A play for small ohildren, 
by Llssle De Armond The oharaoters are Santa Claus. BrowTV- 
i«a, Northwlnd, Jaok FTOst, BITS* and Odwh. Time— IS at 
1c «n'nnt*« P-Hee 10 eenta. 

Address all orders to 

THE J. H. SHULTS CO., MANISTEE, MICH. 




RELIABLE K1NDERQARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



Class Rooms and 
Students' Residence 



GERTRUDE HOUSE, 

54 Scott St., Chicago. 



Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course (two years), 

and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificate* for 

Home-making Course, non-professional (one year). 

Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 

Chicago. 
Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 
Directors; Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 
Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 
For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, M Scott St. 



Notes on Froebel's Mo- 
ther Play Songs 

By JEAN CARPENTER ARNOLD 

"Mrs. Arnold has caught the spirit 
of the Mother Play, interpreting 
clearly the meaning of each lesson 
and elaborating it as only an artist 
Teacher can who has a wealth of cul- 
ture, deep spiritual insight and a 
gift of expression. It is the most 
valuable contribution to kindergar- 
ten literature in recent years" — 
Netta Faris, Principal Cleveland 
Kindergarten Training School. 

Cloth, 362 pages. Postpaid, $1.14 

Address 

National Kindergarten College 

2644 Michigan Boulevard, Chicago 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 
COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

2108 CONNECTICUT AVE. 

Kindergarten and Primary Courses 
A limited number of resident pupils 

MISS HARRIET NILE 

Successor to Miss LAURA FISHER 

Training School for Kindergartners 

Normal Course two years. Graduate 

and Special Courses. 
319 Marlborough 9t. Boston. Mass. 

EVERY KINDERGARTNER 

Who can read and play simple music 

correctly, can add to her usefulness 

and income. 

For particulars write to 

MRS. ANNA HEUERMANN HAMILTON 

FULTON. MISSOURI 
Author of First Piano Lessons at Home 



Connecticut Fro ebel Normal 

Kindergarten Primary Training School 
Academic, kindergarten, primary and 
playground courses, Boarding and day 
school. Extensive facilities for thor- 
ough and quick work. 14th year. Book- 
lets. State certificates. Address. 

MARY C. MILLS. Principal. 

181 West avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 



=PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL= 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

6 1 6-622 So. Mich. Boul. Chicago 

(New Location Ovelooking Lake Michigan.) 
DIPLOMA COURSE 2 YEARS 
Post-Graduate, Primary and Play- 
ground Workers courses. Special 
courses by University Professors. In- 
cludes opportunity to become familiar 
with Social Settlement Movement at 

Chicago Commons. 

For circulars and information address, 

BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER. Supt. 

Box 51.61 6-622 South Michigan 

Boulevard, Chicago. III. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 

students. 

Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Hlglnbotnam, Proa. 

Mrs. P. D. Armour, VIce-Pres. 

SARAH B. HANSON. Principal. 

Credit at the 

Northwestern and Chicago Universities. 

For particulars address Eva B. Whlt- 

more, Supt., 6 B. Madison St., cor. Mich. 

ave., Chicago. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 

Richmond, Ye 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training In Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER. 8ec. and Treae. 



THE HAKRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

Two yeais normal course accredited 
by State Board of Regents. 

SUMMER COURSES 

Pay be taken for Kindergarten Train- 
ing School and University credit. 
New York University, 
University Heights 

July 1, August II 
For information address 

MISS HARRIETTS M.MILLS. Principal 

New York University 
Washington Square, New York City. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 1914 

1516 Columbia Road, N. W. WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollock,, Principal 

Teachers' Training- Course — Two Years 
Summer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua— Mountain Lake Park- 
Garrett Co., Maryland 



Grand Rapids Kindergarten 
Training School 



Certificate 
IDiploma 

and 
Normal 
Courses 

New 
Quarters 

No. 508 
Foun- 
tain St. 



CLARA WHEELER. Principal 




KINDERGARTEN 



COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE 



Organized in 1881 as Chicago 
Free Kindergarten Association. 

Oldest kindergarten training 
school in Chicago. Located in Fine 
Arts Building, overlooking Lake 
Michigan. Regular two years' dip- 
loma course. Special courses open 
to teachers and mothers. Universi- 
ty instructors. University credits. 
Address 

EVA B. WHITMORE, Registrar. 

Room 706, 410 S. Michigan Avenue, 

CHICAGO 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 

Two Years' Coarse of Study. 

Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETf E A. ALLEN. Principal, 

MS Petcbtree Street, ATLANTA* OA. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



THE NEW YORK 

KINDERGARTEN 

ASSOCIATION 



WILL OPEN A 



Kindergarten Training School 

OCTOBER 1st, 1914 



UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

MISS LAURA FISHER 

NORMAL COURSE, TWO YEARS 

OBSERVATION AND PRACTICE TEACHING IN 

THE KINDERGARTENS OF THE ASSOCIATION 

For Circulars address 

524 W. 42nd St., New York City 



Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 23rd Year 

Froebel School of Kindergarten 

Normal Classes p1 T b S c»i%iIg 

COPLEY SQ. 

Prepares for Kindergarten, Primary and 
Playground positions. Theory and practice 
strong. Special work under best educators. 
Graduates are holding valuable positions. 
Circulars. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

BORTENSB M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

**»e Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens. 826 Bull Street. 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

Two Year*' Coarse. Terms, $100 per year 
Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

SPRTNGFITJLD— LONG BUS ADO W, MASS. 



Kindergarten Training School 

Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association. 
Two Years' Course. For particulars ad- 
dress 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER 
86 Delaware Avenue - Buffalo. N. Y. 



■THE- 



Teachers College 

OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for all grades 
of teaching. Two, Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This College specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary and Intermediate 
Grade Teaching. 
Special classes in Public School Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art. and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

MRS. ELIZA A. BLAKER, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



TRAINING SCHOOL 



TWO YEARS' COURSE 

Instruction in Primary Methods. 

STUDENTS' RESIDENCE. 

SARA K. LIPPINCOTT) p . . . 
SUSAN C. BAKER ^Principals 



2108 Conn. Ave 



Washington, D. C. 



Mice Harf'c GAINING SCH001 

miOJ Uml J ForKlndergartners 
3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Practice Kinder- 
gartens. Opens October 1st. 1914. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 

The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 



■CLEVELAND- 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kinderg-arten College 

2050 Bast 96th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 

founded In 1894. 

Regular course of three years prepares 
for Kindergarten and Primary posi- 
tions. Lectures in Montessori methods 
with observation in Montessori School. 
Address, 

MISS NETTA FARRIS, Principal 




law Froebel Kindergarten 
Training School and School 
of Culture for Young Ladies 

Forty Practice Schools. 
Medical Supervision. 
Certificate and Diploma 
Courses. 
2313 ASHLAND AVE. 
TOLEDO, OHIO 



Ethical Culture School 

Central Park West and 63d St. 



gart 
mal Training Department 

Prof. Patty S. Hill, of Teachers College, 

Educational Advisor and Instructor 

in Kindergarten Theory. 

Two years' Kindergarten course. Af- 
ternoon courses in Primary methods 
for Kindergarten teachers, leading to a 
Kindergarten-Primary diploma 
For particulars address 

CATHERINE J. TRACY 

Principal 

The NEW YORK KINDERGARTEN 



Offers unusual advantages for Graduate 

Study. 

SEASON OF 1914-1915 

PUBLIC LECTURES 

Subject 

MOTHERS' MEETINGS AND VISITING 

Miss Fanniebelle Curtis, Director of Public School 
Kindergartens. 

GRADUATE COURSES 

DANTE'S DIVINE COMEDY 
GAMES KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

KINDERGARTEN GIFTS PROGRAM MAKING 

LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN 
TUITION FREE Apply for Prospectus to 

MISS LAURA FISHER 

Director department of GRADUATE STUDY 
524 W. 42nd Street, N EJV YORK CITY 



Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
Training School 

Child Welfare course one year. 
Regular course two years. 
Full course three years. 
Address 

LUCY WHEELOCK 

100 Riverway, BOSTON 



Pratt Institute 

School of Kindergarten Training 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Normal Courses for Kindergarten, two 
years. Special Courses for Teachers 
and Mothers. Plays with Kindergar- 
ten and Supplementary Materials. 
Kindergarten Games. Outdoor Sports. 
Tennis and Swimming. Gardening. 
Nature Study. Music, Voice and Pi- 
ano. Literature for Children. Sto- 
ry-telling. Educational Subjects. Psy- 
chology and Child Study. Practice 
Teaching and Observation in the Kin- 
dergartens of Greater New York 

ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Fall term opens Sept. 23, 1914 



AGENCIES FOR KINDERGARTNERS AND PRIMARY TEACHERS 

TPHIS list of Teachers' Agencies is published for the benefit of our subscribers. It includes only those who claim to be able 

to secure positions for Kindergartners or Primary Teachers. We advise those in need of positions to write one or more 

of these agencies for particulars. Even though now employed you may be able to secure a position in a larger or better school 



rhe TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teachers, Tutors and 
Schools, No. 120 Boylston street. 



THE REED TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Can place Kindergarten and Primary 
Teachers in New York, New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania at good salaries. 

H. E. REED, Manager, Syracuse, N. Y. 
641 University Block. 



THE PRATT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Recommends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, andlother^ teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 
70 Fifth Avenue New York 



MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

Station A. Spokane, Wash. 
We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of rimaryand Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 



REGISTER WITH US. 

We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt., 
Principals, Teachers of Science, .Math- 
ematics and "Language. 

OHIO VALLEY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

A. J. JOELY. Mgr. MENTOR.. KY. 



ALBANY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Provides public and private schools 
with competent teachers. 

Assists teachers and kindergartners 
in obtaining positions. 

81 Chapel Street. ALBANY. N Y. 



THIS 13 THE TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR OF 

The CLARK TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Which proves conclusively its 

standing. Try them. Address, 

Steinway Hall, Chicago; Lincoln, Neb. 

Spokane, Wash. 



-THE 



NORTHWESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

310-311 PfiOVTDENCE BUILDING 
DULUTH. MINN. 



Trained rimary and Kindergarten 
Teachers needed. Good positions, er- 
manent membership. Write to-day. 
612-613 Majestic Building, 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 



INTERSTATE Teachers' Agency 

5A1-503 Livingston Building. Rochester, 
N. Y. Gives special attention to plac- 
ing Kindergarten and Primary Teach- 
ers in all parts of the United States. 
T. H. ARMSTRONG, roprietor. 



SOUTHERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

COLUMBIA, S. C. 

There is an increasing demand for Pri- 
mary Teachers and Kindergartners 
throughout the South. Our agency is 
one of the largest and best known in 
this splendid territory for teachers. Ask 
for booklet, A LAN. 
W. H. JONES, Manager and Proprietor. 



WESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY &SS£ 

We wantKindergarten, rimary, Rural 
andotherteachers for regular or special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit- 
erature and enroll for the coming year. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manager. 



The J.D.Engle Teachers' Agency 

MIN EAPOLIS, Ml . 

A Placing Agency for Teachers. Estab- 
lished 20 years. Register for Western 
Kindergarten-Primary positions. Send 
for circular 



DEWBERRY 

SCHOOL 
AGENCY 

1892-1914 



CPECIALLY trained Kindergarten and Primary 
^ teachers in demand in the best schools through- 
out the South and Southwest. Teachers interested 
should get in touch with us. 

Address, R. A. CLAYTON, Manager. 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA 



HIGHEST SALARIES-BEST OPPORTUNITIES Kdlo^weK 

need KINDERGARTEN, PRIMARY and other teachers for private and public schools. 
Write for "POSITION AND PROMOTION PROBLEMS SOLVED." No Regis- 
tration fee. WESTERN REFERENCE & BOND ASSOCIATION, 

667 Scarrett Building, KANSAS CITY, Mo. 



WESTERN POSITIONS FOR TEACHERS 

We are the agency for securing positions for Teachers in Colorado, Oklahoma, 
South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, California, Nebraska, Nevada, 
Arizona Montana, Kansas, Idaho, Utah, North Dakota, and New Mexico. 
Write us to-day, for our Free Booklet, showing how we place most of our teach- 
ers outright. Our Booklet, "Mow to Apply for a School and Secure Promotion" with 
Laws of Certification of Teachers of Western States, free to members or sent 
prepaid for Fifty cents in stamps. Money refunded if not satisfied. 



W0CKYMT7EA CHERS'A GE/VCY 



Kindergartners and Primary Teachers 

Are in constant demand in the South at 
good salaries. We can place both. 

The Teachers 3 Exchange 

P. O. Box 283, Nashville. Tenn. 



QUR OPPORTUNITIES for placing 
Kindergarten and Primary Teachers 
exceed our supply. No charge until you 
accept position. 

Lewis Teachers 3 Agency 

41 Lyman Block, Musketfon. Mich. 



Sabins' Educational Exchange 

(Inc.) DES MOINES. IOWA. 

Wants to hear from kindergarten or 

primary teachers desiring places west 

of Mississippi river. Write fully. Will 

answer frankly. 



AN AGENCY 



is valuable In 
proportion! to 
its influence If it merely hearsof va- 
cancies and tells TU AT is sorne- 
you about them ' «""* « thing, 
but if it is asked to recommend a^teach- 

youtha d t RECOMMENDS 

is more. Ours recommends. 

The School Bulletin Agency 

C W. BARDEEN. Syracuse. N. Y. 



WE PLACE 



MANY PRIMARY 
Teachers each 
year. Some Kindergartners. No charge 
until teacher is located by us. Send for 
registration blank. A. H. Campbell, 

American Teachers* Agency 

Myrick Building, Springfield, MASS. 



API AM Whereby the Teache 
• ■— **■» I " is brought in touii 



er 

brought i n t o u ch 
with opportunity at that critical mo- 
ment when each is in search of the oth- 
er, is set forth in our forty-page booklet 
elling all about the South as a field for 
rimary and Kindergarten teachers. 
Get it. 



Columbia, S. C. 



The South and West 

Offer good opportunities for Primary 
and Kindergarten teachers. For infor- 
mation write CLAUDE J. BELL, 

Bell Teachers' Ag-ency, 

Nashville, Tenn. 



THE OKLAHOMA TEACHER'S 



GEARY, OKLAHOMA 

Only Competent Teachers Enrolled. 
WRITE US YOUR WANTS 



ENTRAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

COLUMBUS. OHIO. 

A good medium for trained primary 
teachers to use in securing promotion 
Write to-day. £. C. ROGERS. M«. 




(See page 113.) 



"THE CHURCH" 

MOTHER PLAY PICTURE 

NOTE-This picture can be detached and placed on the wall or used otherwise in the Kindergarten. 




THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY- 



MAGAZINE 



Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c., and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 




DECEMBER, 1914. 



VOL. XXVII— No. 4 



The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is entered as 
second class matter at the Post-Office, Manistee, Mich. 



INDEX TO CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Mother Play Pictures 104 

The Developing Method. . . .Dr. W. N. Hailmann 106 

Christmas Dr. Mary E. Law 107 

General Suggestions for the 

December Program Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 108 

How to Gather Materials for 

the December Program. . .Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 109 
An Impromptu Toy Store. . .Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 111 
The Relations between the 

Kindergarten and the 

Elementary Schools Julia Wade Abbott 112 

Mother Play— The Church 

Door and the Window 

Above It Bertha Johnston 113 

A Language Hint to Mothers Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 115 

Training Imagination 116 

Toy Making for the Kin- 
dergarten John Y. Dunlop 117 

The Letter Susan Plessner Pollock 118 

How the Bite was Taken Out 

of the Stone Wall Jeannette Ridlon 119 

Busy Work for December F. E. H. 120 

Straight Line Cutting Carrie L. Wagner 121 

Picture Studies Mary £ .Cotting 122 

The Kindergarten and the 

First Grade Francis McSherry 123 

Little Plays and Little Peace 

for Little People 124 

Hints and Suggestions for 

Rural Schools Grace Dow 128 

Christmas Suggestions Olive Wills 129 

Suggestive Gift and Occupa- 
tion Lessons for Primary 

and Rural Teachers 131 

The Committee of the Whole . .Bertha Johnston 132 
Suggestive Designs for 

Blackboard Illustrations 

Sara Rountree Smith 133 

Descriptions for December 

Booklet Marguerite B. Sutton 134 

Some New Books 135 

Madonna Pictures , , , , , ........ ..•>•• M i • 137-139 



EDITORIAL NOTES 

The greatest need of the world today seems to be 
kings and emperors who can look upon war as just 
plain murder. 



David Star Jordan has resigned as president of 
Leland Standford, Jr., University to devote his time to 
the cause of universal peace. 



Educational institutions everywhere in the United 
States are ardently enlisted in the Peace cause. No 
section of the United States is luke warm. 



"It is at all times to be kept in mind that the 
schools are not only to educate the people in order that 
they may be educated, but also to educate them in 
order that they do things. They are to be trained for 
labor and for effectiveness. Things are to be done, 
and great men and women are to develop them doing 
them." — Andrew S. Draper. 



The war in Europe is a failure. No matter what 
patriotic hopes and aspirations nor altruistic theories 
those who are responsible for it may have entertained 
at the outset, the result to date, forces home to every 
thinking mind the inevitable conclusion that the war 
is a most dismal and hopeless failure. No possible 
good can come to humanity, that will offset the mon- 
strous injury already wrought against the human 
race. 



We now see more clearly, perhaps, than ever be- 
fore, that "Peace on earth, good will toward men," is 
not only a lofty sentiment, but is necessary for the 
preservation of the human race. Without it, civiliza- 
tion with all its advancement in letters, the arts and 
sciences is a menace, and not a protection, to human 
life. It but teaches how to destroy life more mon- 
strously than would be possible without this intel- 
ligence. 



While we do not issue a special Christmas number, 
yet we believe our readers will find something especi- 
ally good in the contents of this issue. Those who will 
carefully read and study what Dr. W. N. Hailmann, 
Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, Bertha Johnston, Dr. Mary E. 
Law, Grace Dow, Carrie L. Wagner, Laura Rountree 
Smith, Olive Wills, Marguette B. Sutton, Mrs. Harry 
A. Carpenter, Florence Waitt, Mary E. Cotting, John 
Y. Dunlop, Susan Plessner Pollock, Julia Wade Abbott, 
Jeannette Ridlon, and others have to offer in this 
issue, we feel certain must receive much valuable in- 
formation and help, 



106 



THE KINDERGARTEH-PRIMARY 31AGAZIKE 




By Dr. W. N. Hailmann 
II 

The recognition of the fact that the unfoldment of 
inner tendencies and potentialities is the central 
principle in the growth and development of man, 
that all the educator can do is to supply appropriate 
stimulus from without, and that failure to respect 
this fact in educational practice hinders and perverts 
growth and development, is not new. We find it 
clearly indicated, not to go farther t>ack, in the prac- 
tice of Homeric Greece. Nature, instruction chiefly 
by example, and habituation by doing constituted in 
a broad way the code of educational method. We find 
it, notably in Athens, in the high regard for play in 
early childhood, and, later on, in the palestra and in 
the gymnasium. 

With Socrates the principles of the developing me- 
thod attain theoretic value. In the account of his 
maieutics he presents within the narrow limits of his 
aim, a clear statement of a developing or heuristic 
proceeding in which the teacher aids the learner in 
his efforts to give birth to the truth that is within 
him. The method is inductive, leading from percep- 
tions and personal experiences to concepts and their 
definitions. By skillful questioning he seeks, not to 
impart ideas from without, but to develop them from 
within, stimulating the self-activity of the learner by 
every means. "Myself," he says, "I am by no means 
wise and have no such things to show as the product 
of my mind ; but all to whom it is granted by the God 
to be with me are, at first quite ignorant, but as they 
continue, they make incredible progress as it appears 
to them and to others. So much is certain that they 
never have learnt anything from me, but of them- 
selves they discover much that is beautiful and hold 
it fast." v 

Plato and Aristotle are so explicit in their state- 
ments that these often remind us of Comenius and 
even of Pestalozzi. The former demands in educa- 
tional practice the nurture of self-activity and regard 
for the individuality of the pupil. The teacher, he 
holds, should know the soul of the child and the 
course of its development and adjust his instruction 
thereto, so that learning may appear to the pupil not 
as a matter of compulsion, but as play and pleasure. 
In the matter of gaining experiences and a clear per- 
ception of things, "we should, after selecting suitable 
objects, lead the pupil, if possible, to the objects, 
show these to him, induce him to imitate what he 
has observed, to use it and to practice it." Again, 
the teacher should always connect the work with 
what the pupil has already learnt and experienced, 
and should lead him by questions in such a way that 
he may find the answer himself or, at least, believe 
that he has thus found it. Thus the pupil will expe- 



rience that pure pleasure connected with finding and 
learning and become spontaneously active and eager. 

"Nature," he says elsewhere, "outside of man, acts 
as teacher and educator of man in order to unfold 
and develop within him the slumbering ideas and, 
thereby, the good; it compels man to become self- 
active and to develop ideas. The senses are for the 
soul the organs by which nature acts upon it, by 
which it gains experiences which then are elaborated 
by it into judgments and conclusions, thereby stimu- 
lating and developing the slumbering ideas. By these 
the immortal soul is drawn into the world; but finally, 
at the close of the development, it withdraws again 
from the world and becomes occupied purely with 
the ideas as such, attaining godlikeness." 

Aristotle, in even more modern terms, would have 
education develop the capacities of man and, there- 
fore, follow nature. It should aim at the harmonious 
development of all the capacities — physical, intellect- 
ual and moral. Instruction, he tells us, should prog- 
ress from the fact that a thing is, to what it is, and 
why it is. All, indeed, that the educator can do is to 
aid the development of the natural gifts. 

In similar vein, four centuries later, the great Ro- 
man teacher Quintilian pleads for consideration of in- 
dividual talent; for "he who is led contrary to nature 
cannot make due progress in the studies for which he 
is unfit, and the talents for the exercise of which he 
seemed born are weakened by neglect to cultivate 
them." "Let the child's instruction be a pleasure to 
him; let him be questioned and encouraged; let him 
never be pleased that he does not know; let him 
strive for victory now and then, and generally sup- 
pose that he gains it." — And again: "Parents should 
be hopeful of their children, for dullness is not natur- 
al. As birds are born to fly, horses to run, and wild 
beasts to show fierceness, so to man peculiarly belong 
activity and sagacity of understanding, whence the 
origin of mind is thought to be from heaven." With 
Plato and Aristotle, he emphasizes the value of play 
for childhood. 

With the advent of Christianity, regard for intel- 
lectual and aesthetic culture was more and more dis- 
placed by emphasis upon the moral and religious 
phases of life. This attitude, much aided by the in- 
flux of oriental asceticism, ripened in medieval Chris- 
tianity ^ more especially in the West, into distrust and 
horror of Graeco-Roman educational ideals and into 
pronounced hostility to pagan literature and its 
teachings. 

Other worldliness ruled the hearts of men. Earthly 
interests were condemned or, at least, regarded with 
suspicion as Satanic contrivances for the ensnarement 
of man. The earth, indeed, is a vale of tears, and 
withdrawal from its interests is the highest virtue. 
Every vestige of free development of the inner life of 
man is suppressed, more particularly in children as 
the most helpless victims of original sin. "Not in- 
sight," says St. Augustine, "is to be expected form 
children, nor is insight the first thing to be sought, 
but the first thing is objective compulsion, discipline, 



*HE SlNDERGAlttfEN-lPiiiMARt MAGAZINE 



107 



and subjectively obedience." Not the natural devel- 
opment of religious and moral personality was to be 
the aim of education, but implicit belief and obed- 
ience; man, he held, could gain his end not by his 
own effort but only by grace. 

Not until the Renaissance and the movement of 
Humanism is there hope of full release of the sup- 
pressed view of man as destined for unfoldment from 
within of a free personality, of reverent regard for 
childhood as the germinal period for such develop- 
ment. Here we find among others Vergerius, Aeneas 
Sylvius (later Pope Pius II), Vegius, Erasmus, Vives 
and Rabelais returning to saner views. 

To teach, Vives holds, is to communicate what one 
knows to others who do not know it. While the 
teacher does this he should not neglect self -activity; 
for the capacity to know, intellectual power, lies in 
man. The teacher, therefore, need only do what the sun 
does which with its rays stimulates the germs. All 
else is drill, and not teaching. To him, the first 
teachers are the senses; thought begins with induc- 
tion; individuality must be rospected and such indi- 
viduality is revealed more especially in play. 

Rabelais calls for clearness in instruction, not for 
words only but also for things so that the children 
may learn to see for themselves and to examine. He 
would seek habituation to self-activity and to self- 
dependence in thinking, secure harmonious develop- 
ment and application of what has been learned, in 
practical life. He would pass from things to words, 
from personal experience to understanding, make 
learning pleasant by the stimulation of spontaneous 
interest, by encouragement of effort, sympathy and 
helpfulness. 

Lasting progress is made by Comenius, the pedago- 
gic disciple of Lord Bacon. "Knowledge, the latter 
had said, delivered to another, and a web to be fur- 
ther wove, should, if possible, be introduced into the 
mind of another in the manner it was first procured. 
Any one might review his knowledge, trace back the 
steps of his own thoughts, begin afresh, and thus 
transplant his knowledge into the mind of another 
as it grew up in his own." Upon the senses he looks 
as "the port of entry to the intellect" proceeds from 
the easy to the difficult, and would suit studies to in- 
dividual needs. 

To Comenius "man is a microcosm; his mind con- 
tains the seeds of all things." Man's essential char- 
acteristic in earthly life is continuous development 
into rationality, into wisdom, virtue, piety, These 
three innate principles are aided in their develop- 
ment by education. He takes lessons from the tree 
and from the bird hatching its young, both beginning 
from within. He warns against haste, against the 
forcing of instruction; demands that everything be 
taught thru sensuous perception and for immediate 
application, that the pupil be interested, that mere 
authority yield to demonstration, books to personal 
experience. The sun teaches him that each thing is 
to be generated from its seed and that everything is 
to be taught in its vital relations, that all things 
should be generated in a regular order, each step pre- 



paring for the next and resting on a preceding step, 
and that nothing useless or foreign to the child's na- 
ture be taught. For "nothing can be put into man 
from without; only what he possesses within himself 
undeveloped, can and should be developed and un- 
folded and shown to be what it is." 



CHRISTMAS. 
Dr. Mary E. Law, Toledo, O. 

One of the most significant things that Froebel did 
for the kindergarten was to recognize and make 
practical the fact that it is more blessed to give than 
to receive. Anyone who has seen the radiant little 
faces and the busy little fingers at Christmas time in 
the kindergarten can readily believe that Froebel an- 
nounced a wonderful law, when he said that the 
young child was unselfish and liked to do for others. 
The Christmas gifts for papa, mamma and the other 
dear ones should be the work of the children. Then 
the deft fingers and the skilled taste of the kinder- 
gartners should come to their assistance in the mak- 
ing of the bits of handiwork into useful and beautiful 
articles. Sachets, handkerchief cases, pen wipers and 
book marks are mere suggestions of the many beauti- 
ful things that the children can make. Of course 
there should be a Christmas tree and all the decora- 
tions should be the children's work. Appropriate 
games and songs should be played and sung around 
the tree and finally the presents distributed by the 
children themselves. Nothing should be placed on the 
tree but the children's own work. If the teacher or 
kindergartner wishes to make each one a little pre- 
sent, — not as a reward for merit, — let it be done in 
some original way, as a Jack Horner pie or a horn of 
plenty to create a little surprise. Of course a little 
feast should be provided. The story of the historic 
Christ child or some other Christmas story should be 
told, but religious inferences of every kind should be 
avoided. The Jewish children and many others do 
not believe in the divinity of the Christ child and we 
must remember that in the public schools we have no 
right to offend the least of the little ones. The sand 
table can be used and the old city of Bethlehem 
made with its quaint houses, inns and the stables and 
manger where the Christ child was born. 

Some of the songs are "The Little Town of Beth- 
lehem," "Shine Out O Blessed Star," "Santa Claus," 
"Around the Christmas Tree," "Christmas Chimes." 

Note. — Do not discuss the Santa Claus question. Do 
not put candles on the Christmas tree. 



Oakland, Cal. — An artistic Hallow'en party was en- 
joyed Oct. 30th, at the Horton school by the kinder- 
garten children, their parents and friends. The as- 
sembly hall was decorated with yellow chrysanthe- 
mums and the children wore paper Hallowe'en cos- 
tumes of most attractive design. The kindergarten is 
in charge of Miss Alice Rowell, who is assisted by 
Miss Mabel Pool. 



Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in 
rising every time we fall. — Confucius, 




GENERAL SUGGESTONS FOR DECEMBER PROGRAM 

By JENNY B. MERRILL, Pd D. 
Former Supervisor of Public School Kindergartens, New York City: Special Lecturer on Educational 

Topics 




Dear Kindergartner: 

Have you joined the group of kindergartners who 
are studying the "problem program?" 

If not, December will prove the very month to be- 
gin for the children will have more little problems 
than usual, and what is more, you will too! 

Miss Hilda Busick, who is one who has tested the 
problem program, recently addressed the N. Y. Public 
School Kindergarten Association upon the subject. 

To show that there is not, externally considered, a 
very great difference between the problem program 
and others, Miss Busick said, "We may have the chil- 
dren do and make the very same things as heretofore, 
but we work with a different purpose, a different 
attitude towards the program. We are forced by it to 
keep the child more in mind, and the system less." 

Surely this month of December, Christmas month, 
is just the one of all the twelve to begin if you have 
not already to "follow the child." It is the children's 
month. 

It is also a month during which the children will, 
all unconsciously, reveal the religious prejudices of the 
home, thus giving us new clues to follow in adapting 
the program to their previous experiences. 

Again, children are naturally selfish. Have you 
considered how prudent nature is in making them 
selfish? She wants them first to learn the important 
lesson of ownership, so that they can respect the right 
of others to possess. "It is mine," the child exclaims, 
and often even fights for his own. It is right and 
necessary that he should. 

If we interrupt this lesson before it is well learned 
in nature's way, the child may lose respect for the 
property of others as well as his own. 

We should show great interest in these little pro- 
perty disputes of children and help them when neces- 
sary to settle the matter fairly. The affair may seem 
so small to us, so inconsequent that we may be in- 
clined to say, "Never mind. Give it to your brother. 
He is younger than you are." 

So a mother told me recently that she always made 
her four year old Robbie give up everything to his 
two year old sister in order to teach him not to be 
selfish. Was this good for the sister? Was it good 
for Robbie? 

Robbie could not learn to take care of his own toys 
in this way, and the little sister would grow more and 
more selfish and tyrannical. 

I have made this digression because at Christmas 
time we can off-set this excessive love of getting by 
making it also pleasant to give. 

We appeal to the childish imagination by telling 



how much work Santa Claus has to do, and how he 
asks every one to help him. 

Who wants to help? What can you do? Lead the 
children to suggest their own little problems. Once 
started they will soon think of others. 

If however, you have cause to believe that the chil- 
dren in your particular kindergarten will have no 
visit from Santa Claus in the home to supply their 
love of owning a doll, a train, a set of dishes or a 
picture book, does it not, should it not become your 
problem to find friends during early December willing 
to help you make it possible for every child to re- 
ceive "the very thing longed for" on Christmas day? 

To prepare the way for this happy result you can 
encourage each child to tell in various conversational 
exercises just what he wants Santa Claus to bring 
him. Keep the list without letting the children sus- 
pect you. Suggest writing a letter to Santa Claus. 
(The children are led to oral composition in this 
way.) Some day, give each child a piece of white 
paper, let him scribble his letter, then read it aloud, 
make his envelope, scribble the direction and mail it 
in a box especially prepared for the purpose. It 
should be a pretty box. 

Such work is truly educational, not only developing 
imagination, but also ivill power to choose. 

Some grown folk never can choose and hold to a 
decision, and so fail in life. , 

Proebel brings forward this invaluable lesson of 
choosing in his story of the visit to the "toy man." All 
kindergartners should re-read this story at this 
season not alone for themselves, but also at the 
December mothers' meeting. 

Do you perceive that I have been suggesting two 
probable problems that will arise in preparing a De- 
cember program? 

The poorest child as well as the richest will enjoy 
making little gifts but his little mind may need 
stimulating to choose what he wants Santa to bring 
him while the child of abundance should be led to con- 
centrate his attention upon bringing gifts for others. 
He may be led to select some of his toys to send to 
sick children, possibly helping to mend them if 
broken. 

No child should, however, be forced or even urged 
to give up a doll or other favorite toy. Here again 
ownership should be respected. 

It is quite right to let children choose such things 
that they have discarded saying they will be dear to 
other children. Do not force generosity too far even 
with those who have many toys. 

Some day in the circle, after the children have told 
what they want, ask, "Now what do you think your 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



109 



mother wants? father? brother? sister? baby? grand- 
ma? auntie?." (Here is a series of problems.) 

"Do you suppose if we work hard this month, we 
could make a little present for every one in the 
family? For whom will you make the first present?" 

Here, you see, is a little problem for each child to 
decide. "And what shall it be?" Here is a bigger 
problem to set little minds thinking. Take time to 
talk it over. Get a paper and pencil, write down the 
name of the child who has an answer ready. Many 
children will accept what others have suggested. This 
will simplify your problem if your class is large. 
After writing one child's choice you may even ask, 
how many others want to make the same thing for 
mother? 

If no children are ready to suggest a possible gift, 
show in the circle several little tokens similar to those 
made last year, asking, "which of these would you like 
to make for your mother? What color does your 
mother like best? Suppose you ask her but be sure 
not to tell her what you are going to make for that 
is our Santa Claus secret, you know." 

Now I think I hear a kindergartner saying, some- 
thing like this — "It will be much easier to decide upon 
the gift myself and have all the children make the 
same and also use the same colors." 

"Certainly," I reply, "it is much easier, and also 
rather stupid and mechanical that we should so neg- 
lect individuality after all that Froebel and Mon- 
tessori and many other good educators have been 
trying to teach us for many years. 

Still if this must be done because of undue numbers 
or because of uniform supplies, even then you can pre- 
pare several little gifts, show them, and let the major- 
ity decide which one shall be for mother, which for 
father and so on. 

Then a little rivalry and individuality can be intro- 
duced in seeing who will make the gift most carefully, 
but even after that is decided, you may add, "I am 
sure your mother will like yours best of all because 
you made it." 

"The letter killeth, the spirit maketh alive." I 
have been trying to show the spirit of a problem pro- 
gram. Such a program first of all regards the indivi- 
dual child. It strives to work with a purpose in view. 
It stops to consider what is worth while. It permits 
the child to help in organizing the work and best of 
all, it respects initiative or it waits and stirs it up if 
its lacking. 

For detailed help, we suggest that you re-read back 
numbers of our December Kindergarten Magazines. I 
have done so and will try now to compile some of the 
happy hints, but you will do well to hunt these 
articles up and select for yourself. Those given in 
1907 and 1908 seem particularly rich in suggestions 
for varying environments. They are far too many 
for any one class. Your problem will, like the chil- 
dren's, be one of choices. 

Even though you may be an experienced kinder- 
gartner, one who has for years made many little ones 
rejoice at Christmas time, still a conference with 



others, may bring a fresh thought for this another 
"Merry Christmas." 

Wishing all my readers a very merry Christmas and 
a Happy New Year I am, very sincerely, 
Your friend, 

JENNY B. MERRILL. 



HOW TO GATHER MATERIALS FOR THE 
DECEMBER PROGRAM 

1. Take a sheet of paper and write rapidly a list 
of words that are associated in your mind with Christ- 
mas. Do not try to think of any logical order but 
rather let images come trooping to your mind from 
your many years of Christmas joys. Here they come: 

Christmas tree. 

Santa Claus. 

Reindeer. 

Babe of Bethlehem. 

Manger. 

Angel. 

Shepherds. 

Star of Bethlehem. 

Bells ringing chimes. 

Wise men. 

Camels. 

Gifts for the baby. 

Toys. 

Christmas presents. 

Christmas stocking. 

Chimney. 

Fireplace. 

2. Make three lists of stories, songs and pictures 
that these words or those you have written bring to 
your mind, thus: 

1. STORIES. 

(a) The story of the Shepherds who were watching 
their flocks one night and were watching the stars 
too. What they heard. What they saw. Where they 
went. What they found. 

(b) If this story is not permissible, tell other 
stories about shepherds. The shepherds in Central 
Park, if you happen to live in New York. How a kind 
shepherd found the sheep that was lost. Story of the 
shepherd's crook. Nursery rhymes about sheep. 

(c.) The story of the wise men on camels who 
brought gifts to the Babe of Bethlehem after they saw 
His Star in the east. (Point to the east. Have you 
ever seen a star in the east. Look tonight.) 

If advisable omit this story and substitue a picture 
of a camel or let the children tell about camels they 
have seen. 

(d.) A story of Santa Claus and his home. How he 
works for the children. 

(e) "The night before Christmas." (Read or recited 
to the children many times). 

(f.) Stars in the sky. Stars in the snow. (This 
will be a story of your own.) 

(g.) Another original story to tell how Farmer 
Brown sent a Christmas tree to the grocery store on 
our corner. (How can we get it?) 

(h.) Froebel's stories of "The Toy Man and the 
Boy" and "The Toy Man and the Girl." (How chil- 
dren should behave in a toy store. Santa Claus does 



no 



THE KETOERGABTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



not like greedy children who want too many things. 
Can you choose? 

(i.) "Bessie's Visit to Toyland." — Maud Lindsay. 

(j.) Piccola— In the "Child's World," "Santa and 
the Mouse." 

Note. — In introducing these stories or others of 
your own choosing, be guided by the children to some 
extent. No particular order is necessary. The chil- 
dren's questions from day to day or their reports on 
Mondays of their home experiences will enable you 
to judge what story they are ready for. Tell the 
stories soon enough to have time to repeat them. 

Let the children dramatize them gradually during 
the game periods. Be satisfied with very crude sug- 
gestions for these plays. The children will improve 
the plays themselves from day to day. This is one of 
their problems. Let their minds work as well as your 
own. Occasionally make an improvement yourself if 
necessary. 

The children in one kindergarten planned a chim- 
ney by making a small ring of four children and had 
Santa Claus enter on one side of the little ring and 
come out on the other where two of the children held 
up their arms to form the fire-place. Later they stood 
another child near the chimney for the tree. Later 
yet several children impersonated toys, followed 
Santa Claus down the chimney and stooped down near 
the tree waiting for the other children to wake up 
on Christmas morning. 

Two children who represented father and mother, 
woke the children with a "Merry Christmas" and they 
all ran to the tree to find what Santa Claus had left 
for them. 

Of course the "live toys" soon showed by motions 
what they were supposed to be. It was most interest- 
ing to see the children devise ways to play with these 
"live play things." 

The game of the "Toy Man's Shop" which they had 
played previously was suggestive to them. 

2. SONGS. 

(a.) Once a Little Baby Lay. 

(b.) Once in Royal David's City. 

(c.) Christmas Bells. 

(d.) O Star of Wonder. 

(e.) Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star. 

(f.) O Wonderful Tree. 

(g.) "O Christmas Tree, O Christmas Tree. We 

Children All are Fond of Thee." 
(h.) Who Comes This Way So Blithe and Gay? 
(i.) Old Santa Claus Puts on His Cap. 
(j.) Jingle Bells. 

Note. — Examine all of your song books carefully. 
Select a few old or new songs which seem best suited 
for your kindergarten. Usually teach but one stanza 
unless the song gives a story. If the words are too 
difficult or the song too long, let the children listen 
while you sing. They may join in the chorus or 
wherever they can. Have sleigh bells or chimes to 
ring if possible. 

There is a musical selection called "Santa Claus' 
Workshop" which is now being reproduced on the 
Gramophone. 



3. PICTURES. 

(a.) The Toy Man from "Mother play" and other 
modern pictures of toys and toy shops. 

(b.) Draw a border of toys on the blackboard as a 
decorative border. 

(c.) Pictures of a shepherd and his sheep. 

(See Kindergarten-Primary Magazine, Nov. 1914.) 

(d.) Pictures of the Wise men, or, 

(e.) Pictures of camels. 

(f.) A country scene showing fir trees and snow. 

(g.) "O Christmas Tree, O Christmas Tree, We 
Children All are Fond of Thee." 

(h.) Picture of family around a fireplace. 

(i.) Pictures of The Nativity and Madonnas. The 
Holy Family. 

(j.) Appropriate Christmas seals. 

Note. — A few of these pictures may be secured in 
quantities in tiny sizes and used in mounting upon 
the Christmas gifts. Do not send Madonnas into 
Jewish homes, but select a family group. Some kin- 
dergartners who can use a camera, take the children's 
pictures in groups of three or four and use them as 
gifts to the delight of parents. Use Christmas seals 
on gifts or on invitations to the party. 

MAKING GIFTS. 

Prepare several simple gifts to show the children as 
previously suggested in case they do not advance 
ideas themselves. Let them guess what they are and 
how to use them. Possibly let them see you make 
some of these gifts. Useful gifts are best, as 

(1.) Calendars an inch or two square mounted on a 
stiff red or green card with a Christmas seal, or a 
pretty scrap picture above the dates. There is no 
work for the child but mounting and adding a ribbon 
or worsted loop. 

(2.) The child's own photograph is sometimes 
mounted and makes a welcome gift to a mother who 
cannot afford to have her child's picture taken. The 
child may choose the picture if scrap pictures or seals 
are used. Let as much of the child's thought be in the 
gift as possible. It is this that makes it his gift. 

(2.) A favorite gift for father is a blotter. If red 
and green blotting sheets alternate, it makes a pleas- 
ing effect. See if the child can tell why it is best to 
choose these colors at Christmas. Let the child 
separate the leaves of a small calendar and count 
them. Give three pieces of blotting paper and let the 
children find how many pieces of the little calendar 
can be mounted on each piece of the blotter. Which 
months must be pasted upon the first leaf? the 
second? third? Let the child place the pieces and 
wait before pasting. Tie together or use a fastener. 
Talk about the use of a blotter. Let the children see 
you use one. Ask if father ever uses ink? Why will 
he like to have a blotter? 

(4.) A napkin ring. See if child can choose 
materials. Fringe paper napkins for the ring. 

(5.) A picture book for little sister or brother. 
Where will we get the pictures? How will you make 
the book? Can you fold leaves nicely? Can you sew 
them together? What color will you sew with? How 
many leaves do you want? 

(6.) If the children are old enough to weave, 
show a sachet case made of two small mats pasted 



ttHE KltfDERGARTEN-PRIMABir MAGAZDTE 



111 



together. Let them guess what is inside. Will grand- 
ma like one? Where will she keep it? 

(7.) A fancy box. Decorate with parquetry or 
pictures. What can be kept in it? 

(8.) A fan. Let the children suggest how to make 
it and decorate it 

(9.) A doll. Children suggest how to make one or 
dress one after buying it with their pennies. 

(10.) A ball. Made of paper and wound with cord 
or worsted. A snow ball or balloon folded. 

(11.) A picture frame. Children suggest how to 
make one and what to put in it. 

(12.) A kite for brother. 

(13.) A picture puzzle. Children select a pretty 
one. Mount it on a card. Cut it in several pieces. 
Make an envelope or box to hold the pieces. Who is it 
to be for? 

(14.) A cornucopia to hold candy or popcorn or to 
hang up as a receptacle for scraps. Let child suggest 
how to line a mat and puzzle out how to turn one short 
edge over a long edge to make it the right shape. 

If children do not weave, thin cardboard can be 
used, the edges being tied together. A colored piece 
of paper of the same size should be used as a lining, 
the edges being pasted together. 

Have children decide what is needed to hang it up. 

(16.) A rattle. Let child bring from home a box 
shaped like our "cylinder." It may be of tin or card. 
Perhaps mother has a hair-pin box. Let child suggest 
what to put in that will rattle but not be too noisy. Let 
him experiment with different sized pebbles and seeds. 
(See another description of a rattle in this magazine.) 

(16.) A flag. A scrap book showing many kinds 
of flags. 

(17.) A swing. A hammock. Use spools to hold 
uprights. Fold the sofa form for the seat. Let chil- 
dren think of other ways. 

(18.) A small doll house in a shoe box. Child 
making it must plan the furniture. 

(19.) Stores and shops in small boxes. These 
make nice playthings for brothers. Try a blacksmith 
shop. Let the child decide what to put in the box to 
make it look like a blacksmith shop or carpenter's 
shop, or a grocery store, etc. A man to tend the store 
may be drawn by the child at the back of the box, or 
if one can be found on a picture card it can be 
mounted. 

Free cutting, folding, coloring, and clay modeling 
will all help in fitting up these boxes. 

(20.) An old fashioned "poppy show" can be made 
in a box. Paste tissue or translucent paper over the 
top and cut a hole in one end of the box to peep in. 
Let the child decide what pictures to paste around the 
sides of the box for the "show." 

(21.) Decorations for our kindergarten room. 
Every child will help. Who will make chains? stars? 
lanterns? icicles? colored balloon balls? what else? 



How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is 
To have a thankless child. — Shakespeare. 



AN IMPROMPTU TOY STORE 
Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

Last month I described a carefully arranged toy 
exhibit. This month, let me relate a delightful Christ- 
mas experience connected with what I have denomin- 
ated "An Impromptu Toy Store." 

In one of our large public kindergartens in New 
York City, in a Jewish quarter, where Christmas 
trees are not deemed expedient, the Christmas celeb- 
ration consists in playing toy shop. This delightful 
play is not excluded from any kindergarten. All over 
the city, during the last weeks in December the play- 
ful gymnastic exercises are wont to take the form of 
the various movements of toys. For example, the 
children love to stoop down, clasp their hands above 
their heads, and at a touch, throw their arms up, 
giving a spring upward at the same time to represent 
a jumping-jack.' 

It is a fine exercise, developing elasticity and poise. 

I have seen children play "jump the rope" imag- 
inatively, or spin a top, fly a kite or trundle a hoop. 

Sometimes instead of imitating one toy in unison, 
each child chooses in turn what toy he will be, tries 
to represent it and those not acting try to guess what 
toy is meant. 

It is great fun to play "Noah's Ark." There every 
child is an animal. Partners are chosen and two 
by two, the little ones march into the ark, imitating 
as they walk the varying motions and sounds of ani- 
mals. The ark is made by two adults or taller child- 
ren who clasp hands facing each other, lifting their 
arms to represent an arched doorway. 

In these playful ways, the interest in toys contri- 
butes to an awakening of imagination and tests well 
the powers of imitation. 

But the child wants a real toy, too, at Christmas 
time. So thought Miss Rita Klein and her associates 
in P. S. 75 Manhattan. 

To add to the celebration, the crippled children of 
the kindergartens of P. S. 2, Manhattan, were invited 
to visit their neighbors in P. S. 75 a few days before 
the closing of the school. I was so fortunate as to be 
a guest of honor. 

The kindergartners, assisted by a few generous 
friends, had provided a simple toy for every one of 
a hundred and fifty children. These toys were ar- 
ranged openly upon the kindergarten tables to rep- 
resent a toy shop, the tables being the counters of 
show-tables. 

There were dolls, sets of dishes, both china and 
pewter, blocks, bean-bags, engines, drums, nine-pins, 
steam cars, wagons, toy stoves, wash tubs with their 
accompanying washboards and wringers, soldiers, 
dolls' rocking chairs, telescope blocks. I think this 
list covers all. I understand that each toy came with- 
in the ten-cent price. 

This impromptu toy-shop was fascinating in ar- 
rangement. It was no careless lay-out. 

At the opening exercises the children of the two 
visiting kindergartens were given the use of the kin- 
dergarten chairs a,n.d. the other children sat in social 



112 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



rings on the floor greeting their visitors with a song 
of welcome. The little cripples, quite unconscious 
of their afflictions, which we could never forget for 
a moment, sang a return song of greeting. 

It was indeed pathetic to see them represent toys, 
but they did it finely, especially well did they repre- 
sent the motion of a rocking horse. It seems that 
some kind friend had presented a big hobby horse to 
the kindergarten and the wise kindergartner had 
used it to encourage even the worsr cripple to try to 
climb on the horse's back. The joy of a horseback 
ride led to desperate efforts to climb, and now chil- 
dren who could not get off their chairs' manage to 
work themselves around a room with the help of such 
objects as they can reach. So much for the history of 
this toy horse. 

Miss Klein in a few well-chosen words, asked who 
ought to be served first when there is company. All 
responded readily, "The company." ', 

"This is only a play toy store," continued Miss 
Klein, "and no one needs to pay for his toy. I am 
going to let one of my children invite one of our visi- 
tors to walk around our toy-shop until he sees the toy 
he wishes for his own to keep and take home. Bach 
child may have one toy. Look around well before you 
choose. Don't you think it will be nice for one of 
our children to invite the visitors to go to our toy- 
shop? I think you may go, two by two." (A few 
couples at a time went to the store.) 

Thus the party began. There was no noise, no 
confusion, but also no unnecessary constraint Good 
company manners ruled. 

I watched with eager attention to catch the first 
choice made by a boy. It was a fire engine. But 
the boys soon began to choose drums and the music 
began. To our surprise, one boy chose the washtub 
t:nd its accompaniments. An inquisitive little fellow, 
seeing a closed box, wanted to look inside. It was a 
game of lotto, seemingly beyond a kindergarten child, 
but the little circular blocks, the card:? and t'ic. square 
pieces of glass had relation to some of our kinder- 
garten materials. The boy was satisfied and accepted 
the box. I watched to see if later he wanted an ex- 
change. No, indeed, he clung to his game, tne only 
one in the collection. The girls did not choose dolls 
as quickly as sets of dishes. We decided it was be- 
cause they already possessed a doll. 

When the noise of the drumming grew rather deaf- 
ening, one of the kindergartners stepped quietly to 
the piano, played a piece with marked time, and at 
this magic touch the children fell into a rhythmic 
beat which was restful, as well as a training in the 
time-sense. 

The most natural discipline was maintained 
throughout the morning. No one shouted, no one was 
hilarious, but all had a genuine good time and a wise 
training in entertaining friends. Not one of the chil- 
dren asked to change his choice as far as I observed. 
It is an excellent plan to require children occasionally 
to make a choice and adhere to it. These" children 
seemed well trained along this line. 



Froebel in his book entitled "Mother Play," adv^es 
parents to converse with the child before takin.- him 
about behavior in such a place. "To be forewarned," 
will prevent the child from touching what is not his 
and impress a needed lesson in self restraint. We can 
enjoy many things with our eyes that we may not 
touch. — From Playthings. 



THE RELATION BETWEEN THE KINDERGAR- 
TEN AND THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
, By Juiia Wade Abbott 

"The introduction of industrial education as a ba- 
sis for the curriculum of the elementary school has 
tended to unify all divisions of the school, including 
the kindergarten, which has always emphasized this 
phase of education in its curriculum. The conception 
of 'handwork' as industrial arts has dignified the use 
of all mediums of expression and placed emphasis 
upon their intellectual value. They have too often 
been regarded as 'busy work' by the primary teacher, 
and neither kindergartner nor primary teacher has 
worked out the possibility of original thinking that 
may be demanded of the children in the form of prob- 
lems that come through using materials for a given 
end. 

"The problem of adjustment between kindergarten 
and elementary school means that every kindergartner 
and primary school teacher should regard her school 
room as a laboratory, only in this way can she do real 
teaching. When the teacher recognizes the worth in- 
herent in each division of the elementary school, and 
tests these values through actual experimentation, 
then the work with the younger children will become 
illuminated and she will discover that they are uni- 
versal, and the system of education will become a 
unit from kindergarten to university." — Excerpt from 
address. 



At the annual meeting of the Connecticut Valley 
Kindergarten Association, held at Springfield, Mass., 
Nov. 7th, a resolution was passed favoring the post- 
ponment of the annual meeting of the International 
Kindergarten Union until August — the meeting then 
to be held at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San 
Francisco, in connection with the National Education 
Association. Francis McSherry, superintendent of the 
Holyoke public schools, gave an address on the re- 
lation between the kindergarten and elementary 
schools. Miss Ella Imogene Cass of the New York 
Kindergarten Association talked on kindergarten 
games, and her address was followed" by an hour of 
games, played by the teachers, with Miss Cass as 
director. Miss Angeline Brooks spoke on the early 
history of the Connecticut Valley Kindergarten As- 
sociation. Officers were elected as follows: President 
— Miss Anna Bullard, Hartford. First Vice President 
- — Miss Harriette E. Price, Hartford. Second Vice- 
President — Miss Caroline E. Meacham, Holyoke, 
Secretary — Miss Mabel J. Corwin, Hartford. Treas- 
urer — Miss Grace Davis, Holyoke. Auditor — Miss 
Nella M. Stockwell, Springfield. 



THE £l$1)£&#Aft¥£N-£fttttA£1r MAGAZINE 



113 



MOTHER PLAY 

THE CHURCH DOOR AND THE WINDOW 
ABOVE IT 
See page 104. 
Translated from the German of Friedrich Froebel 
By Bertha Johnston. ■ t .-■•• 

MOTTO FOR THE MOTHER. -■"'■■■ 

Since whre'er harmony appears to rule the many, 

Where'er it speaks in form or hues or tone, 
The young child's feelings 'early are attracted, — 

Do not neglect, to foster this, oh parents. 
Help, above all, the little one to feel, 

That, strivings toward the highest all unite. 
Thus to pave the way for life's greatest happiness, 

Is not so difficult as you may imagine; , . 
But this idea must live within yourself— ", 
And be the soul of everything you do. . 

The highest gift you then to the child have given; 

Safely now, it rests within himself; 
Nothing now, has power, to rob him of it— 7 • .. : . -;..,• 

Now, at one, is he, in mind and heart and spirit. 
Give, O parent, to the child this faith, 

T'will reward you, all its whole life long- 
Do not think he is too young or little, 

For in the smallest child a magnet lies — 
Which e'er shows him whereto life's harmony blesses, 

And what feelings through division delude. 
If you then, would have your child at unity with you, 
Let your unity with the one, appear in all that you 
are and do. 



Song For The Child, (Free Translation.) 
Through the window, glorious, bright, 
Shines the cheerful morning light. 
Turned to yellow, red, green, blue, 
As the glass it shineth through. ;"'>''■ 

Splendid are the portals wide, 
Leading us to seats* inside. 
Here, the one who enters will, 
Sit attentive, — very still. 

The preacher speaks of flowers, birds, 
And lambkins, — using easy words. 
Just how we feel, to know, he seems, 
When we watch the moon's bright beams.— 
Just how we feel when snuggling near 
Father, mother, grandma dear. — 
And when he speaks and sings so true 
It makes us feel like singing too. 

Clear the bells now ring the hour, high up in the 
steeple tower^ 
Bim, bam, bom! 
Hear the organ, rich and sweet, let us its deep tones 
repeat, 
Hum, hum, hum! 
Now the preacher's tones so ringing, sets our happy 
hearts a-singing! 

♦Church bench can be made by placing one hand 
horizontally lengthwise against the other held verti- 
cally. 



what spread out across those of the other, making, 
as it were, a window directly above the door while 
the thumbs stand up like two small belfries. 

All spontaneous expressions of child life are sym- 
bolic; their external manifestation points to an inne* 
reality, a spiritual basis. Hence, the spiritual charm, 
the attraction of all guileless expressions of child 
nature, for the reflective mind. 



COMMENTARY FOR THE MOTHER. 

The forearms held as perpendicular as possible, 

form the doorposts; the hands, so inclined that the 

little fingers approach each other, make a kind of 

pointed arch. The four fingers of one hand lie some- 



what the child anticipates and seeks, quite un- 
consciously and obscurely to itself, (and therefore so 
easily mistakenly) in life's manifoldness, he perceives 
preferably, in life's unity, — the oneness, the har- 
mony of life, wherever it declares itself to him. 

Collective, reflective and deliberative gatherings, 
give him a sense of this, from his previous, newly- 
acquired plane of development, on. Hence the attrac- 
tion for children of all adult meetings, particularly of 
their deliberative assemblies. Hence, where the 
churchgoing of a family has a genuine spiritual sig- 
nificance, a real relationship to its daily life, this ac- 
counts for the genuine, if temporary joy, of a child, in 
a visit to the church. 

It is not the content of the words there said and 
sung, that first and foremost, so allure, but — that all 
is said and sung, with attentiveness and in unison. 
The charm consists in the fact, that in everything, 
the speaking, the order of exercises, and the singing, 
there is positively declared a common, all-uniting point 
of contact, of relationship. Consequently, here he 
finds the nurturing, the strengthening, the first in- 
terpretation of those presentiments, those searchings, 
those feelings, that life, that so stirs him. Here he 
experiences unity, agreement, harmony, in the com- 
munity life. 

But, when come the inevitable questions about the 
words and their meaning, the child must be answered 
suitably, according to the range of his experience, his 
feelings, his imagination, his spiritual development, 
and needs. This playsong aims to give suggestions 
toward this end. It gives hints for two different 
planes in the child's development; for a narrower one 
and a broader one; an early one and a later one. 

You, intelligent mother, must thoughtfully ex- 
amine, and select from these, develop them and go on 
with them. For this were they given. One thing, 
remains however, always the most important. That 
is, the fulfilling, the corroborating, the confirming, of 
these presentiments of the child; the harmony, that 
speaking to the heart is re-echoed in the heart, and 
is reflected in life's serene harmony; unity and 
harmony with life's unity, source and foundation; 
with 

The Life of all life, 
The Light of all light, 
The Love of all love, 
The Good of all good; 
God! 

ADDITIONAL SUGGESTIONS FOR THE GRADE 
TEACHER. 

This mother play is next to the last in Froebel's 
series of 49, and its theme is that ideal which domi« 



114 



THE KtNDERGARTEN-frftlMAItY MAGAZINE 



nated his own life — the search amid life's tangles and 
conflicts and opposing forces, of a reconciling prin- 
ciple^ — the desire to create order out of chaos, of 
harmony out of discord; in his own words, to hring 
about the "reconcilation of opposites." Every one of 
his occupations and plays and games can be made to 
illustrate this principle. Yet, so wise was this teacher 
of little children, that, altho the principle may be 
clearly enough in the mind of the mother or kinder- 
gartner it is not forced upon the child; he is led to 
make use of the law more or less unconsciously to 
himself; later its meaning will dawn upon him. 

Proebel calls attention frequently to the need of an 
harmonious environment even for the little child; 
especially important is it that the spirit of 
the teacher, the parent, should radiate serenity. 
Irritated nerves and tempers react promptly upon the 
spirit of the child. And, on the other hand, how de- 
lightful it is, to take in hand a child who shows evi- 
dence of being continually crossed and irritated at 
home, and observe how little by little he responds to 
the serene atmosphere of the kindergarten and loses 
his spirit of opposition. 

Particularly at the Christmas time It is desirable 
that boys and girls should be helped to look for and to 
create harmonious relations wherever possible. Let 
them realize the great ideal for which America 
stands — the country in which all races, all creeds are 
learning to live in happy, self-respecting harmony. 
Help them to feel that despite differences of race, 
creed, and business competition, that where there is a 
will there is a way, and true happiness and well-being 
comes from being true to one's own convictions while 
making due allowance for the point of view of others. 

Talk of the bells, eight in all that compose the 
scale, and how if each is true to its tone-ideal, perfect 
harmony ensues. Also, speak of the organ and its 
wonderful mechanism, in which each detail is neces- 
sary to the perfection of the whole. But, even if the 
organ be perfect, it needs a beautiful spirited organist 
to make it quite all that it should be. And if the 
preacher does not ring true, the entire service fails of 
its perfect message. Help them to feel that one 
aspiration underlies the true believer in synagogue, 
church, temple, or roofless forest. 

The picture suggests interesting conversations upon 
church architecture, and the reason why in hot and 
brilliant sunshine, the stained glass windows de- 
veloped to such perfection. What is the effect upon 
the spirit of harmonious architecture and beautifully 
harmonious colors? 

BELLS. 

Let the children cut bells of colored silver or gold 
paper, and write a Christmas motto thereon, or draw 
a bell on a card and paste a tiny calendar on it. Mold 
bells of clay. Read yourself, or let the children, 
Schiller's noble "Song of the Bell" which mingles in 
a wonderful way suggestive of the various processes 
of bell-making, as symbolic of events in human life. 
CHURCHES AND TOWN HALLS. 

Let the children build churches of the kindergarten 



blocks. Even boys and girls of ten or eleven should 
enjoy using the more advanced gifts thus. Let them 
build town-halls also, and discuss the importance of 
parliamentary rules in maintaining order, harmony 
and enabling all at a meeting to have fair play. Dis- 
cuss the characteristics of an able chairman. 

Have children bring pictures of churches and 
famous town-halls and parliamentary buildings such 
as the capitol at Washington, the houses of parlia- 
ment, and the like. 

WINDOWS. 

Let the children fold a piece of white paper once 
and then cut out a framework, such that when opened 
out, it will display an Imitation of a church-window 
frame, either round (rose window) or gothic. On the 
back of this, colored papers may be pasted to enhance 
the resemblance. The occupation gives opportunity 
for coniderable ingenuity. The results may be used 
as book covers, or at the base of each a tiny calendar 
may be pasted. 

We agree with Proebel that the mother can give her 
child no greater gift than a sense of the underlying 
unity and harmony of all life. 



Pittsburgh, Pa. — Mrs. Marion B. B. Langzettel, of 
the Proebel League, New York, gave two lectures in 
the Twentieth Century club-house, Oct. 30 and 31, for 
the Pittsburgh and Allegheny Free Kindergarten As- 
sociation. "Comparison of Montessori and Kinder- 
garten," and "Mother and Teacher." 



Schenectady, N. Y. — A very entertaining time was 
spent by the members of the Union street school kin- 
dergarten Oct. 30th. The little tots took part in a 
number of the exercises. Miss Gertrude Hart had 
charge of the progam, and a number of the parents 
were present duing the exercises. 



Springfield, Mass. — Miss Ruth Cass of New York 
spoke on "Kindergarten Games" at the meeting of the 
Connecticut Valley Kindergarten Association in the 
Central High schol, Nov. 6. Miss Fanniebelle Curtis, 
supervisor of the New York Public Kindergartens, 
was to have been the speaker, but she could not be 
present. 



Hamilton, O. — The new kindergarten In the Lincoln 
school building opened Nov. 2, under the direction of 
Miss Mary Schell and Miss Wilson, with fifty-two chil- 
dren in attendance. It is expected that before the 
end of the month the attendance will be greatly in- 
creased. 



World Book Company has moved its Chicago office 
from 104 South Michigan Avenue to 6 North Michigan 
Avenue. The office is on the 19th floor of the Tower 
building, which is on Michigan Avenue at the corner 
of Madison street, halfway between the Public Library 
and the Art Institute of Chicago. Teachers visiting 
Chicago are always welcome. 



He most lives who lives most for others, 



(TtiE KlKDEifc<UHT£tf-PMMAUY MAGAZINE 



115 



A LANGUAGE HINT TO MOTHERS. 
Jenny B. Merrill, Pp D. 

Note. — The following article will serve to open up a 
profitable discussion in a Mothers' Meeting upon the 
general topic of language development in young chil- 
dren. 

The kindergartner should prepare herself by read- 
ing up the subject or appointing several able mothers 
to do so before the meeting or after it. 

The following readings are suggested: 

The Child Trainer, pages 311-3SS. 

Fundamentals of Child Study, Kirkpatrick, 222-244. 

Education of Man. Blow Traverlatin 02-54. 

The Psychology of Childhood,' Tracy. Chap. V. 

The last is an advanced study. 

A child's success in mastering the use of the pro- 
nouns, especially "I" and "you" in the second or third 
year is quite a test of his mental ability. Have you 
ever observed a little one in his first attempts to use 
these pronouns instead of constantly repeating proper 
names? 

Sometimes mothers and nurses retard unconscious- 
ly the natural progress of even a bright child in this 
particular by constantly using his name in addressing 
him. 

A case of tin's kind came to my notice recently. It 
was so marked that it suggested th5s article to me. 

The child was four years of age and friends were 
beginning to consider her defective in mentality as 
she never used "I" but always repeated her name. 

I chanced to spend a morning wJtn her in the nur- 
sery. This is a sample of the conversation of her 
nurse. "Sally must be a nice girl." "Sally must tell 
mother all about her doll." "Sally mustn't touch this." 
"Does Sally want an apple?" 

In similar fashion the nurse used her own name 
over and over again as, "Katie will tell mother that 
Sally is a good girl." "Katie must wash Sally's hands," 
etc., etc., etc., ad nauseum. 

I no longer wondered at Sally's failure to use pro- 
nouns! 

This habit is formed doubtless, during the child's 
babyhood, and tends to persist, because there seems 
to be a tenderness in these babylike forms of expres- 
sion to some folk. 

It may be necessary to familiarize the little ones 
with their own names and the family names but we 
should gradually drop them in the second year. 

One day I was playing "Trolley Car" with a little 
boy about two years and a half old who was beginning 
to use pronouns. 

I determined to "practice pronouns" while we 
played, though quite unconsciously as far as "Bennie" 
was concerned. 

As we began to play, I found myself using the third 
person, so strong is the habit in addressing a baby. I 
had said, "Does Bennie want to be conductor?" I 
changed at once to "Do you want to be conductor, 
Bennie?" 

Our later conversation ran somewhat as follows: 
"When I hold up my finger, you must stop the car, 



Bennie." The car stopped. You must help me get on. 
You must take my money." (We had buttons for 
coins.) Now, you must ring the bell." Will you 
please give me a transfer?" (We had paper slips for 
transfers.) "I must get off here." "Ding-ding, ding- 
ding." 

After a while we changed places. I was conductor 
and the little fellow took great dehght in holding up 
his finger and repeating. 

Bennie hesitated occasionally in using the pro- 
nouns, but as we kept up the play for nearly an hour, 
he had much practice. Children do so love to repeat 
and repeat simple imitative acts in play that I tired 
long before he did of getting on ana off the car and of 
practicing pronouns. 

A child uses "me," the adjective form, more readily 
than "I." "Give it to me," is not difficult for the child 
to acquire, but sometimes mother hinders even this 
pronoun by using the noun even in the objective case, 
as, "Baby give the ball to mother," in speaking of her- 
self. 

It is wonderful that children acquire language as 
early as they do, but even so, do we need to put 
obstacles in the way? 

Children learn language as they do almost every 
other thing by imitation in their early years. There- 
fore beware of the language copy set ! 

Suppose instead of playing the desired word into 
baby's mind in such a simple game as I have sug- 
gested, that a mother should punish a child for using 
his own name as Sally did! 

I knew a mother who really did so, for her little 
daughter was four years old, and she feared her 
friends would think her backward. Such a plan is 
very unwise and leads to fix the error in mind. 

Those who have read Dr. Montessori's chapters on 
discipline, will perhaps recall her rather unusual ad- 
vice, "Ignore mistakes." It is surely good counsel for 
talking about error serves only to fasten it upon the 
child's mind. 

Negative discipline, the apparent duty to correct 
mistakes, so long held sway in our nurseries and 
schools that it is exceedingly difficult to oppose it, but 
those who are trying positive discipline find it works 
better. It is more effective to keep suggesting the 
correct form or the right thing to do, with a word 
of approbation, until the error drops away, dying for 
lack of notice. 

Those who adopt "positive discipline" are not in 
danger of forming that dreaded habit of "nagging" at 
a child. Why do so many women "nag?" 

May it not arise from this very habit of watching 
for every little mistake a child makes thinking it a 
duty to correct it at once? The better, healthier, way 
is to watch ourselves, watch the helpers in the family, 
and trust much to the power of example, and of sug- 
gestion. 

This "positive" method which is being recognized 
more and more as superior to the "negative," is 
capable of far wider application than many are in- 
clined to give it. 



116 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



At least there will be no harm in applying it in 
helping the baby learn to talk correctly. Give him 
good copy. "Ignore mistakes." Keep up the copy. 
Play with words. Speak distinctly. Avoid baby-talk. 

A clever kindergartner once told me that each week 
she selected just two new words to impress upon her 
little Italian group. She used them over and over in 
stories, in songs, in games and in work until these two 
words stood out clearly, and the children began to 
catch their meaning. She used them naturally, cor- 
rectly and frequently. The children's progress in 
learning to speak English was remarkable under this 
method. Strong action words were made prominent 
at first with gesture and in playing games. Does Dr. 
Montessori's principle of discipline — "Ignore mis- 
takes"— extend to some of the big things of life as well 
as to pronouns? Try it and see. 

"Go make thy garden fair as thou canst, 

Thou workest never alone, 
Perchance he whose plot is next to thine 

May see it and mend his own." 



TRAINING IMAGINATION. 

One of the best ways to develop that most important 
power, imagination, is to give the child a fundamental 
idea, and allow him to work out the details for him- 
self in free play. We had a most delightful example 
of this method just before Christmas in the morning 
kindergarten. We had talked of our gifts to the 
different members of each family and had asked what 
the boys would like to make for each. James said he 
would like to make a rattle for his baby, the idea 
being suggested by the toys, he had seen in the shops. 
He said he would like to take two sticks, fasten them 
in the center and tie on some bells. 

So we took two slats and fastened them so as to 
form a cross (with a paper clip.) Then some chil- 
dren decided that the wood would hurt the baby's 
hands, so one of them suggested winding the slats 
with string. We improved on that by using worsted. 
We then tied three bells on each arm, making a fine 
rattle. The children were more pleased with and 
worked harder to finish this invention of their own, 
than any of the other things which we suggested for 
them. 

Miss Bryant tells us that the best way to get results 
from a story is to first tell it, as a story, and then 
allow the child to dramatize it as he chooses, thus 
getting his first idea of a world of people and things 
outside of himself. 

We have dramatized the Three Pigs, the Old Woman 
and her pig. Both were crude, but interesting from 
the point of view that the dramatization was all the 
children's own, done without suggestion, or help, 
other than the original story, told once or twice. 

In the gifts, the children are especially inventive. 
I give them the 5th gift quite early in the year. They 
delight in illustrating with it the stories I tell them. 

Thanksgiving and Christmas are especially good 
subjects. As soon as I have told the Thanksgiving 
story the children begin to build sleighs, grandfather's 



house, trains, bridges over the river. Christmas of 
course brings houses with chimneys, for Santa, his 
work shop, fireplaces, toys, trees. Dictation is almost 
unnecessary once the children get the dominant idea 
thoroughly in their minds. 

"Men must be taught as if you taught them not, 
And things unknown proposed as things forgot." 

applies to the child as well as to us older ones, and 
wise is the kindergartner who can remember that she 
must draw forth what the child already knows, as well 
as put new ideas into his mind. 

Reality seems to be the cry of these modern days 
but a vivid imagination will go far toward helping 
the child and grown up over many rough places. We 
can not begin too young to develop the power of 
imagination and the power of producing in concrete 
form the thoughts which are in the child's mind. 

• — Anonymous. 

Note. — This article is in line with the problem pro- 
gram. 



PROGRAM OP THE KINDERGARTEN SECTION 

AT THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE NORTH 

CAROLINA TEACHERRS' ASSEMBLY. 

Thursday Morning, 9:30, November 26. 

"The Kindergarten." — Hon. P. P. Claxton, United 

States Commisioner of Education. 

"An Appeal for the Kindergarten as a Part of the 
School System in the Larger Towns." — (For Primary 
and Kindergarten Teachers,) — Mrs. Bertha Payne 
Newell, Weaverville. 

Thursday Afternoon, 3:00. 
"Stories Suitable for the Kindergarten" — Miss 
Hattie Scott, President of the Story Tellers' League, 
Asheville City Kindergarten. 

Friday Morning, 9:30, November 27. 

"Round Table Discussions." 

Leaders — Mrs. Newell, Weaverville; Miss Mary 
Bonner, Washington; Miss Ethel Troy, Raleigh; Miss 
Vienna Nichols, Asheville. 

Game Festival Leaders — Mrs. Newell, Mrs. Scott. 

(All who are interested are invited to take part.) 

Exhibit of work from kindergartens. 

Friday Afternoon, 3 : 00. 
Business meeting and election of officers. 



Wilkesbarre, Pa. — The children of the kinder- 
garten classes of Grant street school, in charge of 
Miss Katharyn Featherstone, were entertained at a 
Hallowe'en party Oct. 30. There are fifty-four chil- 
dren in the class. Dressed in unique costumes, appro- 
priate to the holiday, the youngsters sang, drilled, 
played games. A grand march that went from the 
bottom to the top of the building was one of the fea- 
tures. Baskets filled with candy were given as 
favors. 



How poor are they who have not patience.- 
epeare. 



-Shake- 



TOY MAKING FOR THE KINDERGARTEN. 
By John Y. Dunlop, Glasgow, Scotlnad. 
TABLE. 
Two boxes are required to make this model. 



Boot buttons are inserted for the handles. 
Four bonnet pins make the legs. 

BOOKCASE. 
Four boxes are required, two large and two small 



Stick the long edges of the two boxes together so boxes for the upper portion, 
that they are perfectly smooth on the top. 
The inside case now makes the drawers. 





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118 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIM ARY MAGAZINE 



Cut the outer part of each box along one of the cor- 
ners and stick the outer and inner parts together. 

Gum the long narrow sides of the boxes together 
so that the two small boxes form the upper portion 
and the large boxes form the lower portion. 

Gum the upper and lower part together. 

Middle shelfs could be added and are thus made. 

Four strips are cut and inserted one in each portion 
of the case. 

The children fold little squares of paper to form the 
book and make "up the library. 

CHEST OF DRAWERS. 

A chest of drawers made from eight or ten match 
boxes make a most effective model. 

Take the boxes in the case and glue them together. 

The outside can be made neater if a strip of paper 
is fastened over the top sides and back of the chest. 

The drawers to slide out and in require handles. 
Insert boot buttons or use paper fasteners. 

In a similiar way the furniture of the bed room can 
be made. 

BED ROOM 

The chair of this pattern is shown made from an 
empty spool and a piece of tinted paper. 

Cut the paper by folding down the middle. 

Slash in the lower edge and gum onto the bevelled 
edge of the thread space of the wood spool. 
BEDSTEAD. 

Make the bedstead with 14 empty spools and a 
piece of cardboard. 

Glue 12 of the spools together in pairs. 

Glue two spools at each corner of the cardboard to 
form the feet for the bedstead, then add the remain- 
der to form the pillars. 

TABLE. 

A very simple table can be made with thread spools 
and a piece of cardboard. 

Three spools glued together form the legs of the 
table. 

Glue on to the corners of the cardboard. 
DRESSING CHEST. 

The dressing chest is made with empty match 
boxes. 

Three large boxes which form the back and the 
table and two small ones for the side. 

Glue two of the boxes together on the edge. 

Cut one of the large boxes on the long corner then 
gum the outer and inner case together. 

Glue this part of the model onto the lower edge of 
the part which forms the back. 

Fix one box at each side and cover the front of the 
case with a piece of silver paper to represent the glass. 
DOLLY'S SWING. 

Four boxes, a hair pin and a piece of thread. 

To build the supports for the swing fasten two of 
the boxes together by placing the inner case of one of 
them partly into each outer case. 

Straighten out the hair pin then bend slightly at 
the points where the ropes pass over. 

Make the swing seat out of the inner case of the 
match-box, mount with thread. 




THE LETTER. 
Susan Plessner Pollock 

Thoughts about the many poor people who had not 
enough to eat, filled the heart of little Gertrude and 
Herman with sorrow and pity, "Listen.Gertrude," said 
Herman one day to his sister, "I have thought of the 
grandest plan, I will write to Mr. Pessumehr, he is so 
rich and so good, he can buy bread for the poor." 
"That would be fine," said Gertrude, "But you can- 
not write!" "What would that be for a great affair," 
declared Herman, "One puts on a pair of spectacles, 
like Grand-mother, dips a pen in the ink bottle, and 
scratches around a while on the paper, then the letter 
is finished." Gertrude shook her head doubtfully, but 
Herman quickly brought a piece of paper from 
father's waste-basket, with a pen which he had dipped 
in the ink, and now he scratched away on the paper, 
until it was completely covered. "Pay attention, Ger- 
trude," he then said, "I will read you the letter 
aloud." It read, "Dear Mr. Pessumehr, now the poor 
are hungry, for they have eaten up all their potatoes 
and bread costs so much money, we beg you, that is, 
Gertrude and I, Herman, do, please buy with your 
own money, bread, and give it to the poor." 

"Only just think, dear Mr. Pessumehr, we have a 
little brother, — but it still has no name — is only 
called, 'Little Heartleaf.' It will have another name, 
when it is baptised, but that will not be right away 
(immediately) not until the raisin cake is finished. 

"Just think, dear Mr. Pessumehr, we have seen your 
old playroom in your castle and the little playtown of 
Lerum with the tiny Mr. Pessumehr. You did not 
know that we caught a small mousie in the little play- 
town; he lived with us all winter in a (make believe) 
glass — palace — did you? We loved little mousie very 
much, but we could never let puss see it. Our little 
brother knows nothing about Mousie-Mickerchen: he 
is the biggest little stupid! Dear Mr. Pessumehr, we 
often think about Christmas, and that we must be 
obedient, that you may hear good news about us. 
And farewell, your dear, 

HERMAN AND GERTRUDE." 

That was a wonderful letter. Gertrude did not 
shake her head any more, but stood there quite 
astonished. To write such a letter and then to be 
able to read it aloud, that was remarkable; she had 
real respect for her brother. In the afternoon Ralph 
came to make a call, with his mother, Godmother 
Krany. Ralph was much older than the foresters' 
children; he had been for many years in school. 
Herman told him the story about the letter and de- 
sired him to read it "out loud" (aloud) to him — that 
was a difficult matter — Ralph said quite, "Those are 
not letters, they are hen-tracks." 

"Hen-tracks, what kind of a word do you call that?" 
said Herman touchily, "If I can read the letter and 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



119 



have never yet been to school, you old school-boy 
ought to be able to read it!" 

Ralph laughed until he had to hold his sides. 

"You do not need to laugh so," continued Herman 
angrily; Just wait! I shall be big some day then I 
will laugh at you!" 

Gertrude felt grieved thro the soul of her brother 
and began to cry. Ralph, who loved the children very 
much, wished to make good the offence he had given 
and said. "You must tell it (dictate) to me, then I 
will put it all in order and you can send it to Mr. 
Pessumehr. The proposition was accepted. Dora pro- 
cured a clean piece of paper, because Herman knew 
when company was there he must not disturb. Her- 
man dictated and Ralph wrote. When the letter was 
finished, it was carefully folded and sealed with a scar- 
let wafer. Every evening the postmessenger went 
thro the wood, he took with him all the letters which 
had been written, from the house in the wood. The 
forester sent word from time to time to Mr. Pes- 
sumehr, the owner of the forest, about the sale of 
wood, etc. Such a report lay ready there and when the 
postmessenger came, Dora brought it out. The chil- 
dren were playing in front of the door. Herman had 
his letter in his pocket. This letter must go, too, said 
the boy, with an air of importance, taking the report 
of his father from the post messenger's hand and 
pushing his little letter in on one side. When Grand- 
mother Krany had gone home and they were allowed 
to talk again they told the whole story of the writing 
and opportunity of sending the letter. The father did 
not laugh — he was very much displeased, and called 
the children, "impudent." "Never again must you 
touch my letters" he said going to and fro in the 
room with heavy steps. "What will Mr. Pessumehr 
think of me when it looks as if I had laid the letter of 
such rude children, in a letter of mine? Herman and 
Gertrude could not understand what they had done, 
that was so wrong, but their tears flowed, and they 
went weeping to bed. Grandmother came to the bed- 
side and said, "You will never again be so rude and 
must never touch father's things. Children do not 
understand what is proper; they must always have 
the permission and advice of father and mother." 



HOW THE BITE WAS TAKEN OUT OF THE 
STONE WALL. 

By Miss Jeannette Ridlon, Rhuddlans-on-the-Cliff, 
Newport, R. I. 

Do you see that great big hole in the wall there, Best 
Beloved, that looks just as though some one had taken 
a great big bite out of it? Well, that is exactly what 
did happen! Would you like me to tell you about it? 
All right, then, I will. 

Once upon a time, oh long, long before you were 
torn, that wall was just like other walls and the 
spring here ran down through an iron pipe to the sea. 
The wall and the spring were very good friends you 
see, they had lived together so long that they had 
found out it wasn't worth while fighting and so they 
were just as good friends as they could possibly bo 
and never said a cross word to each other. 'Cause 



cross words hurt and make you awfully unhappy. 
And so because they were never cross to ^ach other 
they were happy all the day loag and all the night 
long too. It was very necessary that they should be 
happy all night as well as all day because walls and 
springs never sleep, you know. But one day an 
awful thing happened. 

Not far away, that is not far aa giants count it, 
there lived a little baby boy giant with his Mummy 
and his Daddy. Now this little giant's name was 
Metronomalis and he was about twice as big as the 
biggest tree on Grandpapa's farm. Now giants, you 
know, eat anything from stone walls to spiders and 
one day little Metronomalis went for a walk without 
his nurse and so of course he got lost. 

He had been walking quite a long time and had 
begun to get very, very hungry when he saw the stone 
wall and it looked so good that he ran right up and 
took a great big bite. That made the spring so angry 
that it jumped up and slapped Metronomalis in the 
face, oh very, very hard, and that frightened poor little 
Metronomalis so that he choked on the great big 
stones and ran away to his Mummy just as fast as he 
could go. And that is how the bite was taken out of 
the wall, oh Best Beloved. 



It was Froebel's own opinion that the spirit of the 
American nation was the "only one in the world with 
which his method was in complete harmony, and to 
which its institutions would present no barriers." A 
short time before his death he said: "If they will not 
recognize and support my cause in my native country 
I will go to the United States, where a new life is un- 
folding itself, and where a new and better education 
of man will be able to find a footing." The success 
with which the kindergarten met here after the first 
ones were established in St. Louis and Boston about 
thirty years ago shows how prophetic Froebel's dying 
wish was. Today the kindergarten is an accepted part 
of the educational system of every town or city of any 
size. — Ex. 



Secretary of State Wm. J. Bryan says: "If the 
soldier must give up alcohol because it interferes with 
his efficiency, why should not the civilian promote his 
efficiency by giving it up? And if it is demonstrated 
that alcohol is an evil and only an evil; if it is proven 
that it lessens the productive value of the citizen, who 
will say that the nation should look upon this great 
evil with indifference merely because a few people 
want to grow rich out of a drink that is destruc- 
tive." 



Dr. Merrill will give two addresses during Novem- 
ber and December to the juniors and senior classes of 
the Connecticut Froebel Normal Kindergarten and 
Primary Training School in Bridgeport, Miss Mary C. 
Mills, principal. Her subject will be "What is Meant 
by a Problem Program," and "What Kindergarten 
Occupations Lend Themselves Most Readily to the 
Child's Expression?" 



Present neglect makes future regret. 



120 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



BUSY WORK FOR DECEMBER 

By P. B. H. 
The month of December furnishes much material for 
busy work, and it often necessitates a process of elimi- 
nation to decide on just what is the best to use. 
Material for decorating should not be neglected and 
if you teach in a vicinity where holly or mistletoe 
grow in abundance have the children bring some to 
school and let them fasten small sprigs of it, with 
cord or ordinary grocery string, to wire hoops about 
eighteen inches in diameter. When completed tie 
large red bows of paper on the garlands and fasten in 




the window. These make the most attractive decor- 
ations for the holidays that I have ever used. If you 
are unable to obtain the holly or mistletoe substitute 
the evergreen or cedar twigs, they will answer the 
purpose practically as well. 

On sheets of white manilla paper outline the figure 
of Santa Claus, about eight or ten inches high. (See 
illustration.) Color one of these yourself and fasten 
in the front of the room in some conspicuous place. 
Give the children each one of the outlines and a box 
of crayolas and let them color their figure from the 



one before them. It will not only prove a successful 
busy work, by which you can attend to some other 
task and leave the pupils to their own occupation, but 
it gives splendid color training as well. 

Have the children cut, from outline, small bells of 
various colors about an inch wide. Place about thirty 
of these in a variety of shades in a small pasteboard 
box. Hand to each child one of these boxes and tell 
them to sort the bells into piles of the same color. 
Later, when they have become more familiar with the 
colors have them place the bells in groups of so many 
numbers, beginning by putting two of one color In 
each pile, then three and so on. This is a splendid 
way to teach the numbers to the beginners as un- 
consciously while apparently playing they are ac- 
quiring the value of the numbers. 

All children like to mold with clay and if you are 
unable to obtain the clay, for any reason, use the 
simple salt-starch mixture, it will give practically the 
same results. The wee beginners who are not capable 
of moulding anything of much value, will be able to 
shape little pies, cakes, fruits and nuts for the Christ- 
mas dinner table. After these have dried and harden- 
ed the older children may tint or color them with 
water-colors. 

Another device for seat work which requires no aid 
from the teacher is: cut out little squares of white 
cardboard, on the top or in one corner of which, paste 
miniature pictures of toys which the children have 
previously cut from catalogues of holiday-goods. 
Under each picture write the name of the toy. On 
several other cards paste pictures that will represent 
members of the family as the father, mother, grand- 
mother, brother, sister and baby, under each picture 
print or write the name. Have the children place the 
cards with the names of those in the family near the 
top of the desk. Under each of these arrange the 
cards on which are pasted a gift Santa Claus might 
bring them. For example; under baby would be 
rattle, cup, doll, etc., under brother would be sled, 
skates, and so on under each one. This is not only in- 
teresting for the children but unconsciously they are 
fixing those words in their minds and learning to as- 
sociate them with their proper meanings. 

Something quite similar to the gift cards and yet to 
the children, much different, is; on large sheets of 
manilla paper have them outline and color a Christ- 
mas tree, for the very smallest ones it will probably 
be necessary for you to outline the tree and let them 
color it. From toy catalogues have the children cut 
out the decorations for the tree and also a gift for 
each member of their family. It will take them con- 
siderable time to choose just what to give each one 
as there will be so large a variety to choose from in 
the catalogue. Nevertheless they will enjoy the 
occupation immensely. After the process of choosing 
and cuting out the pictures has been completed, have 
them arrange and paste on the tree. 

By all means have the children construct little gifts 
for members of their family. There are the pen- 
wipers which may be cut in shapes of bells or stock- 
ings; the shaving pads which may be cut the same, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



121 



the top-cover of which may be nicely decorated with 
any of the symbols of Christmas. A very novel blotter 
may be made by cutting the paper in the shape of a 
shoe-sole and drawing or coloring a spray of holly 
across the top. Near the center write the words: 
"Wishing You a Merry Christmas from the Bottom of 
My Sole." For their mothers, the children can make 
the ever popular recipe books and calendars, which 
furnish so many ideas for original work that I hardly 
think it necessary to mention any of them here. 

December is a busy month, but try to have some- 
thing for every child to be doing every minute of the 
day. Don't think that it is necessary for you to stand 
by them and direct everything they do. Get them 
started and you will be surprised how much they 
really will acomplish by themselves. 



STRAIGHT LINE CUTTING. 
Carrie L. Wagner. 
The kindergarten children are very busy at this 



wise cut as for the fire place. At the left side fold the 
top square from the right corner, and the lower 
square from the left corner on the diagonal and cut 
away on the lines. From the large piece left after 
making the sleigh, cut freehand two reindeer for the 
sleigh; and from the strip of four squares which was 
first cut off of the square, stockings may be cut free 
hand. 



Dr. Irwin Shcpard, for twenty years Secretary for 
the National Educational Association, has for the past 
15 months being connected with the Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition as National Secretary of the 
Bureau of Conventions and Societies. He has been as- 
sociated with James A. Barr, Director of Congresses, 
in the important work of arranging for a world series 
of Congresses, Conferences and conventions. His 
many friends throughout the nation will regret to 
know that on September 11th, he sneered a severe 
heart attack which has compelled him, much to the 







U D 




\^_\Ll 









The fire place and stockings, and the house with a chimney for 
Santa Clans to come down. 




The sleigh and reindeer. 

season making preparations for Christmas. There is 
not much time for the busy little fingers to make any- 
thing but their gifts and tree decorations. But early 
in the month when the Christmas talks first begin, 
perhaps the cutting suggested here would be interest- 
ing to them. Fold sixteen squares, and cut away a 
strip of four squares on one side. Cut on the right 
side center line to the first line, then up the length of 
one square, across one square and out to the left-hand 
edge. This piece formed the fire place. The other 
piece is the house with a chimney. Fold the two 
upper squares of the house on the diagonal; open, and 
fold the corners to the line made by the first fold; 
open and cut away the little corners to form the shape 
of the roof. Now fold another four inch square for 
the sleigh. Do not cut away four squares, but other- 



regret of the Exposition authorities, to retire from the 
active work of the Bureau. Dr. Shepard will continue 
to act as National Secretary, in an advisory capacity 
as his wide acquaintance and organizing ability will 
make his services a great help in completing arrange- 
ments for the great series of meetings to be held in 
San Francisco from February 20th lo December 4th, 
1915. Secretary Shepard cordially concurs in this 
arrangement, gratefully appreciating t,he opportuni- 
ties it affords for continuing in itie service of the 
many important public interests represented by these 
Congresses and Conventions. 



Woodsfield, 0. — The children of the public schools 
and kindergarten paraded Nov. 3rd, in the interest of 
temperance. The parade was under the auspices of 
the W. C. T. U. The children made quite a showing. 




STUDY OP A PICTURE— IV. 
By Mary E. Cotting. 
Touching the part of the picture representing the 
church ask: What is this? For what is a church 
used? When do we go — and how does the bell sound? 
What causes it to sound? Ever see the man ringing 
the bell? (Explain his action and result.) What do 
you do in church? What do you see? Where are the 
colors? What do the colors form in the window? 
(Explain the "window-pictures.") What else do you 
see? What do you hear? Does everyone talk? Why 
must people be quiet? Who does talk? What does he 
talk about? Do you ever hear anything except what 
the preacher says? What kind of music? Which do 
you like better — the music of the organ, or the sing- 
ing? What is the "music about"? Bring out the 
names organist and choir; and make a connective 
thought between the music at church and the chil- 
dren's morning hymns. Do you think it is Sunday in 
the picture? Then why are these persons here? Oh, 
you can go to church on other days than Sunday? 
What are such days called? Well, in the picture there 
is to be a "special" day and that is why these persons 
are carrying flowers. What will be done with the 
flowers? Bring out names of various places where 
persons are carrying flowers. What will be done with 
the flowers? Bring out names of various places where 
they will be put? Do you notice how quiet and happy 
the mother and her boy look! The old, lame woman 
must love her church to come hereself with her 
flowers, mustn't she? Can you think of any day on 
which we soon shall decorate our churches? Shall 
we use flowers? What shall we use? Why are we to 
celebrate? Whose birthday is it that we are to cele- 



brate? Do you think we shall look as happy as the 
people in this picture? We are going to look very 
happy, and, also, we are going to try to make others 
look happy. 

This work of L. Emile Adan illustrates the spirit 
which should posses the human who is "at peace with 
life" and in close union with the religious thought of 
that sect of which he forms a part. 

In connection with this picture there may be used 
"The Holy Night" (Coneggio) ; "Nativity," (H. Le 
Rolle) ; or those representing the birth by W. A. 
Bougureau or M. Peuerstein. 

On this series representing various phases of the 
natal time may be used, "Announcement to the Shep- 
herds," (Plockhurst) ; "Adoration of the Shepherds," 
or "Nativity," (Le Rolle) ; "The Magi On the Way to 
Bethlehem," (J. Portaels) ; "Worship of the Magi," 
(Paolo Veronese.) 



PICTURE STUDY V 
By Mary E. Cotting. 

Let all the reverence of which the kindergartner is 
possessed be shown by her manner and voice as she 
hangs the picture meanwhile saying, "Here is some- 
thing of which I am very fond. I am going to leave 
it here so you may all enjoy and talk about it." In- 
stead of questioning allow the children to comment, 
and answer all their questions as tactfully as may be 
in consideration of the many creeds represented in the 
group of children. When the most propitious time 
comes for doing so, tell the following story: 

In the long, long ago time there lived in a faraway 
land people who were not treated kindly, and rightly. 
After a time a promise was made that a new king 
should be sent to rule over the land. This new king 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRDfARY MAGAZINE 



123 



was to be one who would know exactly how to help 
the people to live rightly — in peace and happiness. 
Of course all the people waited and watched longingly 
for the good, new king to come. 

One night while shepherds were tending their flocks 
— (it was not cold in that land as it is here at this 
season) — all at once they saw a most glorious light 
overhead, and heard music such as they had never 
heard before. The music came from a band of angels, 
and it told the shepherds that the new king had been 
born, and the promise which had been made was ful- 
filled. The shepherds thought and wondered over this 
welcome news, and decided to start in search of the 
king. They knew that a bright star would show them 




the way for the angels had promised that it was to 
be so. When anyone is glad — more so than ever be- 
fore — because someone is born the first thing that he 
wishes to do is to make gifts to the new-born, and 
that was how the shepherds felt. They decided that 
as their flocks were their most precious possessions 
the rarest gifts for them to offer would be some of 
their dear, little lambs. Finally, they started just as 
they were in their garments of skin, each with staff in 
hand and dog trotting beside. As they traveled the 
"star shone out before them." After a while it seemed 
to show them a rough looking building, so into its 
shelter they passed. Great was their surprise at what 
they saw! The soft eyed cattle stood there gently 
breathing, and there were racks of hay and near one 
was just a baby and its mother. The shepherds were 
beginning to think some mistake had been made when 



again they saw the most glorious light and heard the 
wonderful music. Looking at the child they felt that 
something strange and beautiful had taken place, and 
at once they became filled with peace so great they 
knew that the child before them was the promised 
world king. Silently in awesome adoration they 
bowed offering with tender reverence their gifts. 
Their hearts so overflowed with joy they soon started 
upon their homeward way in order to spread the 
tidings of great joy. 

Many others — beside the shepherds came to pay 
homage and offer the best they had as gifts, and so 
the child and the mother whose name was Mary and 
Joseph her husband tarried in the rough building 
until there came a message which told them, they 
must not stay any longer. Right away Joseph 
brought out the ass, made a comfortable seat upon its 
strong back and placing the mother and child upon it 
started off on the long journey to their new home in 
another country. 

Because of all that came to pass after the World- 
King was born, we celebrate His birthday every year, 
and do our very best to make others happy, not only 
by giving presents, but by being thoughtful and kind. 



THE KINDERGARTEN AND THE FIRST GRADE 
Frances McSheery, Holyoke, Mass. 

It is enough to say that I believe in the kindergar- 
ten not only for its intrinsic merit, but because of the 
good it can do in the home, because of the excellent in- 
fluence it may exert through many grades and many 
phases of school work, and because of the new and 
useful work it has brought to woman as teachers. 

One of the developments in recent years is the fact 
that the kindergarten is receiving more attention 
from primary teachers, and the kindergartners are 
in turn studying their work in relation to general 
education. 

Kindergartners are beginning to realize that if the 
kindergarten is to fulfill the function in the edu- 
cational system which recent educational theory has 
assigned to it, both kindergarten and school alike 
must take the present-day knowledge of the child's 
development and the present-day interpretation of 
life as the basis of their procedure. 

Let the kindergartners and primary teachers come 
together. Let their work be harmonized. Let the 
public and let many grade teachers know that the 
kindergarten is not a house of play and entertain- 
ment, but a place where teacher and child share in 
education. — Excerpt from address delivered at Annual 
Meeting of Connecticut Valley Kindergarten Associa- 
tion. 



Reading, Pa. — The pupils of the newly formed 
kindergarten class in the meeting house of the 
Society of Friends held a Hollowe'en party in the an- 
nex of the meeting house, on North Sixth street. 
There were twenty-five present. John Bowers was in 
charge. Refreshments were served and many amus- 
ing games played. The decorations consisted of 
pumpkins, autumn leaves and shocks of corn. 



LITTLE PLAYS and LITTLE PIECES for LITTLE PEOPLE 



AN INTERVIEW WITH SANTA CLAUS. 

By Rebecca Stkutton. 

Arrange stage to represent a nursery, covering walls 
with sheets and crepe holly paper, or similar childish 
effects. Several small beds filled with children. May 
becomes restless, stretches, yawns, raises to elbow, 
looks about and finally discovering Santa Claus, ad- 
dresses him as follows: 

Isn't your name Mr. Santa Claus? 

Just call me little May. 
Now sit down and please don't hurry 

'Caus there's things I've got to say. 

You see these stockings hanging, 

Well, they're not all for me 
But they do belong to children 

Whom you have come to see. 

The boy around the corner 

You know his name is Ted, 
Says if we only had some snow here 

He sure would want a sled. 

And pretty Mary Brownlee 

And her little sister Kate 
Think with just a pair between them, 

They both could learn to skate. 

Brother Walter wants a ladder, 
But I'm 'fraid he'd get a fall — 

Says he wants it just like Jacob's 
With the angels on — and all. 

I'm sure dear Mr. Santa Claus 

Our Xmas will be sweet, 
I'll shut my eyes up tight like this 

And promise not to peep. 

I'm off to slumber land now 

To sleep till broad daylight — 
Goodnight! dear Mr. Santa Claus, 

Goodnight! Goodnight! Goodnight! 

Santa Claus, by gestures, follows out the spirit of 
May's lines, during her recitation of them, answering 
as follows: 

Goodnight! now go to sleep, May, 

While I proceed to work — 
On the job of filling stockings 

You'll find Santa Claus no shirk. 

Santa Claus next distributes the stockings, which 
should be made of bright-colored material and filled 
with candy. 



He knew what I wanted so don't think it shocking 
For I left him a note on the toe of my stocking. 

I am sure that all children would get everything 

They wanted to have Mr. Santa Claus bring 

If they'd write him a note and then take the 

bother 
Of having it posted by mother or father. 



WRITING TO SANTA. 
Anna Brownwell, Dunaway, Kearney, Neb. 
I'm writing a letter to Santa, 

But I'll not ask for very much, 
For papa says Santa is poorer 

This year than the very Dutch, 
And he says that he thinks its likely 

Old Santa will run into debt, 
If he tries to bring all the children 

The things they would like to get. 

So I'll just ask for a baby dolly, 
And a dear little fur and muff, 
And dishes, a locket and bracelet 

And a case with a powder puff. 
And I want a big toy piano 

And a doll bed and manicure set, 
Now if every one else asks as little, 

Dear Santa won't run into debt. 



CHRISTMAS BELLS 
Laura Rountree Smith 
(Children wear bell-shaped dpesses with arms 
hidden and carry little tea-bells which they ring.) 
All. 

Hear the bells ring a chime, 
Merry bells of Christmas time: 



1st. 



2nd. 



3rd. 



4th. 



All 



MY TOYS. 
S. M. T. 

These toys that I have were given to me 

My dear Santa Claus on my last Christmas tree 



All the bells ring sweet and clear, 
Merry Christmas time is here. 

Rin„ the bells, hang up the holly, 
At Christmas time we all are jolly. 

Sweet bells of Christmas loudly ring, 
"A Merry Christmas," we all sing: 

When evening bells are chiming low, 
Come hang up the holly and mistletoe. 
(Sing — Tune — "Lightly Row.") 
Ring the bells, ring the bells, 
Hear their merry, joyous chime, 
Ring the bells, ring the bells, 
Bells of Christmas time, 
Ringing out across the snow, 
For 'tis Christmas time, you know, 
Merry bells, merry bells, 
Bells of Christmas time 



THE KI1VDE11GARTE1V-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



125 



GAME OF CHRISTMAS TREES. 
Laura Rountree Smith 
The children sit in chairs in two rows facing each 
other 

The children are given names of trees. 
One child says: 

"I am looking for maple and hemlock trees 
Who will come help me look for them, please?" 
The children who are named "Hemlock" and "Ma- 
ple" change places. The leader always tries to slip 
into the chair vacated hy one who changes places, 
with the other. In this case, at any time the one left 
out becomes Leader. 

This keeps up for some time. The Leader keeps 
looking for various trees. 

At any time the Leader may say: 

"I am looking for little Christmas trees, 
Who will come and help me, please?" 
The children then all change places. 
One is always left out of a seat, so the game con- 
tinues. 



CHRISTMAS GIFTS 
Laura Rountree Smith 
(Child with a bell.) 

Merry bells of Christmas ring, 
While the little children sing. 
(Child with a star.) 

A star in heaven large and bright, 
Guided the Wise Men through the night. 
(Child with a stocking.) 

Christmas stockings in a row, 
Will soon be filled from top to toe. 
(Child with a wreath.) 

Hang up a pretty wreath of holly, 
At Christmas time we all are jolly. 
(Child with a candle. ) 

A Christmas Candle now I bring, 
While the bells of Christmas ring. 
(A child enters with a small, decorated Christmas 
tree, they all circle round the tree and recite.) 
All. 

Oh Christmas Tree, oh Christmas Tree, 

That in the forst grew, 
Oh Christmas Tree, oh Christmas Tree, 

I wonder if you knew, 
That you would carry dolls and toys, 
For many little girls and boys. 
(Child with tree.) 

Merry Christmas, Merry Christmas, 

I am bringing toys, 
Merry Christmas, Merry Christmas, 
Little girls and boys. 
(They sing any familiar Christmas song and march 
off.) 



CHRISTMAS EVE 

By Mrs. Harry A. Carpenter, 

209 E. Chestnut St., Denison, Iowa. 

(A Christmas playlet in which any number of char- 
acters desired may be introduced.) 



Principal characters, Mother, Bobbie, and Nellie, 
(two small children.) 

Mr. and Mrs. Santa Claus — Chorus of Boys and 
girls for a drill. Costumes very simple. 

Scene — Any ordinary living room. Mother and 
children seated in the room with the curtains pulled 
together. Sound of approaching music. 

Bobbie — "Oh, Mother! the choir boys are coming. 
Can't we pull the curtains back farther so that we 
can see them?" 

Mother — "Yes, Bobbie. I think it is a lovely custom 
for the boys to go about from house to house singing 
the carols of the Christmastide. I hope when you are 
a little older you can go with them." She approaches 
the window and pulls back the curtains and returning 
turns down the lamp. Boys dressed as choir boys in 
caps and gowns (if desired) appear at the window 
and sing two old Christmas carols, the mother and 
children clapping at their close. The mother goes to 
the door and invites them in. They enter and give as 
many recitations and songs as you desire, and then 
leave, the mother and children following them to the 
door. 

Nellie — "Oh, mother, wasn't it lovely?" 

Mother — "Yes, indeed, dear." 

Bobbie — "Mother, won't you please read us the 
Christmas story?" 

Mother — "Yes, dears," (taking her Bible from the 
stand and reads Mathew 2:1 to 13 and Luke 2:8-21. 

The children kneel at their mother's knee as if in 
prayer, and all leave the stage. 

(Here the Christmas stocking drill may be intro- 
duced. ) 

Enter Mr. and Mrs. Santa Claus at point 14 in the 
drill instead of as the drill is written. 

Mrs. Santa: "Now, see here, Santa, what about this? 
All these stockings (pointing to those left by the chil- 
dren) and I am sure you only have two children down 
for this house." 

Mr. Santa — "Well, well, I wonder how that comes" 
(takes out book and examines it) "Yes, yes, I am 
sure there are only two here. (Examines stockings.) 
Well, well, I am sure they don't belong to Nellie and 
Bobbie either, for see every one is of a different kind 
and their mother always gets the same kind, iron clad 
ones I think they are, or at least they ought to be. 

Mrs. Santa — "Now see here Santa they aren't any 
harder on their stockings than any other children. 
These must be the stockings of those little babies we 
heard about and we will find Bobbie's and Nellie's 
stockings in the other room." 

Santa — "Oh, all right mama. Fill 'em up, fill 'em 
up clear to the brim." (The two fill the stockings.) 

Santa — "There, wife, these are nearly full and our 
wagon is nearly empty. I do wish folks didn't build 
their chimneys so small now a days so we had to go 
in and out of doors all of the time. I am just longing 
for a good slide down the chimney, aren't you?" 

Mrs. Santa (nodding.) — "Yes, but we must hurry." 
(they leave the stage, a clock strikes six) and Bobbie 
and Nellie enter rubbing their eyes and carrying 
presents in their arms. Quick curtain. 



126 



tfflt! mDMGAfcm.plttMAS* MAGA2rttS3 



A WISH. 

By Mrs. Harry A. Carpenter, 
209 E. Chestnut St., Denison, Iowa. 

I wish that I had lived long ago with the shepherds 

who tended the sheep 
On the Judean hills when our Savior was born and 

been awakened from sleep 
To see up above me the heavenly light and to hear the 

angels proclaim 
That Jesus was born in a Judean town and praise him 

with loud acclaim. 

I wish that I could have been with those men, who 
heeded the angels fair, 

And came to the manger and found the babe with 
Mary, his mother, there. 

Oh wonderful, baby, so humbly born, the son of a roy- 
al line, 

All honor to thee who down through the years as a 
Star in the East doth shine. 



A PRESENT FOR SANTA. 
Florence I. Waitt, 23 Spring St., Maiden, Mass. 

I wonder if white whiskered Santa, 
Who fills all our stockings each year, 

Ever finds in his own, Christmas morning, 
A single stray present to cheer. 

I'll tell you what will fill that stocking, 

From toe to it's big open brim, 
A million or two "thank you" letters, 

O, children, let's write them to him! 

Just lay them right close by the chimney, 
And dear Mr. Wind then will see 

That straight to Old Santa's big stocking, 
They fly with the greatest of glee. 

And when he comes home Christmas noontime, 

So tired he almost could fall, 
And sees his great big bulging stocking, 

He'll say, "It's worth while, after all!" 



CHRISTMAS EVE. 
Florence I. Waitt, 23 Spring St., Maiden, Mass. 
Let's sleep, 
Don't peep, 
Santa's sleigh I hear, 
The leastest noise 
From girls and boys 
Just fills him full o' fear. 
So, lest he in a panic fly 
And, with his goodies, pass us by, 
Let's sleep, 
Don't peep! 



Sweep the chimney clean tonight, 

Bank the fires low, 

For Saint Nick, old jolly sprite, 

13 around you know. 



Hope his heavy load may burst 
Right upon our floor, 
And we'll catch him in his plight 
'Fore he gains the door! 

Then we can our wishes tell, 
Whisper in his ear, 
And the things he hasn't brought 
He will bring next year! 



BAROUSKA. 

By Mrs. Harry A. Carpenter, 

209 E. Chestnut St., Denison, Iowa. 

The Russian children think that there's a woman old 

and gray 
Who tries to find the Christ child in all their homes, 

they say, 
She peaks in through the window panes as eager as 

as can be 
And for the children who are good, she leaves a gift, 

you see. 

Long years ago the wisemen asked that she should go 
with them 

To seek the Savior who was born that night in Beth- 
lehem, 

But she refused and now in vain she seeks the wide 
world through 

To find the little Christ child, here, who died for me 
and you. 



THE BEST KIND OF STOCKING. 

Myrtle Barber Carpenter. 
Denison, Iowa. 

The best kind of stocking for Christmas eve 
Is big and long and wide, 
With a great big hole at the heel and toe 
So that nothing will stay inside. 



A BOY'S CHRISTMAMS PRAYER. :' 

Myrtle Barber Carpenter. 
Denison, Iowa. 

Dear Father, grant that I may grow to be, 
More like that one who walked by Galilee, 
Of whom we know so much, and yet whose boyhood 

days 
Were chronicled of old in short and meaning phrase, 
In stature we are told he grew, and growing he waxed 

strong 
Beloved by man and God alike, the message is not 

long. 
And yet I would that I might win such praise 
And leave no blemish on my boyhood days, 
To be as pure, as true, as loyal as was he 
And in the way thou hast desired, fulfill my destiny. 



CLOSING SPEECH. 

Myrtle Barber Carpenter. 
Denison, Iowa. 

We wish you joy, dear people, through all the coming 

year, 
A Very Merry Christmas and a Happy Glad New Year, 
We hope that you'll remember us, though now we say 

Good-Bye 
We wish again you'd visit us, we hope that you will 

try. 



THE KINfcEMAftTEtt-MtMAM MA&A2tttE. 



Ill 



EDUCATIONAL NEWS 

All patrons of the magazine are cordially invited to 
use these columns for an nouncingjlectu res, recitals or 
entertainments of any kind of interest to kindergart- 
ners or primary teachers. Reports of meetings held, 
and miscellaneous news items are also solicited. 
In writing please give your name and address. 



Latrobe, Pa. — Miss Jean Kelly and Miss Louis 
Sazmon has opened a private kindergarten here. 



Davenport, Iowa. — A private kindergarten is to be 
established in Moline, to be located at 219-49th street. 
Miss Ivan Connor is to have charge. 



Jacksonville, Fla. — A most successful entertain- 
ment was given by the Mothers' Club of the Fairfield, 
kindergarten. Nov. 6. The Mothers' Club of the Mill- 
dale Kindergarten held a meeting Nov. 6. 



Minneapolis, Minn. — The Lutheran Kindergarten 
societ held its regular meeting in the Kindergarten 
home, 516 Ninth avenue S., Nov. 2. Mrs. O. Christen- 
sen, Miss Hanna Hanson and Mrs. C. K. Solberg 
served. 



College Point, N. Y. — The board of education in- 
tended to close the kindergarten class in school No. 
28, the old Sixth street school, because it has not the 
required number of children. A petition will be sent 
to the board protesting against the proposed action. 



Galesbubg, III. — A pleasant and profitable meeting 
of the Oneida-Altona branch of the Free Kindergarten 
association was held Oct. 28. There was a good at- 
tendance and much work accomplished. A nice 
dinner was served at noon. 



While the wets of Oregon were engaged in pasting 
up their big posters proclaiming that he was opposed 
to prohibition, Theodore Roosevelt, in a speech at 
Toledo, Ohio, demonstrated anew his progressiveness 
by endorsing strongly the anti-liquor plank of the 
Ohio Progressive party and declaring that if he were a 
citizen of Ohio he would vote for the dry amendment. 



Dallas, Texas. — Two hundred children are receiv- 
ing the benefit of work done by the Dallas Free Kin- 
dergarten Association in North Dallas. A movement 
is on foot to have the vacant lot adjoining the build- 
ing on the east put in order and equipped as a public 
playground and in a couple of weeks the passerby will 
see all sorts of outdoor sports and games in full swing 



Portsmouth, N. H. — Mother's meeting at the Cabot 
street kindergarten was held on Nov. 5th, with a large 
attendance of the mothers. Miss Coburn, the prin- 
cipal, was assisted by the kindergarten teachers of the 
city. Dr. F. S. Towe delivered an interesting talk on 
"A Day in a Child's Life," in which he dwelt princi- 
pally on what was necessary for the Care of Children 
to Preserve the health of Body and Mind. Light re- 
freshments were served. 



Tacoma, "Wash. — A happy gathering of little chil- 
dren, the kindergarten pupils of Miss Watson and 
Miss Stuart, tasted the delights of Hallowe'en Oct. 30, 
at a party given by their teachers in the kindergarten 
home, 2121 North Fife street. The big room in which 
the children usually have their lessons was festive 
with Hallowe'en decorations and the little people 
spent an exciting hour with novel games among them 
a Brownie parade in which they were dressed with 
paper caps, false noses and goggles. They sang their 
usual songs and romped in the big downstairs play- 
room and capping the climax of delight a Hallowe'en 
spread was served. 



As regards the percentage of children between the 
ages of four and six who are enrolled in kindergar- 
tens, New Jersey is given national honors in a bulletin 
of the United States Bureau of Education, just issued. 
The bulletin deals specifically with kindergartens in 
benevolent institutions. New Jersey's percentage, it 
is stated, is between twenty-five and thirty. Montana, 
Oregon, Arkansas, West Virginia and North Carolina 
stand together for the lowest percentage — less than 
one. 



BOOK NOTES 

THE PEACE CHRISTMAS CAROL, Dramatic version 
by Kate Douglas Wiggins, in collaboration with 
Hiller Ihgers. Cloth 103 pages. Price 60c net. 
Published by Houghton Mifflin & Co., Boston and 
Chicago. 

A timely book at this season. 

HOW TO SHOW PICTURES TO CHILDREN. By 
Estelle M. Hurll, Cloth, 132 pages. iTice not given. 
Published by the Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, New 
York, and Chicago. 

This volume will certainly fill a want that many 
teachers must have felt. Among the subjects are — 
The Child and the Picture; How the Picture is made; 
How to Make Pictures Tell Stories; The Game of Pic- 
ture-Posing; Practical Suggestions; Use of Pictures in 
the Schoolroom; Animal Pictures; Pictures of Chil- 
dren; Story Pictures. 

NOTES ON FROEBEL'S MOTHER-PLAY SONGS. By 
Jean Carpenter Arnold. Cloth, 360 pages. Price 
$1.14 postpaid. Published by the National Kinder- 
garten College, Chicago, 111. 

This book is published in memory of Jean Carpen- 
ter Arnold, who for 15 years occupied a position of 
training teacher in the National Kindergarten College 
of Chicago. It is none the less a volume in which 
kindergartners everywhere will find much interest. 
The Mother Play was Miss Arnold's favorite subject 
during all the time she was engaged in her work at 
the National Kindergarten College; and her notes re- 
present her practical every-day work in the class 
room. Elizabeth Harrison was selected to edit these 
notes; but after making an effort in this direction and 
consulting frinds and experts it was decided to 
print the notes just as they were found, hoping that 
some of them might suggest the majesty of thought 
and the depth of sentiment of which they had helped 
her to express. Reference to these notes convinces us 
that they can hardly prove otherwise than helpful, 
and inspiring to all kindergartners who will give them 
a careful study. 

(For additional Book Notes see page 135.) 



HI NTS*™ SUGGESTIONS FOR RURAL TEACHERS 

CONDUCTED BY GRACE DOW 

DEAR RURAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time or any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children.and I shall unhesitatinglyrecommendthe 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
^o use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc., will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 



DECEMBER— 1914. 

"Not what we get but what we give 
Makes up our treasure while we live." 

So long as we love we serve. So long as we are 
loved by others I would almost say we are indis- 
pensable; and no man is useless while he has a friend. 

— R. L. Stevenson. 

'Tis the time of the year for the open hand, 
And the tender heart and true, 
When a rift of heaven has cleft the skies 
And the saints are looking through. 

— Margaret Sangster. 

"Ceasing to give we cease to have, 
Such is the law of love." 

CHRISTMAS ETHICS. 

The Christmas spirit should be shown no less in re- 
ceiving than in giving. Too often this is forgotten 
even by older people, and children are only displaying 
perhaps more innocently the same spirit they see 
manifested by their elders. 

In your preparation for Christmas do not neglect to 
give some suggestions along these lines. 

Often people show disappointment over their gifts 
so plainly that the givers feel hurt, sometimes they 
openly complain, or criticise what they receive. 

The real value of any present should be the spirit of 
love or friendship which inspired the giver, and the 
value or form of present should not enter into the 
matter. 

If you value the friendship of the giver you should 
receive the gift as though expecting nothing, and ex- 
press pleasure when receiving no matter how humble 
the gift may be. 

Children should be cautioned against bragging 
about the number of gifts received, and the value of 
the same compared with other children's in poorer 
circumstances. Let us all show a truer Christian 
spirit ourselves and help others to do the same. 

"To make the sad world merry awhile, 

And to frighten sin away, 
And to bless us all whatever befall, 

Is the task of Christmas Day." 

ANIMAL STUDY. 

This may be given in preparation for the Christmas 
poster. 

The camel:— Who has ever seen a live camel? 
<;Show them a picture.) Compare the camel with the 
horse as to size, shape, covering, etc. Why is it suited 
to life on the desert? It can go many days without 
food and drink. Its stomach is so made that the sup- 
ply of water which it takes will last for many days, 
and the camel's hump is its storehouse for food. When 
well fed the hump is much larger, and diminishes 



with lack of food. The, large; padded feet are suited 
to desert travel, as they are protected against the heat, 
and do not sink so easily into the desert sand. The 
thick skin and coarse shaggy hair protect its body 
against the heat, and sand storms of the desert. 

Notice the animals legs and knees. Why so made? 
The Arabian children teach the young camels to 
kneel by feeding them from bowls, and switching their 
legs till they drop on their knees to sip the milk. 

Camels' hair is used in making shawls and also in 
artists' paint brushes. The flesh is sometimes used 
for food where other flesh food is not obtainable. 

CHRISTMAS POSTER. 
Give each child a sheet of blue Bristol board, -or a 
sheet of drawing paper about 9x12 inches. Draw an 
irregular line to separate the earth and sky. Paint 
the ground a light brown, and if drawing paper is 
used paint the sky blue. Cut stars from gold and 
silver paper, one much larger to represent the "Star of 
Bethlehem." Cut three camels and their drivers of 
brown paper, also palm trees. A few touches of greeri 
might be placed in one corner to represent an oasis. 
Mount the cuttings in appropriate places and you 
have the story of the "Three Wise Men." 

CHRISTMAS TREE DECORATIONS. ' 

Make strings of colored paper in the following 
manner: Cut circles of red and green paper about 
one inch in diameter, or use the regular parquetry 
papers. Place these in line about an inch apart, cover 
with paste, then place an ordinary cord across the 
center, and cover each with a circle of the same size. 
These are more easily made than by stringing them, 
and will add greatly to the appearance of the Christ- 
mas tree. 

Stars may be used in the same way, or used 
separate suspended. Cut holly leaves of green paper, 
poinsetta flowers of red, also apples, oranges, pears, 
and plums using paper the color of the fruit. Attach 
red cords and hang from the branches. 

Cover marbles, regular shaped stones, or small nuts 
with silver or gold paper and suspend with red cord. 
Tin-foil may be used instead of silyer paper. 
CHRISTMAS EXERCISE. 

For three boys and six girls. Dress the boys to re- 
present the Three Wise Men and the girls to represent 
Christmas fairies. Make nine stars and paste upon 
them the letters used. One may be larger to represent 
the "Star of Bethlehem." : 

When all are in line we have the word Christmas. 

C — Christ was born on Christmas Day. 
H. — "Hark the herald angels sing 
Glory to our new born king." 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



129 



R.— "Raise your joys and triumphs high, 
Sing, ye heavens, and earth reply." 

I. — In a manger the Christ child lay. 

S. — "Shout the glad tidings, exulting sing; 
Jerusalem triumphs, Messiah is king!" 

T. — There were shepherds watching their flocks by 
night. 

M. — A message was brought to the shepherds by an 
• angel. 

A. — They sang: "All glory to God on high, and to the 
earth be peace." 

S:— "Sion, the marvellous story be telling, 

The Son of the Highest, how lowly his birth!" 
The brightest archangel in glory excelling, 
He stoops to redeem thee, he reigns upon earth." 

All. — Everybody welcomes me 

Friends from far and near 
For I the Christmas bring the joy? 
■ • For all the long, long year. 

CHRISTMAS GIFTS. 

Christmas Booklet. — Cut the outside cover of green 
or red cover paper in the shape of holly or poinsetta 
flower. Use a sheet of white paper for the inside, of 
the same shape. Decorate the cover, and print or 
write an appropriate sentiment on the inside sheet. 
Tie with red or green ribbon. 

Blotters. — For the top use cover paper decorated in 
holly. Place several colored blotters of the same size 
below, and tie with ribbon. 

Book Marks. — Cut two pieces of light mounting 
board 1% in- width and 6 in. in length. Paint or 
write the words "Merry Christmas." Tie with a flat 
bow of ribbon at one end, and at the other hanging 
ends of narrow ribbon. 

Pen Wipers. — Use several pieces of colored woolen, 
cut in leaf shapes. Outline the edges with sansilk. 
Fasten to stiff cardboard with ribbon. 

Envelopes for Clippings. — Use a large envelope for a 
pattern, cut and paste an. envelope using dainty 
colored construction paper. Leave open at top or side. 
Decorate the front, and attach ribbon ties for closing. 

Calendar. — Purchase small calendars, and mount 
upon cards. Decorate one-half of the card with small 
Perry pictures, especially the Madonna pictures. The 
picture page found in the Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine, Dec. 1914, may be used in this work. 

WORD DRILLS. 

Among the many ways and means to bring about 
good reading, by this we mean the ability to get the 
thought from the printed page, is to have Word 
Drills. 

Pupils must be able to grasp each individual word 
instantly before he can recognize the words when 
grouped together to express a thought in the sentence. 

Make a list of words found in the reading lessons. 
Write each upon the board, leave for an instant, then 
call upon some pupil to give the word. Use the same 
words over many times, erasing more quickly each 
time. 

Divide the class in two divisions, and call on a. 
pupil on one side, and if he fails to answer promptly 
the other side answers and receives the credit. Alter- 
nate each time, and at the close the side giving the 
largest number of words in the shortest time are de- 
clared the winners. 

Acting always appeals to children. — Using the same 
list, place upon the board, and call upon a child to act 
the word. Vary this by having the children think of 
the words themselves and act theru, the class giving 
the names. 



CHRISTMAS SUGGESTIONS. 
Olive Wills, Manistee, Mich. 
From Thanksgiving to Christmas we have four 
weeks full of joyful work and happy dreams for the 
school children, but also very trying on the patience 
and versatility of the teacher, who will say, now 
what can the children make for their Christmas gifts? 
Something that will be of educational value, a lesson 
in construction and design and at the same time but 
little expense. Perhaps some teachers may be inter- 
ested in a few of the problems we are doing. The 
youngest children, those who cannot use a ruler, will 
make a cornucopia. Use drawing paper 6x9 inches or 
you may find some soft light tan or grey wrapping 
papers cut to this size. Fold on the dotted lines, cut 
on the solid lines. 





rig r Ug a. 

When Fig. I is folded it will look like Fig. II, fold 
that on dotted lines and you have Fig. Ill, fold the 
corner (a) back on dotted line you will have Fig. IV, 
while still folded cut off the corner (b); now open 




partly as Fig. V and cut as indicated by the very 
heavy lines. Open fully and you will have Fig. VI. 
Lap (c) over (d) and paste. Cut tne ends in any 
shape you like. Fig. VII. Decorate the back and 
scalloped flaps or decorate the sides in bands. If you 
wish holly decoration like Fig. VIII, cut a tiny holly 
leaf, trace around and paint. 




In grades where the ruler can be used, II or III 
grades, make a perfume envelope, paper 6x6V-> inches. 
When completed it will be 3x4% inches. Fold (a) 
over (b) % inch, paste, bottom flaps y 2 inch, top flap 
1 inch. Cut a tiny holly leaf, color and paste as a seal. 
Keep the decoration on the face of the envelope very 
simple and neat. Free hand cut a tiny Santa Claus, 
candle, holly leaf or Christmas tree. Trace this on 
the envelope — arrange as a single unit or as a border 
top or one side. 



<^&^^^ 




130 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




W 



If you wish to print the word Christmas do it first 
on writing paper, all capital letters, then blacken the 
back with the lead pencil, place on envelope and 
trace, then paint. 

Inside the envelope place a thin cloth folded, sifting 
a bit of powdered perfume in the cloth. 

For the older pupils a pleasing gift is a waste 
basket. Use any kind of cardboard, perhaps old 
boxes. Cut four pieces the shape ana size you wish 




your basket. Cut one piece 6% inches square for the 
bottom. Cut drawing paper, or the paper you will 
cover basket with % or % inch larger than the cards. 
With brush, rag or the hand cover the cardboard with 
paste, very even, place on the paper, rub with clean 
cloth from center out, fold over edges and paste. 




Place under a heavy weight as quickly as possible. 
When dry take strips of cloth and paste the parts to- 
gether, close as possible. The last edge you will have 
to leave and lace up with cord or raffia. On the four 
lower edges paste strips of cloth to extend over about 
1 in. These edges you will, when completed, paste over. 
When any dry take strips of cloth and paste together, 
close as possible. The last edge you will have to leave 
and lace up with a cord or raffia. On the four lower 
edges paste strips of cloth to extend over about 1 inch. 
These edges you will, when completed, paste over the 
bottom to hold it in place. When these strips of cloth 
on the sides are in place, paste in lining. Always put 
the paste on the hard surface. Let the lining be about 
y± inch smaller than the card. Decorate the face of 
four sides before lacing together. To make your de- 
sign take a piece of paper size of one side, fold long 
ways and draw with heavy pencil lines, half of a 
flower, perhaps bug, butterfly, bird or geometrical 
figure. Draw large enough to fill the space well and 
draw each part separately. Fold this side over on the 
other and rub hard, open, and you will find your 
design repeated on the other side. Cut out the figure 
thus formed, place the stencil over the basket sides 
and paint. Hold stencil down firmly and paint from 
the outside toward the center so the edges will be 
clean. 

If you wish to decorate in a border around the top, 
take a piece of paper as long as basket is wide at top, 
and about 4 inches wide, fold into three parts, fold the 
one-third part through the center and draw half your 
figure as ebfore suggested, cut out and paint. Lace 
fourth side together, paste in the bottom and you 
have a useful gift. 



SUGGESTIVE GIFT AND OCCUPATION LESSONS 
FOR PRIMARY AND RURAL TEACHERS 

IV. 

LESSONS ON THE SECOND GIFT. 

Froebel's Second Gift consists of a wooden ball or 
sphere, a cylinder and a cube. From this gift the 
child gains ideas of form, position and sound. It is 
based on the laws of mental development, as accord- 
ing to Froebel, each step taken by the child should 
evolve out of the former one. There should be a con- 
necting link containing some of the qualities of the 
former and presenting some contrasts. We recognise 
at once the connecting link between the first and 
the second Gifts, which is a sphere. 

"The chief reason for selecting these (the forms of 
the Second Gift) are found in his (Froebel's) law of 
the connection of contrasts. Every idea that we havp 
refers to some object, and in the first place to some 
sensible object. The clearness of the idea will depend 
upon the fullness of our knowledge of the object in all 
its details. This knowledge is gained by observation; 
and observation implies the comparison of its pro- 
perties with the similar properties of other objects 
with which we are acquainted. * * * If there were no 
contrasts, comparisons would be impossible. Even in 
the midst of many contrasts by which we are sur- 
rounded, we cease to compare where we find agree- 
ment, and unite objects according to their similarities 
in lower or higher groups, represented by correspond- 
ing conceptions in minds. 

"Again, contrasts are the only means to arouse the 
mind to attention. To make the mind conscious of 
the property of size, it is necessary to present great 
and small objects; and the greater the contrast, with- 
in convenient limits of sensual perception, the more 
readily will the mind be aroused. Thus it will be led 
to attend to shape much more readily by contrasting 
round and angular bodies than by contrasting spheres 
and spheroids 

"On the other hand, contrasts are connected by In- 
termediate degrees of the same properties in other 
objects. Between great and small we have many in- 
termediate sizes: Black is connected with white by 
all the shades that lie between. Froebel designates 
these intermediate degrees of the same property by 
the term 'connection of contrasts.' * * * 

"Perceiving, observing, comparing, judging, conclud- 
ing, are the succesive stages of the process that takes 
place in the formation of an idea; and in each of 
these stages the process rests on the law of connection 
of contrasts. It will be readily seen that this law 
holds good in the moral as well as in the intellectual 
world; that in the formation of taste and character, 
and in the development and exercise of the muscular 
and expressive powers, the law prevails. It is through 
contrast that we perceive and feel; and the desire to 
connect these contrasts — the effort to find their re- 
lationships, to discover or establish harmony in the 
apparent dissonance, the struggle for equilibrium, if 
you choose — underlies all our purposes and actions, 
all our own saying and doing, at least, as they lie In 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



131 



the direction of truth, beauty, and virtue." — Prom 
W. N. Hailmann's "Kindergarten Culture." 

The second Gift also contains contrasts and similar- 
ities within itself and is the embodiment of more 
than the child can comprehend in his early develop- 
ment; but there is much that he may understand, and 
Froebel gives it a very prominent and important 
place in the Kindergarten. 

Beads .are manufactured in connection with this 
Gift that are very useful and interesting in a variety 
of ways. These consist of wooden spheres, cylinders 
and cubes (the shapes of Froebel's Second Gift), one- 
half inch in diameter, colored in the colors of the rain- 
bow and are perforated for stringing. 

It is important to know that the ball of the First 
Gift is so called because it is the name of that form 
with which the child is familiar. In the second Gift 
it is called a sphere because that is the geometric 
name, and as it comes with two other geometric 
forms, the cube and the cylinder, it. is more strictly 
correct. The name ball is unknown in geometry. 

THE FIRST LESSON— SPHERE. 

Much care should be taken in presenting the Gift. 
Too many new objects given at a time confuses the 
mind and tends to make the child inattentive. 

Give a short leson on the sphere without showing 
them the other parts of the Gift. They will call it a 
ball and for the present they may call it a wooden 
ball, but tell them its other name, and after a few 
lessons have them learn to pronounce it. 

Lead them to discover all its properties by ques- 
tions; or, better, suggestions: 

That it is round and will roll ; 

That it has one face which is round ; 

That it is smooth; 

That it is made of wood; 

That it is hard and noisy. 

They should compare it with other round bodies 
same as they did the ball. 

They may be blind-folded, one at a time, and they 
should try to tell how they differ and how they are 
alike, also name the object from the sense of touch. 

Such exercises should be conducted as little games. 

The little songs and games used with the ball may 
be repeated with the sphere, and finally tell a little 
story about wood. 

In telling a story upon any subject, first find out 
what the children may,know about it. In this parti- 
cular case ask where wood comes from; or if they 
know anything about a saw mill or have seen one, 
ask any questions the circumstances may suggest. 
Then tell a pretty story about how the seed sinks into 
the ground, how the rains and snows water it, and 
the sun warms it; and that it sends a tiny shoot up 
through the soil, and grows and grows for many 
years, until it becomes a large tree, when it is then 
cut down, carried to the mills to be sawed into lumber. 
It is sometimes made into balls like this one, and 
sometimes into chairs, houses, etc. 

Always suit the lessons to the age, capacity and 



interest of the children. In many cases the above 
might well serve for two or more lessons. 

For language development use methods similar to 
those suggested in relation to the first gift. 

SECOND LESSON— SPHERE. 

Compare the sphere with the ball of the First Gift. 

Lead them to discover first, their similarities; both 
are round, both will roll, both have but one face. 
Wherein they differ; the ball feels rough to the touch, 
the sphere is smooth; the ball is light in weight; the 
sphere is heavy; the ball is noiseless, the sphere is 
not; the ball will bound, the sphere will not; they are 
not of the same color. 

Suggestions: Holding up the ball and sphere, say: 
Children, do you think there is anything in these two 
forms that are alike?" or "I wonder what we can find 
out about the sphere that is not like the ball," etc. 

Give the children the beads to string after they 
have had a lesson on this gift. Give the ball beads with 
the sphere, the cylinder beads with the cylinder, the 
cube beads with the cube, and after they have had the 
three forms of the Gift they may combine them in the 
beads. 

THIRD LESSON— CYLINDER. 

The cylinder follows the sphere because it is the 
connecting link between the sphere and the cube. 
The sphere is the symbol of motion, the cube the 
symbol of rest, while the cylinder possesses the quali- 
ties of both ; it will roll and it will stand. 

Compare the cylinder with the sphere. First, how 
they are alike; both will roll, both are the same in 
color, both are made of wood, and both will make a 
noise. 

How they differ: the cylinder has three faces, the 
sphere has but one; the cylinder has two edges, the 
sphere has none; the cylinder has two flat faces, 
upon which it may stand or rest; the sphere has 
none. 

By these comparisons the child finds that the cylin- 
der has three faces, two of which are flat and circular 
and one that is round; that it has circular lines or 
edges, but like the sphere has neither point nor 
corners. 

The cylinder may be held firmly by a string passed 
through the eyelet in its round face and the children 
may hold it and count the different faces and edges as 
follows: The cylinder has one round face, two cir- 
cular faces and two circular edges. Point to each as it 
is named. 

The cylinder is represented in countless things. 
Have the children find things in the room that is 
cylindrical. Their fingers, their limbs, their necks, 
their bodies; legs and spindles of the chairs, the stove 
pipe, etc., etc. Have each try to think of something 
away from the room that is cylindrical. Have them 
try to find something, to bring to the Kindergarten, of 
the same or similar shape. Trees, stems, branches, 
grasses are examples, and will suggest many other 
things. 

(To be continued.) 




THE COMMITTEE ofTHE WHOLE 

CONDUCTED BY BERTHA JOHNST©PJ 

THIS COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE, of which all Subscribers to the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine are members, -will consider those various prob- 
lems which meet the practicing Kindergartner— problems relating to the 
School-room proper. Ventilation, Heating, and the like; the Aesthetics of 
School-room Decoration; Problems of the Physical Welfare of the Child, in- 
cluding the Normal, the Defective, and the Precocious; questions suggest- 
ed by the use of Kindergarten Material, the Gifts. Occupations, Games. Toys, 
Pits; Mothers-meetings; School Government; Child Psychology; the relation 
of Home to School and the Kindergarten to the Grades; and problems re- 
garding the Moral Development of the Child and their relation to Froebel's 
Philosophy and Methods All questions will be welcomed and also any 
suggestions of ways in which Kindergartners have successfully met the 
problems incidental to kindergarten and primary practice. All replies to 
queries -will be made through this department, and not by correspondence. 
Address all inquiries to 

MISS BERTHA JOHNSTON, EDITOR, 

389 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y- 



TO THE CHAIRMAN OP THE COMMITTEE OP 
THE WHOLE. 

Have you any suggestions for how to celebrate the 
Christmas period in a Jewish neighborhood? These 
will be very welcome. 

S. T. 

Some years ago a kindergartner met this problem 
by centering her morning talks around the fine old 
Jewish legend upon which they base their festival of 
the Feast of Lights. It runs as follows: While in 
possession of the Greek rulers the Temple had been 
defiled and degraded. In the year 165 B. C, Judas 
Maccabeus re-dedicated it to the service of Jehovah. 
When they looked for oil with which to consecrate it 
they found, after long search, only one small flask, 
miraculously sealed with the seal of the High Priest, 
and containing just oil enough to last for one day. 
But lo! when they came to use it there was enough 
each day to continue the service for the desired eight 
days. Hence, every year, in commemoration of this 
tradition, there is an eight-days' celebration. On the 
first is lighted one candle or lamp. On the second 
day, two candles or lamps; and so on. Because of 
the youth of the hero who led their fathers to victory 
it became customary to give presents to the children 
in each home. 

The teacher could tell this story to the children, 
but in more detail, and each day light an additional 
candle with solemn ceremony. Let the children make 
candles as has been described in previous numbers of 
THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 
Show the Mother Play picture of "Play with the 
Limbs," which illustrates the oil-press, and the old- 
fashioned Tamp. Olive-oil, spikenard and myrrh were 
among the ingredients that composed the oil, used in 
anointing kings and prophets, and in consecrating 
sacred buildings. 



A year ago the Editor attended the Christmas festi- 
val at Sesame House, London, which proved very in- 
teresting and charming in its delightful simplicity 
and its following of the real interests of the child. 

The exercises were held in a large building that 
adjoined and belonged to the main house. As one en- 
tered one beheld a very large tree simply decorated 
with candles and large shining red apples — nothing 



else — and nothing more was needed to make a truly 
beautiful spectacle. Color was afforded by numerous 
so-called night-lights, attached to the walls. These 
were small glass cups of various hues, a broad low 
wax candle in each, which, when lighted, made the 
scene like fairyland. 

At the appointed time the children came marching 
in, each carrying a spray of fragrant fir, and they 
stood in quiet line, while a teacher reverently told 
the, to them, already familiar story of the Holy Child, 
from St. Luke. The little ones then sang a few Christ- 
mas songs, and marched away, slowly, passing in 
front of a table whereon was a white screen, upon 
which were fastened pictures of the Holy Family. 
These, it seemed to the observer, were almost too de- 
tailed and complicated to be readily appreciated by 
the children in passing, but it was explained that 
they had become familiar with them, on other occa- 
sions, in the kindergarten room. 

The children were now dismissed for about three 
quarters of an hour for free play. Some went at once 
to a screened-off corner where were dolls and doll's 
furniture. Others sought picture-books, and one small 
boy asked for a plaything that he recalled playing 
with the Christmas-time a year before, and which 
had been carefully stored away meantime, for the hap- 
py Christmastide. It was interesting to observe how 
instantly the wee folk became absorbed in these new 
delights. 

After this period of relaxation, they returned to the 
other room, where they engaged in some kindergarten 
games, — the familiar postman and others — and then 
all sat and listened in rapt attention to the telling of 
the Little Tin Soldier, after which delightful, large 
colored pictures, about a foot high, of the different 
characters in the story were shown — these being the 
handicraft of the story-teller. 

The festival throughout was characterized by sim- 
plicity, naturalness and withal a happy reverential 
spirit that made the occasion seem ideal. 



To the Chairman of the Committee of the Whole: 

I enclose an idea for playing "Going to Jerusalem" 
without chairs, which may sometimes fill a need. Half 
the children stand with one arm akimbo (it is called 
"Musical arms"), while the others march around 



THE KIKBERGAETEN-PRIMAHY MAGAZINE 



m 



them. The number of marchers should exceed the oth- 
ers by one. When the music stops, each marcher must 
seize one akimbo-arm. The one too many, steps out, 
and the game continues as usual, until only one is 
ieft~as~victor7~~I "would" like to hear if kindergartners 
find this available with little children. 

L. M. 

Miss Mills, principal of the Harrette M. Mills Kin- 
dergarten Training School invited a number of friends 
to a demonstration of the possibilities of the phono- 
graph in the kindergarten. Miss Hilborn, a trained 
kindergartner of very pleasing personality, repre- 
sented the Columbia Graphophone Co., as demonstrat- 
or. 

Since the graphophone has been already installed in 
200 kindergartens, in New York. It behooves the in- 
telligent director and training teacher to know some- 
thing about what is being accomplished in this line, 
and those thus privileged to attend this demonstra- 
tion appreciated the opportunity, the reserving judg- 
ment as to its merits until further experimentation 
and consideration of the subject. 

The instrument gave to us the musical program and 
story-telling of an entire kindergarten morning, as 
follows: We listened to quiet music — selections from 
Brahm's Lullaby, Handel's Largo, and Mendelsohn's 
Spring song. Jessie Gaynor's Slumber Song was 
sung, and also the well-known Clover Song. 

Rhythmic music followed, suitable for marching, 
treading, clapping, running and galloping. The Shoe- 
maker's Dance was a dramatic little composition. 
Preparatory to the story we listened to the Herd- 
girl's Dream, and then Miss Hilborn's voice told us 
the tale of "Epiminadoes and his Aunt." 

A great deal of responsibility attends the introduc- 
tion of "machine music" into the kindergarten, and 
therefore judgment should not be given hastily. 

Since all who listened upon this occasion were 
adults, it is impossible to state what would be the 
impression made upon children. It would seem, 
however, that it would benefit the children to hear 
occasionally the music of the best composers given by 
skilled and sympathetic violinists and other players. 
It would assuredly be desirable in those cases where 
the kindergartner is a mediocre or poor pianist. Just 
as we present beautiful pictures of the masters to the 
little folk, so should we at times let them hear the 
best music, assuming of course that the selection is 
within their comprehension. 

As to the story-telling we reserve judgment until a 
later date. 

We would suggest this much, however, — the record- 
ing of a voice requires many months of practice and 
trial. Miss Hilborn informs us that it required nine 
months in point of time, and fourteen records were 
made, before the record was considered perfect enough 
for presentation. This being the case would it not be 
well for the phonograph companies to ask a confer- 
ence of kindergarten training teachers to select those 
stories which they regard as of sufficient value for 
preservation and reproduction. 

This also remains to be said. It is not every voice 



that has the timbre that can be recorded. Few voices, 
are, like Miss Hilborn's of the right calibre that the 
machine records. This limits the choice. 

THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE re- 
quests kindergartners who have had experience, to 
give their opinions as to the value of the phonograph 
in the kindergarten. 



Suggestive Designs for Stick Laying 




134 



THE KItfDEftaAHTEtf-£RIMAltt MAGAZINE*. 




DESCRIPTION FOR DECEMBER BOOKLET.. 
Marguerite B. Sutton. 

Use a piece of ordinary school drawing paper 
6%x3% inches. Draw a faint dotted line through the 
center of the sheet where the booklet is to be folded, 
and on the right side draw an outline picture of the 
bells and holly as ilustrated. Color the bells yellow or 
gold color, holly leaves dark green, and the berries a 
deep red. The ribbon may also be red. After the 
colors are thoroughly dried cut out the design along 
the heavy lines, and fold through the middle on the 
dotted line. 

This little booklet may be used as invitation folder 
to Christmas exercises. 



Too much attention cannot be given to the character 
of the books given to children for supplementary read- 
ing, when the child is old enough to go to school, but 
it is still more important to be careful in regard to the 
books given to very young children — in the home and 
in the kindergarten — where they may be just learning 
to read and are eager to pore over pictures, words and 
stories of a simple character. The influence exerted 
upon after life by even the pictures on the nursery 
wall is a matter for thought. Educators and parents, 
as a class, are recognizing these facts, and strong 
effort is being made by them to control the literature 
offered to the very young, both in school and home. 
Books must be supplied that will contain matter 
readily absorbed — that will not tax pnysicial develop- 
ment — yet that will also interest the child, as it is 
only along lines of interest that we can hope to in- 
fluence and promote spontaneous development. I re- 
ceive many letters from mothers from many sections 
of the world, and I can safely say that of every six 
letters received five touch upon the book question — ■ 
either books for the child or for tne mother or 
teacher. One mother wrote: "I have great trouble 
in controling my child of five in every way. He loves 



me enough to want to be with me all the time, but 
when I attempt to direct him against his inclinations 
he rebels. What can I do? Are there any books on 
the subject?" I replied: "Yes, there are many such 
books. Two of them are Abbott's 'Gentle Measures in 
the Management and Training of the Young' and 
Malleson's 'Early Training.' Old Books, but very 
good. Any bookseller should be able to find them for 
you." This mother wrote again, after getting the 
books, and told me how she got over her stumbling 
block, and how she and her child were drawing to- 
gether more closely in the bond of love. She had 
learned how to give wise discipline with careful con- 
sideration for her individual rights, and she had thus 
learned how to control him. A child's sense of justice 
is so keen and he reads so clearly tfle motives actuat- 
ing those about him that it is unsafe to attempt to 
coerce his will or lead him blindly. 

Louise E. Hogan. 



A BLACKBOARD ERASER CLEANER. 

A public school janitor has solved the problem of 
cleaning blackboard erasers. The old and chalk 
covering method of clapping erasers on the wall has 
been supplanted by a square box. The top or cover of 
this box, which is twenty inches square, is a wire 
screen of one-half inch mesh held on the box by 
wooden strips nailed along the edges. Four strips act 
as legs. 

To clean an eraser the pupil draws it, face down, 
back and forth across the screen. This causes the 
chalk to drop into the box. Its construction is 
simple, and any boy should be able to make one for 
his teacher. — John 8. Elliott, Newark, N. J., in Jour- 
nal of Education. 



Cincinnati, O. — The Alumnae Association of the 
Kindergarten Training School gave a reception for 
Miss Crawford of Columbia University, following her 
lecture Saturday, November 7, 



*HE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGA2M 



135 




THE BOOK OP FRIENDLY GIANTS By Eunice Ful- 
ler, illustrated by Pamela Colman Smith. Cloth, 
325 pages. The Century Co., New York. $2.00 net. 

An excellent idea, this — of the compiler of the 
volume before us — to acquaint us with the adventures 
and doings of the more friendly among the giants 
with whom the majority of us are not very well ac- 
quainted. The author has gone to various sources for 
her heroes — Hungarian, Norse, Celtic, German, the 
Orient, the American Indian, and includes an incident 
from Rabelais' Gargantua and Swift's Brobdingnag. 
Each chapter is introduced by verses by Seymour 
Barnard. A book the children will rejoice in. 

HANS ANDERSEN'S FAIRY TALES. With twelve 
drawings in colors and many in black and white by 
Dugald Stewart Walker. 267 pages. Doubleday, 
Page & Co., Garden City, N. Y. Net $1.50. 

Twelve of Andersen's poetical fairy tales have found 
a sympathetic interpreter in this young American 
artist whose obedient hand executes most charmingly 
the quaint and lovely fancies born of his own fertile 
imagination as well as those suggested by the great 
Danish genius. It is difficult to decide whether Mr. 
Walker is most skilled in depicting the somber and 
mysterious, or spirits ethical and dainty. One 
is certain, however, that he could give but one reply to 
Peter Pan's momentous question "Do you believe in 
the fairies?" We know that he does, for here they 
are, caught by his magic pen and brush. The publish- 
ers have reproduced the beautiful colors with grati- 
fying success. 

"FIVE MESSAGES TO TEACHERS OF PRIMARY 
READING." By Nettie Sawyer. Cloth, 219 pages. 
Price $1.00. Published by Rand McNally & Co., 
Chicago, 111. 

Five Messages is a thoroughly practical manual, 
containing definite plans for teaching and a wealth of 
suggestions. Realizing that the aim of all primary 
work should be not merely to make the child master 
of the printed page but to guide his mental, moral and 
physical development, the author has shown how the 
simplest reading lesson may be given this broad ap- 
plication. All phases of beginning reading are com- 
pletely covered. The first of the messages deals with 
blackboard work, the second with the teaching of 
primer and first reader in general. Word study and 
seat work are taken up in turn, and the closing 
section consists of seventy pages of outlines of sub- 
ject matter suitable for opening exercises, general 
lessons, and work supplementary to the primer and 
first reader. 

FAIRY TALES OF EASTERN EUROPE by Jeremiah 
Curtin. 259 pages. Illustrations by George Hood in 
color. McBride, Nast & Co., New York. Price $1.50 
net. 

There are eighteen stories in this fascinating 
volume, including several from Russian, Hungarian, 
and Bohemian sources, and one from the Servian. 
Children will find them delightful as mere fairytales, 
and those interested in the study of folklore will be 
pleased by the glimpses they give into quaint customs 
and modes of thought and speech of peoples far re- 
moved in space and time. There are two curious var- 
iants of tales from the Arabian Nights. One is a near 
relative of the Aladdin story and the other, "The 



Golden Fish, the Wonder-Working Tree, and the 
Golden Bird," is strangely like, and yet interestingly 
different from, that of "The Golden Water, the Sing- 
ing Leaves and the Talking Bird." Curtin is well 
known as the translator of "Quo Vadis," and as one 
of the foremost linguists and travelers of modern 
times. Many of these tales he took down verbatim 
from the simple, original storytellers, in quaint 
peasant huts. Four pleasing illustrations in color. 

SEXUAL KNOWLEDGE by Dr. Winfield Scott Hall. 
320 pages. Price $10.0. Published by International 
Bible House, Philadelphia, Pa. Brooklyn represen- 
tative, Jane Clark-Owen M. D., 805 8th Ave., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

This is an extremely important and valuable book. 
In reverent, inoffensive language it gives in scientific 
detail such information concerning hygienic and sex 
matters as every husband and wife, father and 
mother, young man and young woman should know. 
Its facts however, are not limited to those of sex 
hygiene by any means; one chapter gives suggestions 
for the way in which a mother may give to the in- 
quiring child such answers as are within the scope of 
its comprehension. A new era will dawn for the 
world when reverent knowledge and pure intelligence 
replace ignorant prudery and silly sex consciousness. 
This book does away forever with the ancient super- 
stition of the need of a double standard of morality. 
Henceforth the youth will be held to as high an ideal 
of chastity as the maiden. There is a scientific reason 
for the truth as sung by Sir Galahad "My strength is 
as the strength of ten because my heart is pure." 

BLACK TALES FOR WHITE CHILDREN. Trans- 
lated from the Swahali By Capt. and Mrs. C. H. 
Stigand. Illustrated by John Hargrave. Cloth. 200 
pages. Houghton, Mifiling Co., Boston and New 
York. 

The Swahali are people of the eastern coast of 
Africa, who represent a mingling of the Arab and the 
African and, as the Foreword tells us, tne stories form 
a combination of the elements of both races. The 
quaint style of the telling is evidence that the authors 
have kept closely to the spirit of the originals, which 
they have heard narrated by professional story-tellers 
in the coast-towns, or by native hunters round the 
camp-fires or the mothers to their children. Folk-lore 
is one of the straightest paths to the heart and mind 
of a race and these delightful tales, -vvith their quaint 
humor, shrewd common-sense and lively imagination, 
help one to feel anew the oneness or Human nature, 
the world over. There is an excellent mother-in-law 
story, and "The Lion of Manda" will probably be told 
again and again to white children as it has for gen- 
erations past to little black folk. One of the tales 
modestly concludes, "This is the end of the story, and 
whether it is good or whether it is bad I do not know, 
but if it is good its goodness belongs to all, and if it is 
bad its badness belongs to him who tells it alone." The 
illustrations are delightfully animated drawings of 
natives and animals, of jungle and plain. 

Hazel by Mary White Ovington. cloth, 162 pages. 
Published by the Crisis Publishing Co., New York 
City. Price $1.00 net. 

This is a charming little story whose principal 
character is a little colored girl, of Boston, well- 
taught, sympathetic, sensitive. Her mother, anxious 
concerning her health, sends her South to spend the 
winter with her grandmother in Alabama. We are 
taken into a new world which nevertheless proves to 
be remarkably similar to the world of white children, 
except that because of race prejudice, Hazel at times 
faces trying experiences that shame our American 
ideals of common justice. But sae Is naturally a 



136 



THE KINDEfcGARTEft-PMMARy MAGAZINE 



happy-hearted little girl and brings sunshine where- 
ever she goes and she will go right into the heart of 
whoever reads the story. How skillfully the author 
touches upon the problem, of race misunderstanding 
is shown in the following extracts: 

Hazel has been lost and asks the way of two white 
ladies of the neighborhood who are kind to her, but 
hurt her feelings by calling her "nigger," and by 
their lack of intelligent sympathy. When Hazel re- 
hearses her experience to her illiterate old Granny, 
Granny replies: 

"You's a hard road to travel, dearie, as you goes 
through life with your pretty face and your gentle 
ways * * * * Shall I give you a token to keep in your 
heart as you go down the road? 

"Watch how folks says things and not what they 
says. Now, Miss Jane, she didn't do that today, and 
she hurt my baby girl. She ain't quality and that's a 
fact. She was thinking of the words when you said 
'Miss Jane' and not the feeling in your heart and 
voice. Don't you make the mistake, she made." 

Hazel was silent for a few seconds. When she 
answered her voice was trembling. 

"Nobody knows how angry I am, right through, 
when anyone calls me a nigger." 

"And yet, honey, I's heard a forlorn, ignorant 
mammy say it to her baby when it sounded like she 
was whispering to the Lord. It's an ugly word. I 
hates it too. But there's white folKs as don't mean 
any harm by it. You fell in good hands today and I 
thank the Lord for it." 

We hope this book will hasten the time when that 
word will sound as hateful to the ears of all white 
people as to Hazel and her fine old Granny. To that 
end may it find a place in many a Christmas stocking. 
The author writes from a long and intimate 
acquaintance with our colored citizens. 

STORIES OF THE GOLDEN AGE. By Mary Gooch 
Anderson. Cloth. 231 pages. Price 40c net. Pub- 
lished by The MacMillan Company, New York. 
Twenty of these stories of old, as follows: 

Mount Olympus and the Gods, Prometheus and Pan- 
dora, Minerva and her Contest with Arachne, The 
Story of Pegasus, Lo's Troubles, Latona and the Rus- 
tics, Baucis and Philemon, Echo and Narcissus, Her- 
cules, Cadmus, the Builder of a City, The Oracle of 
Apollo, Apollo and Daphine, Clythe, Apollo plays with 
Hyacinthus, Phaeton in the Sun Chariot, How Ceres 
lost Proserpine, Orpheus seeks Eurydice, Cupid and 
Psyche, Pygmalion, Leander swims the Hellespont, 
Atalanta's Race, The Halcyon Birds, A Sea God's Woo- 
ing, Edipus Solves the Riddle, Pyramus and Thisbe. 
The Gods who care for Orchards, Tneseus, Stories of 
the Trojan War. 

INDIAN LEGENDS. Stories of America before Co- 
lumbus. By Margaret Bemister. Cloth. 187 pages. 
Price 40c net. Published by the MacMillan Com- 
pany, New York. 

The folklore of our North American Indians is rich 
and varied, some legends conveying philosophy in a 
fable-like form, others possessing the fascination of 
quaint old fairy tales. Interesting and instructive 
facts are found in their animal stories, while the 
depth and beauty of many others remind us of the 
stories of the Old Testament, and from all these le- 
gends a little may be learned of the habits and 
thoughts of the early Indians. We are accustomed 
to think of them as uncivilized and barbarous, but we 
come to realize the extent and beauty of their imagin- 
ation and we find much to admire and respect in their 
obedience -to authority, their deference to old age, 
their love and care for the young, and their reveren- 
tial awe for the Mighty Spirit whose presence spoke 
to them from all nature, 



PRIMER LANGUAGE READER SERIES. By Frank- 
lin T. Baker, George R. Carpenter, and Fannie 
Wyche Dunn. Cloth. 118 pages. Published by the 
MacMillan Company, New York. 

This Primer is an attempt to lessen the difficulties 
in the necessary task of learning to read. To this end 
the authors have sought: (1) to appeal to the inter- 
ests of children and to their spirit of play; (2) to base 
the reading upon matters already familiar to the child- 
ren, thus saving them the double task of learning 
strange things and learning to read of them; (3) to 
grade the reading so that the steps from one lesson 
to the next may be as easy as possible; (4) to follow 
up the new words by frequent repetitions, until the 
children know them without any hesitation or uncer- 
tainty; (5) to provide exercises for the analysis of 
words into their phonic elements as a basis for recom- 
bining these elements into words, such analysis and 
synthesis being the foundation of independance and 
self-reliance in reading; (6) to present to the child- 
ren a book made up of reading matter, not a mere 
compilation of exercises. 

THE ESKIMO TWINS. By Lucy Fitch Perkins. Il- 
luminated cloth. 192 pages. Price $1.00. Pub- 
lished by the Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston 
and Chicago. 

Ten excellent stories for children as follows: The 
Twins go Coasting, Koolee divides the Meat, The 
Twins go Fishing, The Snow House, The Feast, The 
Reindeer Hunt, What Happened when Menis and Koko 
went Hunting by Themselves, The Woman-Boats, The 
Voyage, The Summer Day. 

GOOD STORIES FOR GREAT HOLIDAYS. By Fran- 
cis Jenkins Olcott. Illuminated cloth. 475 pages. 
Price $2.00 net. Published by Houghton Mifflin 
Company, Boston and Chicago. 

This is a book of stories to be told or read to child- 
ren — or read by children — in the celebration of our 
most important holidays. 

Seventeen holidays are included — New Year's Day, 
Lincoln's Birthday, Saint Valentine's Day, Washing- 
ton's Birthday, Resurrection Day, (Easter Sunday) 
May Day, Mothers's Day, Memorial Day, Flag Day, 
Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Hal- 
loween, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas, Arbor Day, 
and Bird Day. 

The stories, 120 in all, are gathered from a wide 
range of sources, old and new, and are the best short 
stories on subjects connected with these holidays 
which Miss Olcott, an expert in such matters, has 
been able to discover. 

THE DOERS. By William John Hopkins. Cloth. 
175 pages. Price $1.00 net. Published by the Hough- 
ton Mifflin Company, Boston and Chicago. 

This book contains 13 excellent stories for little 
children as follows: The Digging Men Story, The 
Mason Story, The Dinner Time and Jonah, The Car- 
penter Story, The Water-Men Story, The Shingle and 
Clapboard Story, The Plumber Story, The Painter 
Story, The Tree-Men Story, The Clearing-Up Story, 
The Setting-Out Story, The Pole-Men Story, The Mov- 
ing-Men Story. 



Pittsburg, Pa. — Miss Susan Blow, the noted kinder- 
gartner has been delivering a series of lectures at the 
Third United Presbyterian church. Subjects: "Edu- 
cation of Girls" and "Stories." 



Our country is not the only thing to which we owe 
our allegiance. It is also owed to justice and to 
humanity. Patriotism consists not in waving a flag, 

but in striving tnat our country shall be righteous as 
well as strong.— James Bryce, 



GEORGE MACDONALD 
Stories for Little Folks 

THE PRINCESS AND THE 
GOBLIN 

THE PRINCESS AND CURDIE 

AT THE BACK OF 
THE NORTH WIND 

SIMPLIFIED BY 

ELIZABETH LEWIS 

Each ivith illustrations in color by MARIA L. KIRK, 

Cloth, $0.50 net, per volume. 

Few writers of stories for children have a 
wider popularity than has George Macdon- 
ald whose books have furnished amusement, 
and mental and moral stimulus, to thousands 
of young readers. Mrs. Lewis has exercised 
rare good judgment in the simplification. 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY 

PUBLISHERS PHILADELPHIA 



These pictures can be cut apart and used in decorative work 
or as gifts to the children. 



The Child is 




Utilize this love, teach the child to put his soul into 
his work, to do that work which best trains his head, 
hand and heart. 

Some Excellent Beginnings 

Aids for the Teacher 
Industrial Work for Public Schools. M. Adelaide 
Holton. 
This book covers a great variety of work from pa- 
paper cutting to the finest basket weaving. Illus- 
trated throughout, and correlated with beautiful 
poems, and apt quotations. 

Hand Loom Weaving. Mattie Phipps Dodge. 

A complete manual of weaving from the simplest 
to the most complicated designs, together with a chap- 
ter on songs, games and stories, as well as a list of 
related books and magazine articles. Half-tones, col- 
ored frontispiece, 90c. 

The Industrial and Social History Series. Kath- 
arine E. Dopp. 

Supplementary Readers. Series: The Tree Dwel- 
lers; The Early Cave-Men; Later Cave-Men; Early 
Sea-People. 

Rich in story and industrial interest. Many things 
to do and think about. Beautiful half-tones. Each 
45 cents, except the Early Sea-People. 

Rand McNally & Company 

CHICAGO NEW YORK 

PAUL P. MASON, State Representative. Reed City, Mich. 



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Speakers, Dialogues, Plays, Drills, Games, Songs, 
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Records, Certificates, Diplomas, Drawing Stencils, 
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Address to A. J. FOUCH & CO., WARREN, PA. 







THE NATIONAL RURAL EDUCATION MONTHLY 
devoted to the Teaching: of Agricul- 
ture and other Rural-School Subjects 
County, District, and Village Super- 
intendents and Supervisors and Tea- 
chers should know this journal. .It 
is the National Organ for Rural 
Teachers. .Send 2-cent stamp for 
copy. 

THE RURAL EDUCATOR 



OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY 



COLUMBUS, OHIO 



DO YOU BELIEVE 



THAT YOU ARE ENTITLED TO 

A voice and a vote in the manage- 
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A new periodical devoted to 
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Circulation extending through 
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Terms: $1.00 a year. 

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THE KINDDNU 

By SUSAN E. BLOW 

PATTY S. HILL 
ELIZABETH HARRISON 

This Report of the Committee of Nine- 
teen of the International Kindergarten 
Union should be carefully studied by 
every kindergartner who purposes to 
keep abreast of the times. 
$1.25 postpaid. Address, 

J. H. Shults Co., Manistee. Mich. 



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"THE MAGAZINE WITH A MISSION" 

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''Speaks for those who cannot speak 

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Subscription price, one dollar per year, ten cents per copy. 

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These pictures can be cut apart and used in decorative work 
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FOR THE STUDY AND EDUCATION OF 

EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN 

An Eleemosynary Society incorporated under th; laws of 
thesState of New Jersey 

In connection with its broad national work for 
exceptional children, this Association has for many 
years been conducting a special institution for the 
POTENTIALLY NORMAL, though "different" child, 
known as 

HERBART HALL 

The objects of this institution are: 

1st. To determine the individual peculiarities 
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vary from the average. 

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For full information address 

ASSOCIATION S. I 1 C. 

WALDEMAR H. GROSZMANN 

Secretary- General 

Plainfield.N.J. "WATCHUNG CREST" 

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| |P Why Mot Gii)e tf four \ Pupils 

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H Dictionary in his school? Would not a requisition to your school 

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Ex-supervisor New York Kinder- 
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remote from New York City. Her 
subjects are the following: 

"Present Day Modifications of the 
Kindergarten." 

"What is meant by a Problem Pro- 
gram." 

"How to utilize the Results of 
Kindergarten Training in the First 
School Year." 

"Primitive Knowledge, or the A 
B C of things." 

"The School of Infancy," "Montes- 
sori Methods." 

"The Home and the School "Work- 
ing Together." 
Address 

500 Manhattan Ave., NEW YORK 



A KINDERGARTEN PROGRAM 

for a year, with Circle Talks, Gifts, 
Games, Occupations for every day. 
Also patterns for the Occupations 
mentioned. Price, $3.50 

HARRIETTE MCCARTHY 
Bristol Hotel, Oklahoma City, Okla. 



Kindergarten Teachers 

AND STUDENTS 

will be interested in my investigation and study of 
the MONTESSORI METHOD IN ROME, and my 
practical adaptation of the Method to the American 
School for little children. I will be glad to send il- 
lustrated pamphlet on request. 
Mrs. J. Scott Anderson, Directoress.Torresd ale House 

Training course begins October 1st. 

AMERICAN MONTESSORI TEACHER-TRAINING SCHOOL 

ITorresdale, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Pretty Polly Flinders 

By MARY FRANCES BLAISDEL.L 
A book to Are the imagination and 
delight the heart of childhood. Col- 
ored pictures. . Large type. .Second 
year children can read it themselves. 

IN toYland 

By LOUISE ROBINSON 
A visit to the land of Christmas 

toys. .Colored pictures. .Large type. 

Advanced first year Reading 

Each volume, 40 cents postpaid.. . 

LITTLE, BROWN & CO. 

BOSTON, MASS. 



LADY TEACHERS CAN EARN, 

$80 TO $60 PER WEEK 

During summer vacation, in any locality, handling 
our new educational proposition, of commanding in- 
terest to every woman, young or old, married or sin- 
gle. Demonstrating or canvassing experience not 
necessary, as we furnish complete instructions and 
outfit. No money required. Write at once. Be I 
first to apply from your territory. 

AMERICAN PUBLISHING COMPANY 

Box 1616, E. St. Louis, No. 



Parents and Teachers 



SAFE, SANE, ATTRACTIVE 

Temperance and Anti-Cigaret Helps 

Stereopticon Slides 
Handsome Posters 
Interesting- Literature 
The Scientific Temperance Jour- 
nal 

Sample Literature and Particulars on 
Request. 



The Scientific Temperance federation! 

23 TRULL ST., BOSTON, MASS. 



ristmas and Other Decorations 








too. iSW-tSeUs, Big Bargain in BeJis, beautiful, size 4%x4%, 
sold by many stationers at 5c; our price only 2C. or 15c per 
dozen, postatre, each, 2c; per dozen 10c. 

No. P453. Green Tissue Paper Wreath with red Ball, -wreath 8 

inches in diameter, bell 3 V 2 inches in diameter, each tic ; post- 
age, 2c. 
N j. I77'S- Angel Girl, very beautiful, 5c each ; postage 2c. 

Fruit Ornaments 

No. I7 9 '4- Pears, 5c each; postage 2c. 

No. 17014P. Same as above -Plums, Jc; each postage 2c. 



Santa Oaus Mask. 

No. 1887. Santa Claus Pressed Paper flask, natural dull finish ; 
beautifully painted eyes and eyebrows, with long white 
wool beard, length of beard 15 inches ; 15c each ; postage 8c. 

No. 8086. Net Stockings with paper girls and boys assorted 
and tinsel, 13 inches long, each 5c ; postage 2c. 

No. 1806. Cornucopias, made of netting with figures and tin- 
sel. 9 inches ; very fine, assorted designs, each 5c ; postage lc. 

No. 8444. Tissue Paper Bells, very beautiful. 6% inches in di- 
meter, red or red, white and blue, each 5c postage lc. 

No. 771. Chicks, yellow Cotton, 15c each; postage lc. 

No. 1908. Pearl Fastening Wire, assorted colors, per bunch 
ic; postage 2c. 




TINSEL GARLAND. 





ROSE WINDING- GARLANDS. 
10 fnet lone. 

No. 18085. Crimped Silver Lametta, or Angel Hair, per envelope 
3c; postage lc. 

No, 18086. Same, Crimped Gold per envelope 4c ; postage lc. 

No. 18250. Artifical Snow, for Christmas Trees, per box 5c; 
postage 4c. 

Rose Garlands, Large beautiful roses 4 inches in diameter on 
string 5 feet long, and can be cut apart and used in many 
ways; very beautiful ; price 25c ; postage 3c. 

I No. 1 Garland. Expanding capacity, length 3 ft, diameter 
about Wz inches, usual price 2c; our price, 15c. per dozen ; post< 
age 3c. 

No. 2 Garland. Expanding capacity, 12 ft ; diameter about 2% 
inches, red or green, usual price, ibe; our wholesale price sc; 
postage 2C. 

No. 3 Garland. Verv beautiful, expanding capacity 14 ft., 
beautiful shaped border, from which are suspended CO paper 
bells cut from flat tissue paper, alternating colors red and 
green ; price for all only 8c; postage 2c. 



65 ' *?;' 



TINSEL, GARLAND. Per roll of ten yards, SOc. Very 

fine. 

TINSEL, GARLANDS. Made of the sam« material 
as Tinsel Festooning. Nothing finer for decorating 
trees, costumes, etc. They sparkle like diamonds. 16 
cents a dozen. 

No. M261. The 
Christmas Stock- 
ing. Made of wo- 
ven fabric, simitar 
to Tarlatan, but 
much stronger. 
Has cord for hang- 
ing, also one for 
fastening. A pres- 
entation card Is 
attached. This Is a 
new and excep- 
tionally unique de- 
vice for holding 
candy, and Is sure 
to delight the lit- 
tle folks beyond 
measure. 2.1c. doz., 
*1.T5 per 100. post- 
paid. Samples. 3c. 
very dainty and artistic. 




"si20. .No. T258. 
rornucoplfl No. S120. 

and gold. Very choice, 
pie, 3 cents. 
The Wind 




Mo. 512111. 

i : i !;rt !<•. Printed In quiet colors 

35 cents per dozen, $2.50 per 100, prepaid. Sara- 



'rne windmill iiox. -Maxes a most artistic etrect. This box Is a pro- 
nounced novelty and a complete departure In 'candy packagea Makes a 
most effective display and Is an attractive and unique method of packing 
candles. Half pound size, 35 cents per dozen, 82.50 per 100. prepaid. Sample, 
3 cents. 

No. T250. Japanese Poke. A fancy Imported paper bag made of Jap- 
nese crepe paper, highly decorated and lined with white. Very strong 
nd pretty. Holds a half pound. 20 cents a dozen, 91.50 per 100, prepaid, 
iample, 3 cc 





Christmas Candles. These ate of a 
high grade of steric wax, full standard 
sizes, cai>le pattern, bright assorted col- 
ors, perfect finish, and put up in hand- 
some box containing 48 candles. 

Onlyi)c. per box: postage, 10c. 

Extra large candles per box of 18. 9cts. j 
postage, 70c. 



No. 18215. Tinsel Fans, with center piece, 5 inches in diame- 
ter, very tine; each 5c; postage lc. 

No. 18230 Silver Tinsel Stars, with Silver star in center, 5 ins. 
extra tine, each 5c. postage lc. 1 

No. P461 Tissue Paper Balls, 6V2 inches in diameter, red, each 
6c ; postatre, 6c. 

No. P4431. Same, 12 inches in diameter, 9^ inches high, each 
10c j postage, 3c. 



Sectional Animals and Birds These boxes 
of sliced animals and biids make an attractive 
form of busy work. Each completed picture has 
the name of the animal or bird, thus possessing 
educational value, Per box, 15c. Weight, 7 ozs | 

Dissected Map of U.S.- The best dissected 

map of U. S- .Lithographed, cut on State lines, 

flats of nations on back. Size 12x20, heavy pulp 

board. Beautiful box. Price. 25 cts. Weight, 15 

ounces. Size 15x22, on wood, 50c. Weight, 24 ozs. 

Educational Clock Dials.— Used for teach- 

'in«' time. Two sizes, 12-inch dial for teacher, 4^ 

inch for pupils. Hands readily moved but will 

remain wherever placed. Strong and durably 

mai.e Prices, each, postpaid : Pupil's size, 10c. 

Large' size for teacher, 85c. ; weig'ts, 8 and 15 ozs. 

Drawing Stencils for our Little Artist.— 

Four different sets at the uniform price of 25c. 

per box. Weight 7 ounces. Each box contains 

'»0stencils4MX6J^madeof strongleatherpaper. 

Subjects appeal strongly to little children. 




Addreis all orders to 



THE J. H. SHULTS CO., MANISTEE, MICH. 






THE TEACHER'S JOURNAL 

A WIM-A-WAKE PERIODICAL 

FOR 

PROGRESSIVE TEACHERS 

In matters of education, Indiana is in the lime light. 
The new vocational law is revolutionary in its effects and 
the results will be valuable to all grades of progressive 
teachers no matter where they teach. 

The Teacher's Journal conl ains other features of interest 
to teachers everywhere. It is practical and has to do with 
the problems of all teachers. 



SPECIAL OFFER 



Teacher's Journal ( 1 year | 
Pathfinder (weekly) 

Both Teacher's Journal and 
Pathfinder 



$1.00 
l.OO 



$1.35 



This is the most helpful combination ever offered teach- 
ers. We take subscriptions for all magazines at a very 
low rate. If you are interested write tor special prices. 
Address, 

TEACHER'S JOURNAL CO. 

MARION. INDIANA 

Cheap and Excellent Books 

BONO KNAPSACK, 142 Bongs for schools, 10c; $1 
dozen. 

"PAT'S P T -_, 124 pp. All the music to the KNAP- 
SACK songs. Sweetest, sanest, jolliest song 
book made. Cloth, 60c. 

PRIMER OF PEDAGOGY, by Prof. D. Putnam. 
Just what the times demand. Cloth 122 pp. 25c. 

MANUAL OP ORTHOGRAPHY AND ELEMEN- 
TARY SOUNDS, by Henry R. Pattenglll. Up-to- 
date. 104 pp., 25c. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OP U. S., by W. C. Hewitt. 
118 pp., complete, new, cloth, 25c; $2.40 per doz. 

MEMORY GEMS, 1000 GRADED SELECTIONS, by 
H. R. Pattenglll. 143 pp., linen morocco finish, 
26c. 

MORNING EXERCISES AND SCHOOL RECREA- 
TIONS, by C. W. Mickens. New, 267 pp., 50c. 

PRIMARY SPEAKER FOR FIRST AND SECOND 
GRADES, by Mary L. Davenport. Fresh, 
•legant. 132 pp., 26c. 

OLD GLORY SPEAKER, containing 80 of the 
choicest patriotic pieces written. 126 pp., 25c. 

HINTS FROM SQUINTS. 144 pp. Hints comical, 
hints quizzical, hints pedagogical, hints ethical, 
hints miscellaneous. Cloth, 60c. 

SPECIAL DAY EXERCISES, 165 pp., 26c. 

Best medicine ever to cure that "tired feeling" 
in school. 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL. Lansing, Mich. 



MAKE YOUR READING COUNT 



Read This Course 

(Thirty-sixth C. L. S. C. Year.) 

Rambles and Studies in Greece. By J. P. Mahaffy, 
C. V. O., author of "Social Life in Greece," 
"History of Greek Literature," etc $1.50 

The Message of Greek Art. By Dr. H. H. Pow- 
ers, Pres. Bureau of University Travel, 125 
illustrations 2.00 

Studies in the Poetry of Italy: Roman and 
Italian. By Frank Justus Miller, University of 
Chicago, and Oscar Kuhns, Wesleyan University 1.50 

The Meaning of Evolution. By Samuel C. 
Schmucker, West Chester State Normal School, 
Pennsylvania 1.50 

"The Chautauquan : A Weekly Newsmagazine." Il- 
lustrated. Containing: 

Where Civilizations Meet: Round About Con- 
stantinople. By Frank Chapin Bray, Managing 
Editor Chautauqua Press. 

Current Events: "Highways and Byways" 
news perspective 2.00 

Total $8.50 

All Four Books (cloth bound) and the Maga- 
zine $5.00» 

♦Remit 30 cents extra for postage or prepaid express 
"Collect" charges are more. 

Easy for Anybody, Worth While 
for Everybody 

If in doubt, send stamp for handbook of testimonials 
Address 

CHAUTAUQUA INSTITUTION 

Chautauqua, New York 



DON'T READ AT RANDOM 



Are You Interested In 

THE SCHOOLS OF HAWAII? 

The Hawaiian Islands (formerly Sandwich Is- 
lands) have been since 18(18 an aulonomousTVrritory 
of the United States. The School System is thoroly 
modern thruout. from the numerous kindergartens 
to the Territorial College of Hawaii. 

For any information regarding- the schools or 
educational work of Hawaii, address 

HAWAII EDUCATIONAL REVIEW 

HONOLULU. - T. H. 



NURSfRY X KINDERGARTEN STORIES 

Selections from distinguished authors with juvenile poems 
and songs included. Every story and poem illustrated. 3S0 
large pages, price $1.00. The Southern Teacher, which is 
a real live, up-to-date Educational Journal with departments 
in Current Events, Questions and Answers, etc., price $1.00, 
and Nursery and Kindergarten Stories both for only $1.50. 
Address 

THE SOUTHERN TEACHER 



COLLEGE STREET 



GRAYSON, KY. 





"STORY TELLING IN THE KINDERGARTEN" 



The Educational Value of Stories is Fully Appreciated by Kindergartners Everywhere. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



THE NEW YORK 

KINDERGARTEN 

ASSOCIATION 



WILL OPEN A 



Kindergarten Training School 

OCTOBER 1st, 1914 



UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

MISS LAURA FISHER 

NORMAL COURSE, TWO YEARS 

OBSERVATION AND PRACTICE TEACHING IN 

THE KINDERGARTENS OF THE ASSOCIATION 

For Circulars address 

524 W. 42nd St., New York City 



Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 23rd Year 

froebel School of Kindergarten 

"Wnrrrml C1a«s«»p<s boston, mass 
normal i»idsseb PIEBCE building 

COPLEY SQ. 

Prepares for Kindergarten, Primary and 
Playground positions. Theory and practice 
strong. Special work under best educators. 
Graduates are holding valuable positions. 
Circulars. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

80HTEN9B M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

**• Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

fwo Tsars' Coarse. Terms, $100 per year 

Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 
SrarNGFIEtD— LONOMEADOW, MASS. 



Kindergarten Training School 

Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association 
Two Years' Course. For particulars ad 
dress 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER 
86 Delaware Avenue - Buffalo, N. Y 



■THE- 



Teachers College 

OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for all grades 
of teaching. Two. Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This College specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary and Intermediate 
Grade Teaching. 
Snecial classes in Public School Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art. and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

MRS. ELIZA A. BLAKER, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

TWO YEARS' COURSE 

Instruction in Primary Methods. 

STUDENTS' RESIDENCE. 

SARA K. LIPPINCOTT \ B . . . 
SUSAN C. BAKER j Principals 

2108 Conn. Ave Washington, D. C. 



Mice Harf'c TRAINING SCHOOL 

l?SlJJ 1 101 L J ForKiodergartners 
3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Practice Kinder- 
gartens. Opens October 1st. 1914. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 

The Pines. Rutledge. Pa. 



•CLEVELAND- 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kinderg-arten Colleg-e 

2050 East 06th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 
Founded in 1894. 

Regular course of three years prepares 
for Kindergaiten and Primary posi- 
tions. Lectures in Montessori methods 
with observation in Montessori School. 
Address, 

MISS NETTA FARRIS, Principal 




Law troebel Kindergarten 
Training School and School 
of Culture for Young Ladies 

Forty Practice Schools. 
Medical Supervision. 
Certificate and Diploma 
Courses. 
2313 ASHLAND AVE. 
TOLEDO, OHIO 



Ethical Culture School 

Central Park West and 03d 8t 



mal Training Department 

Prof. Patty S. Hill, of Teachers College, 
Educational Advisor and Instructor 
in Kindergarten Theory. 
Two years' Kindergarten course. Af- 
ternoon courses in Primary me'hods 
for Kindergarten teachers, leading to a 
Kindergarten-Primary diploma 
For particulars address 

CATHERINE J. TRACY 

Principal 



The NEWYORK KINDERGARTEN 
ASSOCIATION 



Offers unusual advantages for Graduate 

Study. 

SEASON OF 1914-1915 

PUBLIC LECTURES 

Subject 

MOTHERS' MEETINGS AND VISITING 

Miss Fanciebelle Curtis, Director of Public School 
Kindergartens. 

GRADUATE COURSES 

DANTE'S DIVINE COMEDY 
GAMES KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

KINDERGARTEN GIFTS PROGRAM MAKING 

LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN 
TUITION FREE Apply for Prospectus to 

MISS LAURA FISHER 

Director Department of GRADUATE STUDY 
534 Jl'. 42nd Street, NEW YORK CITY 



Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
Training School 

Child Welfare course one year. 
Regular course two years. 
Pull course three years. 
Address 

LUCY WHEELOCK 

100 Riverway, BOSTON 



Pratt Institute 

School of Kindergarten Training 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Normal Courses for Kindergarten, two 
years. Special Courses for Teichers 
and Mothers. Plays with Kindergar- 
ten and Supplementary Materials. 
Kindergarten Games. Outdoor Sports. 
Tennis and Swimming. Gardening. 
Nature Study. Music, Voice and Pi- 
ano. Literature for Children. Sto- 
ry-telling. Educational Subjects. Psy- 
chology and Child Study. Practice 
Teaching and Observation in the Kin- 
dergartens of Greater New York 

ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Fall term opens Sept. 23, 1914 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



THE NEW YORK 

KINDERGARTEN 

ASSOCIATION 

WILL OPEN A 

Kindergarten Training School 

OCTOBER 1st, 1914 
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

MISS LAURA FISHER 

NORMAL COURSE, TWO YEARS 

OBSERVATION AND PRACTICE TEACHING IN 

THE KINDERGARTENS OF THE ASSOCIATION 

For Circulars address 

524 W. 42nd St., New York City 



Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 23rd Year 

froebel School of Kindergarten 

Normal Classes PIEBCE building 

COPLEY SQ. 

Prepares for Kindergarten, Primary and 
Playground positions. Theory and practice 
strong. Special work under best educators. 
Graduates are holding valuable positions. 
Circulars. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

BORTBNSK M. ORCUTT. Principal of 

"*• Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

Tw» Tmhw' Conra*. Terms, V 10» per year. 
Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

SPRrNGFIBLD— LONGMEADOW, MASS. 



Kindergarten Training School 

Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association. 
Two Years' Course. For particulars ad- 
dress 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER 
86 Delaware Avenue - Buffalo, N. Y. 




OF INDIANAPOLIS 



Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for all prudes 
of teaching. Two, Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This Col'ege specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary and Intermediate 
Grade Teaching. 
Special classes in Public School Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art. and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

. ELIZA A. BLAKER, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



Ethical Culture School 

Central Park West and 68d St. 

Kindergarten and Primary Nor- 
mal Training Department 

Prof. Patty S. Hill, of Teachers College, 
Educational Advisor and Instructor 
in Kindergarten Theory. 
Two years' Kindergarten course. Af- 
ternoon courses in Primary methods 
for Kindergarten teachers, leading to a 
Kindergarten-Primary diploma 
For particulars address 



CATHERINE J. 

Principal 



TRACY 



COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 



TWO YEARS' COURSE 

Instruction in Primary Methods. 

STUDENTS' RESIDENCE. 

SARA K. LIPPINCOTT)p . , 

SUSAN C. BAKER principals 



2108 Conn. Ave 



Washington, D. C. 



Miss Hart's 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

For Kindergartners 
3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Practice Kinder- 
gartens. Opens October 1st. 1914. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 

The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 



■CLEVELAND. 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kinderg-arten Colleg-e 

2050 East 96th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 
Founded in 1804. 

Regular course of three years prepares 
for Kindergarten and Primary posi- 
tions. Lectures in Montessori methods 
with observation in Montessori School. 
Address, 

MISS NETTA FARRIS, Principal 




Law froebel Kindergarten 
Training School and School 
of Culture for Young Ladies 

Forty Practice Schools. 
Medical Supervision. 
Certificate and Diploma 
Courses. 
2313 ASHLAND AVE. 
TOLEDO, OHIO 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 

COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

2108 CONNECTICUT AVE. 

Kindergarten and Primary Courses 
A limited number of resident pupils 

Connecticut Froebel Normal 

Kindergarten Primary Training School 

Academic, kindergarten , primarv and 
playground courses, Boarding and day 
school. Extensive facilities for thor- 
ough and quick work. 14th year. Book- 
lets. State certificates. Address. 

MARY C. MILLS, Principal. 

181 West avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
Training School 

Child Welfare course one year. 
Regular course two years. 
Full course three years. 
Address 

LUCY WHEELOCK 

1C0 Riverway, EOSTON 



Pratt Institute 

School of Kindergarten Training 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Normal Courses for Kindergarten, two 
years. Special Courses for Teichers 
and Mothers. Plays with Kindergar- 
ten and Supplementary Ma te rial s . 
Kindergarten Games. Outdoor Sports. 
Tennis and Swimming. Gardening. 
Natur.- Study. Music, Voice and Pi- 
ano. Literature for Children. Sto- 
ry-telling. Educational Subjects. Psy- 
chology and Child Study. Practice 
Teaching Lnd Observation in the Kin- 
dergartens of Greater New York 

ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Fall term opens Sept 23, 1914 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



THE NEW YORK 

KINDERGARTEN 

ASSOCIATION 



WILL OPEN A 



Kindergarten Training School 

OCTOBER 1st, 1914 



UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

MISS LAURA FISHER 

NORMAL COURSE, TWO YEARS 

OBSERVATION AND PRACTICE TEACHING IN 

THE KINDERGARTENS OF THE ASSOCIATION 

For Circulars address 

524 W. 42nd St., New York City 



■THE- 



Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 



23rd Year 



froebel School of Kindergarten 

■Wnrmnl f!lncs«»p«j boston, mass 

COPLEY SQ. 

Prepares for Kindergarten, Primary and 
Playground positions. Theory and practice 
strong. Special work under best educators. 
Graduates are holding valuable positions. 
Circulars. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, addreBa 

aORTBNSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

**• Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

riro Yearn' Coarse. Terms, $100 per year 

Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL. 
SPUrNGFIBtD— LONGMEADOW. MASS. 



Kindergarten Training School 

Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association 
Two Years' Course. For particulars ad- 
dress 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER 
86 Delaware Avenue - Buffalo, N. Y 



Teachers College 

OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for all grades 
of teaching. Two, Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This College specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary and Intermediate 
Grade Teaching. 
Special classes in Public School Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art. and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

MRS. ELIZA A. BLAKER, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

TWO YEARS' COURSE 

Instruction in Primary Methods. 

STUDENTS' RESIDENCE. 

SARA K. LIPPINCOTTf p . „. . 
SUSAN C. BAKER c Principals 



2108 Conn. Ave 



Washington, D. C. 



Mice HarPc^AliilNG SCHOOL 

I71IJJ IIQIl J ForKindergartners 
3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Practice Kinder- 
gartens. Opens October 1st. 1914. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 

The Pines. Rutledge, Pa. 



•CLEVELAND. 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kinderg-arten Colleg-e 

2050 East 06th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 
Founded in 1894. 

Regular course of three years prepares 
for Kindergarten and Primary posi- 
tions. Lectures in Montessori methods 
with observation in Montessori School. 
Address, 

MISS NETTA FARRIS, Principal 




Law Froebel Kindergarten 
Training School and School 
of Culture for Young Ladies 

Forty Practice Schools. 
Medical Supervision. 
Certificate and Diploma 
Courses. 
2313 ASHLAND AVE. 
TOLEDO, OHIO 



Ethical Culture School 

Central Park West and rt3d 8t 

Kindergarten and Primary Nor- 
mal Training Department 

Prof. Patty S. Hill, of Teachers College. 
Educational Advisor and Instructor 
in Kindergarten Theory. 
Two years' Kindergarten course. Af- 
ternoon courses in Primary methods 
for Kindergarten teachers, leading to a 
Kindergarten-Primary diploma 
For particulars address 

CATHERINE J. TRACY 

Principal 



The NEW YORK KINDERGARTEN 
ASSOCIATION 



Offers unusual advantages for Graduate 

Study. 

SEASON OF 1914-1915 

PUBLIC LECTURES 

Subject 

MOTHERS' MEETINGS AND VISITING 

Miss Fanniebelle Curtis, Director of Public School 
Kindergartens. 

GRADUATE COURSES 

DANTE'S DIVINE COMEDY 
GAMES KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

KINDERGARTEN GIFTS PROGRAM MAKING 

LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN 
TUITION FREE Apply for Prospectus to 

WilSS LAURA FISHER 

Director Department of GRADUATE STUDY 
524 II'. 42nd Street, NEW Y0HK CITY 



Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
Training School 

Child Welfare course one year. 
Regular course two years. 
Full course three years. 
Address 

LUCY WHEELOCK 

100 Riverway, BOSTON 



Pratt Institute 

School of Kindergarten Training 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Normal Courses for Kindergarten, two 
years. Special Courses for Teachers 
and Mothers. Plays with Kindergar- 
ten and Supplementary Materials. 
Kindergarten Games. Outdoor Sports. 
Tennis and Swimming. Gardening. 
Nature Study. Music, Voice and Pi- 
ano. Literature for Children. Sto- 
ry-telling. Educational Subjects. Psy- 
chology and Child Study. Practice 
Teaching and Observation in the Kin- 
dergartens of Greater New York 

ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Fall term opens Sept. 23, 1914 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



THE NEW YORK 

KINDERGARTEN 

ASSOCIATION 

WILL OPEN A 

Kindergarten Training School 

OCTOBER 1st, 1914 

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

MISS LAURA FISHER 

NORMAL COURSE, TWO YEARS 

OBSERVATION AND PRACTICE TEACHING IN 

THE KINDERGARTENS OF THE ASSOCIATION 

For Circulars address 

524 W. 42nd St., New York City 



Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 23rd Year 

Froebel School of Kindergarten 

Wnrmnl fllqwp? BOSTON, MASS. 

■moniicu victaacs PIEBCE building 

COPLEY SQ. 

Prepares for Kindergarten, Primary and 
Playground positions. Theory and practice 
strong. Special work under best educators. 
Graduates are holding valuable positions. 
Circulars. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Eat* Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

HOHTBNSB M. ORCUTT. Principal of 

•*• Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 32 6 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

Iw» Yaan' Conn*. Terms, $1W per year. 
Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

SPBrNQFIHLD— LONOMEADOW, MASS. 



Kindergarten Training School 

Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association. 
Two Years' Course. For particulars ad- 
dress 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER 
86 Delaware Avenue - Buffalo, N. Y. 



■THE- 




OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited l>y State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for all grades 
of teaching. Two, Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This Col'ege specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary and Intermediate 
Grade Teaching. 
Special classes in Public iSchool Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art. and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

. ELIZA A. BLAKER, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 



TWO YEARS' COURSE 

Instruction in Primary Methods. 

STUDENTS' RESIDENCE. 

SARA K. LIPPINCOTT)- . . - 
SUSAN C. BAKER principals 



2108 Conn. Ave 



Washington, D. C. 



Miss Hart's 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

For Kindergartners 
3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Practice Kinder- 
gartens. Opens October 1st. 1914. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 

The Pines, Rutledge. Pa. 



■CLEVELAND- 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kinderg-arten Colleg-e 

2050 East 96th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 
Pounded in 1894. 

Regular course of three years prepares 
for Kindergarten and Primary posi- 
tions. Lectures in Montessori methods 
with observation in Montessori School. 
Address, 

MISS NETTA FARRIS. Principal 




Law Froefeel Kindergarten 
Training Schoo! and School 
of Culture for Young Ladies 

Forty Practice Schools. 
Medical Supervision. 
Certificate and Diploma 
Courses. 
2313 ASHLAND AVE. 
TOLEDO, OHIO 



finical Culture School 

Central Park West and 68d St. 

Kindergarten and Primary Nor- 
mal Training Department 

Prof. Patty S. Hill, of Teachers College, 
Educational Advisor and Instructor 
in Kindergarten Theory. 
Two years' Kindergarten course. Af- 
ternoon courses in Primary methods 
for Kindergarten teachers, leading to a 
Kindergarten-Primary diploma 
For particulars address 

CATHERINE J. TRACY 

Principal 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

COLUMBIA KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

2108 CONNECTICUT AVE. 

Kindergarten and Primary Courses 
A limited number of resident pupils 

Connecticut Froebel Normal 

Kindergarten Primary Training School 
Academic, kindergarten, prlmarv and 
playground courses, Boarding anS day 
school. Extensive facilities for thor- 
ough and quick work. 14th year. Book- 
lets. State certificates. Address. 

MARY C. MILLS, Principal. 

181 West avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
Training School 

Child Welfare course one year. 
Regular course two years. 
Full course three years. 
Address 

LUCY WHEELOCK 

1C0 Riverway, EOSTON 



Pratt Institute 

School of Kindergarten Training 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Normal Courses for Kindergarten, two 
years. Special Courses for Teachers 
and Mothers. Plays with Kindergar- 
ten and Supplementary Ma te rial s . 
Kindergarten Games. Outdoor Sports. 
Tennis and Swimming. Gardening. 
Natur.- Study. Music, Voice and Pi- 
ano. Literature for Children. Sto- 
ry-telling. Educational Subjects. Psy- 
chology and Child Study. Practice 
Teaching and Observation in the Kin- 
dergartens of Greater New York 

ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Fall term opens Sept 23, 1914 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



#^%'^%%^%'^^'V%'t^^%%Vt'V^.%V^*%Vt 



Class Rooms and 
Students' Residence 



GERTRUDE DOUSE, 

54 Scott St., Chicago. 



Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course (two years), 

and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for 

Home-making Course, non-professional (one year). 



t 



Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 
Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, M Scott St. 



NATIONAL 

KINDERGARTEN 

COLLEGE- — 

ELIZABETH HARRISON, President. 

SUMMER SCHOOLJune 1 4 to Aug. 6 

Kindergarten and Primary Methods. 
Playground Work. Model Demon- 
stration Schools. Credits Applied 
on Regular Courses. Resident 
Dormitory on College Grounds. 

Come to a school where instruc- 
tion received will have practical 
value in your fall work. 

For full information address 

Box 600, 2944 Michigan Boulevard, 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 

Kl NDERG ARTEN 

COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE 

Organized in 1SS1 as Chicago 
Free Kindergarten Association. 

Oldest kindergarten training 
school in Chicago. Located in Fine 
Arts Building, overlooking Lake 
Michigan. Regular two years' dip- 
loma course. Special courses open 
to teachers and mothers. Universi- 
ty instructors. University credits. 
Address 

EVA B. WHITMORE, Registrar. 

Room 706, 410 S. Michigan Avenue, 

CHICAGO 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 

Richmond, V? 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training In Theory and 
Practice, of Froebellan Ideals. Poet- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes (or 
Primary Teachers. 

LTTrT S. COLEMAN. Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Trea.8. 



Grand Rapids Kindergarten 
Training School 



:PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL: 



Certificate 

Diploma 

and 

Normal 

Courses 

New 
Quarters 

No. 508 
Foun- 
tain St. 



CLARA WHEELER, Principal 

EVERY KINDERGARTNER 

Who can read and play simple music 

correctly, can add to her usefulness 

and income. 

For particulars write to 




KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL MRS. ANNA HEUERMANN HAMILTON 

FULTON, MISSOURI 
Author of First Piano Lessonsat Home 

MISS HARRIET NIEL 

Successor to Miss LAURA FISHER 

Training School for Kindergartners 

Normal Course two years. Graduate 

qnd Special Courses. 
19 Marlborough st. Boston. Mass. 



6 1 6-622 So. Mich. Boul. Chicago 

(New Location Ovelooking Lake Michigan.) 

DIPLOMA COURSE 2 YEARS 

Post-Graduate, Primary and Play- 
ground Workers courses. Special 
courses by University Professors. In- 
cludes opi>ortunity to become familiar 
with Social Settlement Movement at 

Chicago Commons. 

For circulars and information address, 

BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER. Supt. 

Box SI, 616-622 South Michigan 

Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 



SUMMER SCHOOL 

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, UNI- 
VERSITY HEIGHTS, New York City 

JULY 1 TO AUG. 11, 1915 

DR. JAMES E. LOUGH, DIRECTOR. 

KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENT 

Courses offered: Kindergarten- 
Primary Supervision; Mother-Play; 
Program Making aud Method; 
Stories; Songs; Gaines; Gifts. 

For information address 
MISS HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 

Principal of Kindergarten Dept. 

New York University, .Washington 

Square, New York City. 

THE BABRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

Two years normal course accredited 
by State Board of Regents. 

SUMMER COURSES 

Pay be taken for Kindergarten Train- 
ing School and University credit. 
New York University, 
University Heights 

July 1, August 11 
For information address 

MISS HARRIETTE M.MILLS, Principal 

New York University 
Washington Square, New York City. 



Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

Ex-supervisor New York Kinder- 
gartens, and special lecturer on edu- 
cational topics, can be secured for a 
limited number of addresses to tea- 
chers or mothers, at points not too 
remote from New York City. Her 
subjects are the following: 

"What is meant by a Problem Pro- 
gram in the Kindergarten." 

"A Study of Children's Drawings." 

"Primitive Knowledge, or the A 
B C of things." 

"The School of Infancy," "Montes- 
sori Methods for Day Nurseries." 
Address 
500 Manhattan Ave., NEW YORK. 



The Monicssori Method in Rome j i 8 74-Kindergarten Normal Institutions-191 4 



If you arc Interested In my Investigation 
and study of the MONTESSOR1 METHOD 
IN ROME, and my practical adaptation of 
the Method to the American School for little 
children I will be glad to send Illustrated pam- 
phlet on request. Mrs. J Scott Anderson, 
Dlrcctrees. TorreBdale House. Training course 
begins October 1st. 
American Montessorl Teacher-Training School 
Torresdale. Philadelphia, Pa 



1516 Columbia Road, N. W. WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The eitixenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

&vip>*»> Plessner Pollock, Principal 

Teachers' Training- Course — Two Years 
'-> Timer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua— Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryland 




THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY- 



AGAZINE 



Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c, and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 




FEBRUARY, 1915. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is entered as 
second class matter at the Post-Office, Manistee, Mich. 
Subscription price $1.00 per annum. 

INDEX TO CONTENTS 

Page. 

The Developing Method. . . .Dr. W. N. Hailmann 172 
Report of Address given by 

Mrs. Johnson of Alabama 

at the Scudder School, . .Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 173 
General Suggestions for 

February Program, Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 174 

General Suggestions on the 

Problem Program, for 

February Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 177 

The Hygiene of the Indoor Kindergarten 180 

The Pioneer Frank Walcott Hutt 180 

The Hygiene of the Healthy, 

Normal Child in Kindergarten 181 

Herr Pessumehr's Return 

Home Susan Plessner Pollock 182 

The Cob-Fire Stories, Bertha I. C. Pitman 183 

Keeping a Record Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 184 

Picture Study, VI Mary E. Cotting 185 

Mother Play, The Joiner 

or Cabinet-Maker Bertha Johnston 186 

Kindergarten Appreciation 187 

The Committee of the Whole, Bertha Johnston 188 

Rural Schools and Hookworm Disease 189 

Hints and Suggestions for 

Rural Teachers Grace Dow 190 

Blackboard Suggestions for 

February Laura Rountree Smith 192 

Aims in Teaching 193 

Points in Story Telling Susan M. Kane 194 

Washington's Birthday Dr. Mary E. Law 194 

Preparation of Women for 

Twentieth Centuary Lif e . . . . M ary E. Woolley 195 

Squared Units for February F. O. Sanders 196 

Suggestions for February Calendar 196 

Ten Lectures on Psycho- 
logical Values-Forward 196 

Gems forMemorizing 200 

Suggestions for Construc- 
tion Work Miss Susan M. Frazier 201 

Kindergarten for the Blind 201 

February Drawing Miss Olive Wills 202 

Straight Line Cutting Carrie L. Wagner 203 

New Games, Plays and 

Pieces for Little People 204 

Book Notes 205-206-207 



VOL- XXVII— No. 6 

EDITORIAL NOTES 

Remember the annual meeting of the Department of 
Superintendence, N. E. A., at Cincinnati, Feb. 22-28. 
Full particulars of D. W. Springer, secretary, Ann 
Arbor, Mich. ; , 

It has been decided to postpone the annual meeting 
of the I. K. U. usually held in April, until August, at 
which time the Union will meet in connection with 
the N. E. A. at San Francisco. The first meeting will 
be held August 17, in connection with the Kindergar- 
ten Department of the N. E. A. The exercises for the 
other days will be briefly as follows: August 18, Dele- 
gates day; August 19, no session; August 20, has been 
designated by managers of the Panama Pacific Ex- 
position as International Kindergarten Union day. 
Three sessions will be held; August 21, National 
Education Association day, with one session of the 
I. K. U. ; August 20, will be observed as peace day. 

The annual meeting of the Department of Superin- 
tendence of the N. E. A., to be held at Cincinnati, 
February 22-28, promises to be unusually successful. 
For full particulars and railroad rates, write to 
Durand W. Springer, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

A Kindergarten Symposium will be held under the 
direction of the N. E. A. committee of the I. K. U., 
Miss Lucy Wheelock, chairman. "Correlation of the 
Kindergarten with the Public School System will be 
the general topic. The sub-topics are as follows: 

How may Kindergarten Practice be Improved? 

A. From standpoint of the superintendent. 

B. From standpoint of the primary teacher. 

C. From standpoint of the student of education. 

There will be ten-minute addresses by Mr. A. W. 
Edson, Associate Superintendent, New York; Prof. 
H. W. Holmes, Harvard University; Prof. Charles 
H. Judd, School of Education, Chicago; Mrs. Alice 
O'Grady Moulton, Chicago Normal School; Miss 
Annie E. Moore, Teachers College, New York; Mr. W. 
M. Davidson, Superintendent of Schools, Pittsburgh; 
Mr. C. D. Pearse, Milwaukee Normal School; Mr. R. J. 
Condon, Superintendent of Schools, Cincinnati. 



172 



THE KIXDERGARTEN-FRIMARY MAGAZIMU 




Dr. W. N. Hailmann. 

IV. 

The most comprehensive and all-sidedly satisfac- 
tory answer to our problem came from Froebel. 
Altho, in time, he precedes Diesterweg and Spencer, 
in his application of the principle he anticipates and 
includes them both. This pre-eminence he owes to his 
standpoint which is that of full, all-sided, practical 
humanity. Diesterweg limits himself to school-in- 
struction; Spencer, indeed, includes the entire edu- 
cational period, but approaches it almost wholly as 
concerned with the acquisition of knowledge, exclud- 
ing the deeper convictions of the spirit which are de- 
rived from inner contact with the unknowable. 

Froebel, on the other hand, rests his work primarily 
on these convictions as offering the only available, 
permanent groundwork, in no way subject to the stuff- 
ings of science which, indeed, may approach the un- 
knowable, but can no more take its place than it can 
reveal its mysteries. To Froebel, therefore, education 
is primarily and in every phase of it intensely re- 
ligious, involving constant reference in all that is 
done to the establishment of a life of service and un- 
ceasing spiritual self-improvement. With regard to 
this all else — physical, intellectual and esthetic train- 
ing, the acquisition of knowledge and skill, of 
appreciation and insight — is tool of the spirit, and 
because of this in no way slighted but rather en- 
hanced in value and scope. 

In all proximate aims and every device of method, 
he bases his work on a thoughtful study of human 
nature in the gradual unfolding of its individual, 
social and generic essence and destiny. True to his 
principle that outer individuality and diversity are 
the expression of inner unity, he fosters and cultivates 
in individual life the tendency for social introordi- 
nation and leads it to the heights where the indivi- 
dual may see himself as a conscious pulse in the life 
of humanity, of "the Man writ large," whose destiny 
lies in the perfection of the divine ideal. Mindful of 
the fact that in all life the higher rests on the lower, 
b.-e bestows eager and conscientious care on the low- 
liest phases of the work; and equally mindful of the 
fact that the lower derives its value from the higher 
possibilities it implies, he unremittingly directs all 
streams towards higher and highest life. 

In the bosom of the family the child is received. 
Here the father's "light" and the mother's "love" 
are to guide him in gaining individual strength and 
kindly self-assertion, are to enable him to find and to 
possess himself, unobtrusively yet consciously ; as a 
drawing personality. Kindergarten and school are to 
teach him the helpful use of these qualities and 
powers in the widening purposes of social groups, to 
lift him upon higher planes of rational self-devotion 
to common purpose, so that in due time he may more 



or less clearly reach the lofty self-denial that "fills 
v. ith heavenly peace the soul at one with humanity 
and with God." 

Froebel's intensely religious sense talks into his 
service physiology, psychology, history, science in all 
its interests. He avails himelf eagerly of wii'atevei 
light and help they may afford in his momentous 
work. Hence, in all that pertains thereto, he is per- 
sistently scientific. Free from prejudice, free from 
"idols of tribe, den, market and theater," he seehs 
and tests all knowledge in actual, systematic, 
methodical contact with the world and with life. 

Knowledge — wide and accurate — is, indeed, indis- 
pensable in order to ensure the world-mastership in- 
volved in man's destiny, but Froebel demands for his 
pupil in gathering such knowledge, direct contact 
with nature and life, direct personal experience and 
experiment. He is opposed to all proxydom and 
vicariousness; he will not be satisfied with second- 
hand men and women; each one must stand on his 
own feet and live out his own self. 

Again, he would make education practical, 
dynamic, at every tep. In accordance with his 
pregnant formula, "From life, thru life, to life" — i. e. 
from living experience, thru living thought, to living 
action — his education would test the value of every 
income of knowledge in expression, in some sort of 
corresponding outward doing, individual and social. 
His measure of the value of knowledge to the learner 
is its actual effectiveness in the learner's life. Know- 
ledge must increase and widen conscious power, and 
this it can do only in related action under suitable 
stimulus and judicious guidance. He wants not less 
knowledge but rather more, and all sought with a 
living purpose on the part of the learner. No subject 
is to be taken up arbitrarily or forced upon the chil- 
dren; they should want it and demand it for their 
own purposes. 

The very destiny of created beings lies in self-ex- 
pressicn. Hence the value in the unfolding life of the 
children, of play and manual activity, of song and 
spontaneous speech, of artistic doing, of consciously 
directed spontaneous conduct. Froebel's education 
finds its gravitating center in self-expression, in 
action; it judges the child and man less by what he 
may have or know, but rather by what he may be or 
do. It learns indeed by doing, but passes beyond the 
pernicious inner isolation of this formula and would 
have us learn in order to do. 

Froebel is distinctly opposed to blind following of 
his practice in his own efforts to live up to his prin- 
ciples, but would have us hold fast the spirit of his 
work in ever clearer and more effective adjustment 
to the needs and the light of the hour. Thus educa- 
tional practice in the hands of he followers of his 
ideal would remain forever new; its today would ever 
be a prophecy of a brighter and clearer tomorrow. 

A few of his own utterances will reveal more fully 
the spirit that animates his educational practice in 
which he ever sought "to aid the complete develop- 
ment of the child from within." For this, he holds, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



m 



"there is but one law under which all things develop 
and perfect themselves and according to which every 
activity in man becomes manifest as something 
germinating, as an assimilation and elaboration." 
"The law of the evolution of nature must guide us in 
finding the law of the evolution of man; and this law 
must then become the law of education." "Every 
human being passes thru the entire former develop- 
ment of the human race; else he could not understand 
his world as it came to be what it is. However, he 
should not be this in dead imitation, but in the living 
way of self-active and freely active development and 
elaboration." "Education is the encouragement and 
aid of natural development as it is manifest in free 
self-activity." "Education should follow the steps in 
the development of man and offer to him only what 
he can bear, understand and assimilate and what at 
the same time may become a ladder to the next higher 
step." "On every stage, man should have no other 
aim than to be wholly what that stage demands; then, 
every following stage will come forth as a new shoot 
from a healthy bud." "The world of nature and of 
man can be apprehended only by personal experience. 
The pupil must be enabled to find his way consciously 
in his outer world." "The necessary general formula 
of instruction is: Do this and see what follows from 
your doing and what it teaches you." "Let the 
teachers not lose sight of this truth. It is needful 
always and at the sanfe time that they give and 
take, that they lead and follow, that they act and let 
act." "Instruction and self-activity, apprehension and 
representation are ever one." 



REPORT OF ADDRESS GIVEN BY MRS. JOHNSON 
OP ALABAMA AT THE SCUDDER 
SCHOOL N. Y. 
Jenny B. Merrill, Pd D. 
Note. Mrs. Johnson's original methods in her own 
school have attracted the attention of leading edu- 
cators north as well as south. Her methods empha- 
size the principles of the kindergarten. She gives 
greater freedom and pays more attention to individual 
initiative than usual. Her methods fall in line with 
the problem program. 

Mrs. Johnson calls her work "Organic education." 
She said in her address "Organic education means a 
sound body, a developed mind and a sweetness and 
sincerity of spirit. It matters not how much know- 
ledge a school may give, how informational it may 
be, a school is not educational if it is not organic. 

Education at present generally means book know- 
ledge. It should mean more. It must be not only 
mental but also physical. We must be able to execute 
what we know to be really educated. 

There are two points of view of education: 

1. From the point of view of the doer. 

2. From the point of view of the thing done. 
Education is not alone preparation for life but it is 

life itself, therefore the process should be a life-giving 
one— it should be organic. 
The child is a reacting organism, 



Organic education should provide a healthy environ- 
ment for this reaction. 

The test of the environment is the reaction of 
the child. 

Teachers' sssociations rarely discuss the needs or 
demands of the child, as "What are the requirements 
of a child of twelve?" "What is the development of 
mind of a child ten years of age?" What they do dis- 
cuss is, "How much more can we jam into a child of 
ten?" or methods of teaching arithmetic, geography, 
etc., methods of teaching the subject, not of teaching 
a child. 

Organic education is not systematic, the minute it 
becomes so it is spoiled. 

It makes little difference as to what a child knows 
or what he can do, but what he is. 

There is a tendency for children to become ner- 
vous nowadays, therefore children who are unde- 
veloped because they are young, should not be 
bothered with books until they are ten years old. 

Why books? Because mothers want to show off! 
Why not teach the beauties of nature? Because such 
knowledge is not definite enough to be commercial- 
ized. 

The child's interest is in things, then why not give 
him things at first hand? 

Give a child time to think when you ask a question. 
Thinking takes time. 

It means experimenting and we in schools are not 
willing to wait. The tendency is to tell him or else 
mark him down! 

Children learn quickly the trick of memorizing 
anything whether they understand or not. Result — - 
when older they have lost the power to think. 

Children must have: 

1. Interest and creative work. 

2. Experience for many years then the senses. 
Why should our children grow round shouldered 

over books? Why should they take the burden of 
school home? Why should growing be a burden? 

The school must ask, what can I do to make this 
child's body better? To make his mind better? To 
help him morally? (Query. Will marks or working 
for promotion do these things?) 

A happy spirit must exist in school and it will if 
there is freedom and sincerity. 

Note. We are indebted for this report to Miss 
Estelle Torchheimer, tutor in psychology, Hunter 
College, N. Y. C. Attention is called to the unique 
course of popular lectures on "Applied Psychology" 
soon to be given by Miss Torchheimer at Hunter 
College during January, February and March. 



ABOUT RIGHT 

On his teacher's request that he give the class 
his ideas on the subject of "Bravery," little Johnny 
delivered himself of the following: 

"Some boys is brave because they always plays with 
little boys, and some boys is brave because their legs 
is too short to run away, but most boys is brave be- 
cause somebody's lookin'," 




GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR FEBRUARY PROGRAM 

By JENNi' B. MERRILL, Pd D. 



Former Supervisor of Public School Kindergartens, New York City: Special Lecturer on Educational 

Topics 




INTRODUCTION TO FEBRUARY. 

Children like mirrors reflect their environment. 
Children are naturally sympathetic and imitative. 
Keeping these fundamental truths concerning child 
nature in mind, we can so modify the environment in 
the kindergarten room from month to month, that it 
will be suggestive of those things we want the chil- 
dren to think about and ask about. 

Suppose, therefore, knowing that February is the 
birthday month of our two great national heroes, we 
obtain the most suggestive picture of each, and with- 
out saying a word hang such pictures conspicuously 
or place them upon easels, at the beginning of the 
month with a flag draped over each. If we have such 
pictures for permanent ones, they will not be as 
valuable as if placed for a time. The Japanese set us 
a good example in their custom of placing a few 
choice pictures according to season and removing 
them when the season or holiday passes. 

I should choose to have a picture of Washington on 
horseback, or having an interview with his mother 
or with his officers at the close of the war rather than 
a head. 

I should choose The Lincoln Family, or Lincoln 
Freeing the Slaves, or a copy of some noted monu- 
ment of either president. 

I should expect the children to ask a few questions 
about each picture when it first greets them. 

I should answer them briefly, saying, perhaps, to 
the question, "Who is it?" This is President Wash- 
ington. This is President Lincoln. .President 
Washington and President Lincoln were very good 
and kind men, so we want to know them. They loved 
our flag, too, so you see, I have draped it around their 
pictures. 

February is their birthday month so we will keep 
them with us all this month. 

Will you look at all the pictures at home and see 
if you have any of President Washington or of 
President Lincoln? I want you to tell us about them 
when their birthdays come. See if you can find out 
which days on the calendar are their birthdays. 

As soon as you find out, I will let you mount a 
little flag right on each day. 

To divert attention and ease the mind at this point, 
I might ask, if some child did not himself volunteer, 
what month is your birthday and yours and yours? 
Children love to tell. Now listen, children, I want to 
tell you a story. Once there was a dear little baby 
born on President Washington's birthday. His papa 
and mamma wanted him to grow up to be a good boy 
and a good man just as your papa and mamma want 
you to. So father said, "Let us name the baby, 



George Washington." "Yes," said mother, "I like that 
name very much." So the new little baby was named 
George Washington. I wonder if there is any child 
in our school named George. You see when President 
Washington was a little boy, his name was George. 
(Here let the children tell who they are named for. 
Children are always deeply interested in names.) 

I advise starting the ball rolling thus early in the 
month, not that I would dwell on the full history, but 
simply to create a sympathetic feeling, and start the 
children looking for pictures to fill a little picture 
gallery or scrap books, and to lead them to suggest 
other decorations for the room and other objects to 
make for these holidays. 

SONG. 

"My Country 'Tis of Thee." 

FIRST WEEK, (FEB. 1-5.) 

Consulting our calendar for 1915 we find February 
opens this year on Monday. It has exactly four 
school weeks. 

The first week, if there have been promotions and 
new admissions will be given mainly to the new 
groups. 

Use the older children as much as possible in 
making the new ones feel at home. I have often seen 
the kindergartner call a responsible little girl, place 
the new child's hand in hers saying, Mary, will you 
show Annie our toys? She may sit by you and will 
you take good care of her? 

Show her where to hang her coat and hat, and take 
hold of her hand when we go down stairs. She has 
never been to school before. Perhaps she would like 
to see a picture book. 

This feeling of responsibility will help the older 
child as well as the younger. The younger child feels 
less strange with another child than with the kinder- 
gartner. Of course like Miriam of old the kinder- 
gartner keeps watch at a distance for the responsi- 
bility of each individual child is hers — a new, fresh 
problem. 

Whether there are new children or not, let the first 
week's conversations return to the home. Review or 
teach new songs or finger plays connected with the 
home. 

As this month is the month to impress ideals be- 
gin again with the ideal home, continue the talks 
about ideal workers in the child's neighborhood, and 
expect very litle advance towards a grasp of the 
nation. It is too big a unit for the child. He can 
wave the flag and sing "My Country" and in this way 
sympathetic feelings will be associated with the 
month, that will make a foundation for next year and 
next. Do not attempt to overload the child's mind 
with thoughts beyond his years. 



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175 



Towards the end of the week take up the fireman 
as new children must at once learn the school fire- 
drill. Without doubt the fireman is one of the most 
attractive community helpers to a child of any large 
city. Invite the child who has a toy fire engine to 
bring it to kindergarten or look one up yourself. 
Find pictures of firemen at work. 

Take the children to visit an engine-house if one is 
near. At least walk to the fire-box where the signal 
is given. Draw ladders, horses, fireman's caps, the 
hose line; even the engine-pump may not be too diffi- 
cult. 

Let the children decide how to dramatize the 
story of the fireman. Impress how quickly the fire- 
man answers when called, how brave he must be, 
how strong. How even the horse's run to their places 
unless autos are already in use. Dwell upon what 
little children can do to prevent fires. This is not so 
dramatic but very necessary. 

Let them tell you, for most will have received home 
instructions about fires before coming to school. Add 
to these as necessary. 

What should a child do if his clothes catch fire? 
Play it by letting children lie down and roll a mat or 
heavy cloak around them. This acted illustration will 
not be forgotten when words might be. 

We mean to put all the pictures of brave men on 
our picture chart this month. Shall we put the fire- 
man? 

RHYTHMS. 

Many kindergartners use the varied active move- 
ments of the fireman as a rhythmic exercise. Such an 
exercise is described in "Games and Finger Plays for 
the Kindergarten" compiled by the N. Y. Public 
School Kindergarten Association as follows: 

Ring bell, slide pole, wind hose, load the wagon. 
Going to the fire — running. Unload, unroll hose, 
mount ladder, squirt water with s-sh-s-sh sound; use 
hatchet. 

Load, bell, return walking slowly. 

(See for a fire man's game with music Valentine 
and Claxton's song book, published by Milton Bradley 
Co.) 

HAND WORK. 

Lead children to tell what they would like to 
cut out or draw or mount, connected with the home 
during the first of the week, and connected with the 
fireman later. 

In cutting let the children practice cutting ladders 
and see who can make the longest. Count the rounds. 

Fasten two ladders together as firemen do some- 
times. (A long narrow piece of paper is folded 
lengthwise. Cut from the closed edges many 
parallel lines as possible. Show the children how to 
cut out every other piece. Then open and they find a 
ladder. If the kindergartner uses a large piece of 
paper and cuts several ladders while all observe, a 
few older children will see how to do it, and show 
those who are near them, the kindergartner helping 
the weakest. 

Children love to climb and they will consequently 
enjoy making ladders. Perhaps some can cut out men 



to climb or let the kindergartner prepare a quantity 
of paper men beforehand. 

If there is a doll's house, make a wooden ladder if 
possible and place it, when the game is played, against 
a window of the house. Borrow a real ladder from 
the janitor or go to the gymnasium several times and 
have climbing exercises. 

Find places in the room where it is allowable to 
climb. Have real climbing up a pole if there is one 
in the building. Have jumping exercises to learn to 
be quick when you hear the engine coming. 

GIFT WOKK. 

Outlining ladders with sticks. Let the children 
make them as long as they like. Before doing this, 
see if the children can think what you have in the 
closet to use in making a ladder. Give them what- 
ever they ask for and let them show how. If no one 
thinks of sticks, make one of sticks yourself. Some 
child will doubtless, outline a house and place a 
ladder. 

Encourage initiative as much as possible. The 
older children may be able to weave a ladder with 
splints. 

SECOND WEEK (FEB. 8-12.) 

During this week we are to work towards Lincoln's 
birthday and also towards St. Valentine's day which 
occurs on the Sunday following. The children may 
want to make a valentine for mother before that day. 

If there appears to be no knowledge of valentines, 
then leave this work until the 15th. By that time the 
children will have noticed valentines and be ready to 
talk about them and it will not be too late to make 
one. 

CONVERSATIONS. 

Who is ready to tell us whether there is a picture of 
President Lincoln at home? What is he doing in the 
picture? Find our picture. Tell me what you see in 
it. (If you are so fortunate as to have the Lincoln 
family, tell the children's names, and count them. 
What a large family! Find stories about them if you 
can.) 

Do not tell stories of Lincoln's childhood. Leave 
that for later years. Let the children think of him as 
a father. 

There is danger in dragging our great men from 
their adult dignity by presenting them as children. 
After the children have realized something of their 
greatness and goodness is the proper time to speak of 
their early history. 

A story of how kind President Lincoln was to ani- 
mals would not be out of place. Two or more are 
familiar. In the Kindergarten Magazine, Feb. 1909, 
Miss Johnston gave several. Young children are not 
ready to have the thought of poverty in childhood 
presented, but if there should be a log cabin, have it 
built and say President Lincoln lived in a house like 
this in the country, but when he was president he 
lived in the White House where President Wilson 
lives now. Have a picture of the White House. 

STORY. 

President Lincoln heard that some people were not 
kind to colored people. 



1H 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



He heard that they sold little colored children just 
like the man in the store sells dolls! He said he 
would not let them do it any more. Now all the 
colored people love President Lincoln very much. 
They always put a beautiful wreath of flowers on his 
monument for his birthday. 

Who can bring a flower this week for President 
Lincoln's picture? 

President Lincoln loved the colors and stars in our 
flag. What are they? I want you to make something 
pretty in red, white and blue to decorate our room. 
I want every one to help. What can it be? (Perhaps 
some one will think of chains.) 

Have the older children measure the strips on the 
squares and cut them. Make them a half inch wide 
and about four inches long. Alternate colors. 

When all have made a few links, let the children 
two by two fasten theirs together until all are joined. 

Make much of this joining. It is an interesting ex- 
ample of co-operative work. Measure the whole chain. 

Then let them find a place to festoon the united 
chain. (Do not follow children's suggestions for 
decoration unless they are good, but modify them and 
so raise their taste.) 

I think such simple stories and deeds preferable to 
history details. "An idea we love, tends to become 
an ideal," says one of our great students of child life, 
Prof. Earl Barnes. 

Our aim is simply to lead the children to love Presi- 
dent Lincoln, not to know history. 

Some kindergartners bring a colored doll into the 
kindergarten. This depends upon whether there are 
colored children. If there is time tell of the way 
colored people work in the South and gather cotton 
for us. They do not mind the sun as white people do. 
A long time ago they all lived in a very hot country 
called Africa where it is always summer time. 
(Little glimpses into other places gradually prepare 
the way for geography. Do not speak of this point to 
four year olds, but if the children are nearly six, they 
would understand.) 

If any child wears a Lincoln badge, or speaks of a 
Lincoln penny, notice it. 

Let children think how to make a badge. Show 
several. Choose. 

One morning hold a Lincoln cent in your closed 
hand. Describe it. I have something here in my 
hand which feels hard, and it is round like a circle. 
It has a good man's picture on one side. Call a child. 
Let him put his hands behind him, place the penny in 
it, and see if he can tell by touch what it is. Who can 
tell why we put President Lincoln's picture on our 
new pennies? 

Because we want every little boy and girl to see 
him often. Sometimes think when you have a Lincoln 
penny how kind President Lincoln was to colored 
people, and be sure to look at his kind face so that 
you will know him. 

RHYTHMS. 

Marching with the flag at the head of the line. 
Marching, each child carrying a smaller flag. 



Waving flag. 

Saluting the flag in front of Lincoln's picture. 
Marching single file, double file, by fours, under 
arches. 

THIRD WEEK, (FEB. 15, 1915.) 
CONVERSATIONS. 

Children come back after a holiday anxious to tell 
of their experiences. 

Listen for points of special interest. Give all an 
opportunity. 

If valentines are uppermost, do not refer to Lin- 
coln's birthday. 

Let children show their valentines. See what 
ideas they have about them. Ask who sent them? 
Sometimes it is a secret. Valentines come to tell us 
our friends love us and want us to be happy so they 
have hearts on them. 

Did you send any? Do you think we could make 
one today? Shall we play post them? Who will be 
our postman? 

Where will we put a letter box? 

I think it will be great fun to make valentines and 
post them too! Think what colors you want and to 
whom you will give your valentine. Suppose we send 
some to the children who were promoted. 

For a day or two play postman. Get the children to 
tell how. Teach the song of the postman. 

Fold his bag. Post letters. Give them out. 

Play read them. What does yours say? Postmen 
are very careful men. They must never lose one 
letter. 

Playing postman, will lead naturally to a talk about 
President Washington whose birthday is approach- 
ing. 

Have children fold envelopes, give them cancelled 
two cent stamps to mount. 

Whose picture is on this stamp? Why? 

Remind the children to bring other pictures of 
President Washington. 

If you have a mothers' meeting in time, ask who 
will volunteer to loan pictures. Increase the pictures 
day by day in the little picture gallery or in scrap 
books. On the 19th they should be ready to take 
home for the holiday comes on Monday. If there are 
few pictures suggest keeping the pages blank in case 
more are found, or possibly draw on them. 



Build monuments of largest blocks on the floor. 
Unite many boxes of either gift. Tell of the very 
high Washington mounment in the city of Washing- 
ton. See if any child can tell why we built such a 
high one for President Washington. See how high 
you can build one. 

Walk to a monument if convenient. Try to build 
like it on return. 

Try to build President Washington's home in Mt. 
Vernon having a picture for a model. 

GAMES AND RHYTHMS. 

Avoid soldier games! Continue practice on 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



177 



marches with flags and without. Touch flags and 
march under. 

Tell of President Washington's love of horses, — 
what a fine rider he was. 

Play horseback riding. Mount, ready, gallop, trot, 
walk, halt, etc. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

Mount pictures. 

Make a badge of a blue circle on a large white 
circle. Mount a canceled Washington stamp upon it. 
The badge may be shield-shaped or simply circular. 

Draw the flag free hand. 

Make a flag carefully by mounting several red 
strips upon an oblong sheet of white paper, having 
first mounted the blue field so that it will readily 
appear where the short red strips should be pasted. 

It is not as easy to reproduce the flag as one might 
think. How many stripes are short? 

Take more than one period to make the flag giving 
out only the white sheet and blue field at first. 

Let each stripe be laid carefully before pasting. Try 
for good proportions. 

FOURTH WEEK, FEB. 23-26. 

Give this week to nature. 

Secure a few twigs. Tell where they came from 
Name. We force them so that the children will be 
led gradually to thoughts of spring and watch outside 
for birds. 

Make much of taking care of these things. 

Have the children place them on the floor in the 
center of the ring every day. Tell what kind of 
twigs they are, remembering that children like 
names. 

Towards the end of the week test by saying, "Will 
Eddie bring our horse-chestnut buds to the ring this 
morning?" "Who can bring our lilac twigs." 

Talk of the bare tree near the school in the park, 
many in the woods. Tell of the melting snow. — 
Where does it go? Some of it goes down to the roots 
of the trees and helps to make something very nice 
for us to eat! Did any one ever hear of maple sugar? 

Draw trees. Hang on buckets. Use the second gift 
to build a maple sugar camp in the sand tray. 
Suspend the ball for the kettle to boil the sap. Collect 
the sap in the cylinder for a barrel. 

Let the cubes be the little huts, or use other build- 
ing blocks in addition to make shelters, for it is cold 
in February. 

Have a maple sugar party for the children if only 
a taste for each. 

Tell of lumber camps and floating logs if the en- 
vironment warrants. 

So close the month with nature. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

Cut logs of wood from brown paper. Make a wash 
of blue for water. 

Mount the logs and tell how they float. 

One thoughtful kindergartner sawed short logs from 
the Christmas tree and let the children see them 
float in a basin of water. If this is done before 



mounting the paper logs, the exercise will mean much 
more. 

Mount pictures of trees, lumber camps, saw-mills, 
if environment warrants. 

Cut out and draw the ax, the saw. Refer to carpen- 
ter who uses lumber. 

Cut pails to hang on the maple trees or make little 
buckets. Let the children experiment. Cut pretty 
shapes for maple sugar cakes. 

Draw twigs. Paint them. 

RHYTHMS, GAMES. 

Imitate chopping with, an ax, sawing, hammering, 
planing. Dramatize freely the maple sugar story and 
the lumberman's also if the children are responsive to 
these stories. If not review the games of the month, 
fireman, postman, rider, and the knights if their 
story has been told. Does not George Washington on 
horseback stand for as true a knight as the American 
child need know? 



GENERAL SUGGESTIONS ON THE PROBLEM 
PROGRAM FOR FEBRUARY 

Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

What are the problems that we face this month? 
They differ in each kindergarten to some extent and 
yet we may find others common to all. It may en- 
courage us to find the problems of others are not 
ours, but they may be in the future so let us face 
them together. 

In many kindergartens come the mid-winter pro- 
motions which seem to break into the continuity of 
the once established kindergarten year, but they have 
no terror for those who are planning to meet the 
child's problem rather than to forcefully carry for- 
ward subject matter preconceived and separate from 
conditions and environment. 

The forward look to promotion in January which 
we considered last month gives way this month to 
the actual parting. 

Parting is often a joyous time for the child what- 
ever it may be for the parent or parent-teacher. 

Childhood sees no lions in the way but is eager for 
new experiences, for changes, for more life. The kin- 
dergartner who enters into this joyous expectancy 
with the children will have her full reward. She will 
be likely to make more friends among her fellow 
teachers and thereby improve her opportunities to in- 
fluence the school. If she acts as if the little ones 
were losing their best friend in losing her rather than 
finding new ones, she may create the very condition 
she opposes in school life. 

I have in mind one of the sweetest, most genial, 
whole-souled kindergartners I have ever known or 
supervised. 

She was appointed in a school where the tones of 
teachers were so harsh and their manners so for- 
bidding that I trembled for her. She, on the contrary, 
never seemed to find it out. 

She beamed upon every one and her sunshine 
melted their frowns into smiles. She has never asked 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



for a transfer, has built up a large parents' club in 
the face of trying rules and regulations, and even 
when invited to accept a position in a more favorable 
locality clung to her own field. 

After promotions occasionally find it necessary to 
peep into the primary room, and when there, ask 
a few questions about John or Lucy or James. Ask to 
see some of the work. If it does not interfere with 
other duties or school regulations, appoint a day 
when the children may come back to the kindergar- 
ten room on their way home. This may be the means 
of preventing untimely visits. Do not have all 
communication with the kindergarten cease abruptly. 
Occasionally lend some interesting picture or nature 
material. Invite the primary class teacher to use 
your piano if there is an opportunity. Seek inter- 
changes of your own invention during the first half 
of the first school year. 

Another problem in February is absence growing 
partly out of promotions but more perhaps, from colds 
and other contagious diseases prevalent at this sea- 
son. 

Our magazine gave us last month the benefit of a 
report of the Committee on Hygiene to the I. K. U., a 
most able report which demands the close attention 
of every kindergartner who believes in the proverbial 
ounce of prevention. Many mothers hesitate to send 
such young children out in inclement weather, but if 
persuaded of the kindergartner's motherly appreci- 
ation of the need of care, if persuaded also of the 
value of regularity in the child's life, and if wise 
kindergarten discipline quiets the nervous child, 
mothers, possibly fathers, will make greater effort 
even in trying weather to bring the little ones and 
return for them on stormy days. 

In mothers' meetings topics of health should be dis- 
cussed, and the school doctor or nurse should be 
introduced if possible, to explain how colds and sick- 
ness may be averted. 

Another problem we all face in February is a short 
month with two holidays, almost three, if we count 
St. Valentine's Day. These holidays relate to historic 
events quite beyond the grasp of the child of five. 
The attempt to bring this history into the kindergar- 
ten has been severely criticized. It is said to take the 
freshness, the keen edge of interest away from the 
story of Washington and Lincoln when the age 
arrives suitable for their presentation. 

The kindergartner's judgment must be exercised 
with care, that she may lead the little ones to keep in 
sympathetic touch with the historic celebrations in 
the community and yet not force historic facts into 
their memory. 

Kindergartners who follow the mother-play pro- 
gram enjoy the knight games hut in these awful 
days of war, can we not pledge ourselves as kinder- 
gartners to make less and less of the soldier ideal? 

Kindergartners well versed in child study know 
that simple "acquaintance ideals" are the ones in 
force in early childhood. Later heroes of books rivet 
attention and furnish ideals. Forced fruit is not the 



best. Let us then be content with simple, homely 
stories of the brave and faithful ones in the child's 
home environment. Let us, as February re-com- 
mences the program on account of new comers, or 
even if it does not, re-visit the home in our conver- 
sations and review the ideal in the love and patience 
of father and mother, the kindness of big sisters and 
brothers, the devotion of grandma and grandpa, of 
Uncle Ned and Aunt Mary and Cousin John. Perhaps 
we can start afresh our family finger plays so 
familiar to all kindergartners and in so doing awaken 
family ideals that will grow with the years. 

If there appears to be little ideal family life at 
home, make it a problem to start it, or fan its flame in 
parents' meetings. 

Let us combine the community topics based on the 
busy men of the neighborhood, known to the child 
and let them stand as ideals of good workmen. 

The doctor who helps the sick, and who tells us 
how to keep well, the nurse who sometimes sits up 
all night to give us medicine, the policeman who 
watches our houses day and night, who even helps 
little children cross the street, and finds them if they 
are lost, the firemen who put out fires, the sailor who 
climbs the high mast, have we made these common 
folk mean heroes as we should? 

Let us start a picture gallery in one corner of the 
room for pictures of hard workers and brave men and 
women. We need not omit a brave dog and a noble 
looking horse. The farmer belongs in the group and 
the engineer. 

The children love engines, you know. Can we not 
start the notion that the icorker is to be looked up to 
from childhood rather than the soldier. 

It will be a problem, indeed, to do it; but the sol- 
dier has had his day, and if his sword is to be beaten 
into a plow share, is it not time to let him drop out 
of our ideals at least in childhood? 

Later when the historic sense has developed we may 
idealize him to some extent, and then show his new 
place as protector of nations, the man to prevent 
war, not to make it. 

Let us have Washington's home, and Washington's 
mother, let us have Lincoln writing a letter to make 
little colored children happy, in our picture gallery. 
Let us have St. Valentine and the active postman who 
brings us valentines and letters and pictures, the 
carpenter who builds houses and bridges and the 
blacksmith, with his strong arm who can even ham- 
mer iron. 

Be sure mother and father are not missing in the 
picture gallery. Have several family groups in ideal 
relations, one gathered to greet father, as he returns 
from work, one gathered at mother's knee listening to 
a story or in prayer, one where the new baby is the 
center of interest, one where the children are at 
play. Idealize family life 

In the public library of N. Y. C. a picture gallery of 
heroes is arranged every year and is open through 
February and March. 

Take even the little ones to see it but start your 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



179 



own as I have suggested with small pictures on 
charts, and if enough can be secured, have picture 
scrap books mounted by the children with pictures 
of good men, women and children who love to work 
and help each other. 

Enter President "Washington and Lincoln on their 
birthdays, and have a flag on the cover. 

If there is no public library or no collection of 
hero pictures in it, perhaps you are the very one to 
suggest the idea of having it. 

Perhaps there can be a school collection of such 
pictures, perhaps parents can be induced to loan 
pictures for it. Perhaps the kindergartner can be 
instrumental in making the month of February, one 
of ideals in her community. 

Many kindergartners are interested in settlements 
and are studying sociological problems. Be one of 
these to bless and broaden your own life and that of 
others. 



"We peace advocates claim that we have scored one 
victory. Nobody dares to admit that he had anything 
to do with bringing on the war. All the great pirates 
and murderers of former times, Alexander, Caesar, 
Bismarck, Napoleon, were proud that they had 
brought on war — it was a noble and glorious thing to 
do. But now those to blame do not dare admit it. 

"England did not begin it; Russia did not begin it; 
Austria says she did not begin it. We have been told 
lately that Belgium began it because she had colonies 
in Africa. It has been laid to the charge of British 
envy of German commerce. Whoever heard of an 
Englishman who ever envied anything? Of all their 
faults, envy is not one — smuggling is the one I object 
to most in an Englishman. But there is not envy in 
either an Englishman or an American — and it is right 
that there should not be. 

"So the war was a foundling left on the doorstep of 
civilization. It was an awful foundling. 

"The conditions bringing on the war were nurtured 
in the autocatic governments of Europe. The very 
worst government by the people — and you've had 
samples right here in Albany — is better in every way 
than the best government ever handed down 'from 
above.' Democratic control is the one thing that will 
save Europe. This cannot be enforced by arms; it is 
in the hearts of Ihe people. 

"Militarism is anarchism. Bernhardi, now so 
famous, said that law is only a makeshift; the only 
adjustment is war; the strong nation knows no power 
above. He did not consider public opinion and God. 

"The main way to remedy these evils is through 
education. Through the teachers the future is made. 
And as you can see from this war, in teaching, inter- 
national relations are just as important as local 
politics. I have been somewhat impatient during the 
last campaign at hearing some of my friends plac- 
ing the blame for conditions in the United States on 
Mr. Wilson's tariff policy. Mr. Wilson's tariff policy 
had no more to do with that than a fly on the wheel 
of an automobile has anything to do with its stopping. 



"The cause of the war was military efficiency. No 
nation can be such wirnour a large Dody of men bent 
on having war. It, then, soon nnds that it wants war. 
Where nobody is loaned noDody explodes. Where 
everybody is loaded somebody is sure to explode. 

"What are we going to get at the end of the war? 
First we shall get exhaustion. There will be no one 
to do our killing and nobody left to kill. Instead of 
the pomp and glory of war we shall have the cry of 
children lost in the wilderness. The human wail will 
rise above all this nonsense, above the glory of war. 
It is rising now. 

"In other days when sura a thing happened it did 
not have to break with civilization. But today the 
universities of Germany are marking time; in 
France they are practically closed; the men are in 
the trenches. In Oxford three out of every five men 
were taken from their rooms and sent into the army. 

"The greatest curse of war is that war destroys the 
strong, energetic and patriotic. If I were the supreme 
genius of England I should not let one university 
man, one athlete or one trained laborer go to war be- 
cause they are worth vastly more in the building of 
the future. They are saving the 'adenoid' men of 
London — and you teachers know what that means — 
to be the fathers of the next generation. These men 
make the slums, they are the cause of the slums as 
well as the effect. There would be no slums in 
London if there were no wars. 

"Now what do we want? We want obstacles placed 
in the way of war which will make it as hard to make 
war— as to get married. We want treaties — 'cooling' 
treaties. Is there any nation that has seen the 'scrap 
of paper' experiences of this war that does not believe 
this? It has cost Germany more than any defeat be- 
cause it has cost the public opinion of the world, and 
this rules the world. 

"We want to get rid of the tribe of war traders — 
the most gigantic and cruel trust in the world. 
'Faith, hope and hatred,' is their gospel — faith in 
their country's power, hope that it can show it, and 
hatred of all other countries. In this country we 
find other things. This is the flag under which hatred 
dies away. 

"It is our duty as Americans to be neutral, not in- 
different, not ignorant. We should study the war 
carefully, but we have no gain whatever in partisan- 
ship. Germany is full of lovely people. We who call 
ourselves scholars are all indebted to Germany. The 
culture of Europe is all one culture. 

"President Wilson is right in maintaining the 
strictest neutrality, because he represents us. I may 
say something but I only represent myself. But he 
is responsible to everyone else for his actions. I 
heard a public man in London say that President 
Wilson has the mightiest opportunity in all history. 
Let us hope he has, and then we shall all mobilize in 
front of him when he is ready to move." — Excerpt 
from address by David Starr Jordon at meeting of 
New York State Teachers. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



THE HYGIENE OF THE INDOOR KINDER- 
GARTEN 

CONDITIONS THAT SHOULD PREVAIL. 

I. Conditions controlled by the principal, superinten- 
dent, or hoard of education. 

A. Rooms. '"*'■" r * 
(1.) Of a size to permit large activities and 

ample space for floor activities. 

(2.) Sunny — on account of extreme suscepti- 
bility to infection of children of kindergarten 
age. 

(3.) Well lighted, low windows. 

(4.) Well ventilated. 

B. Sanitation. 

(1.) Floors washed at least twice a week and 
blackboards every day to prevent accumulation of 
dust. 

(2.) Furniture dusted daily, with damp or 
oiled cloth. 

(3.) Toilet fixtures adapted to little children. 

(4.) Paper towels and powdered, liquid, or 
capsule soap. 

(5.) Drinking fountains or individual cups. 

C. Furniture. 

(1.) Chairs — Model good from hygienic stand- 
point. Several heights. 

(2.) Tables — Steady. Plain dull finish surface. 
(3.) Blackboards — Low. 

D. Medical inspection. 

(1.) Daily visit by physician or trained nurse. 
(2.) Immediate exclusion of suspected cases. 
(3.) Prompt disinfection when needed. 
(4.) Temporary closing when it might prevent 
an epidemic. 

E. Registration. 

Limited to average attendance of 15 to 18 per 
teacher. 

II. Conditions within the control of the teacher. 

A. Time schedule. 

Activities and length of periods arranged with 
regard to healthful reaction on children. 

B. Seating. 

Tables and children arranged in proper hygie- 
nic relation to light. 

C. Light. 

(1.) Amount. 

(2.) Avoidance of reflected sunlight on work 
or face. 

D. Chairs. 

Right height for each child. 

E. Cleanliness. 
(1.) Of children. 
(2.) Of room. 

Decorations simple to make thorough cleaning 
possible. 

F. Prevention of infection. 

(1.) Through materials. Sterilize, disinfect, 
or discard when necessary. 

(2.) Through habits of children with colds or 
coughs not demanding exclusion. 



day when most 
simple nutritious 



(3.) Recognition of symptoms of common dis- 
eases. 
G. Temperature and humidity. 

(1.) Even, moderate. 

(2.) Recognition of effect on children. 
H. Ventilation (where controlled by teacher.) 

(1.) Avoidance of direct drafts. 

(2.) Recognition of effect of impure air. 
I. Luncheon. 

(1.) Selection of period of 
needed. 

(2.) Limited amount of 
food. 

(3.) Not hurried. 
J. Rest period. 

(1.) Real relaxation without tension. 
K. Materials. 

Kind and size selected to insure freedom from 
physical strain and nervous tension. 
L. Method. 

Should be based on well established principles 
of modern child psychology. 
M. Avoidance of undue amount of noise. 
N. Avoidance of over-stimulation and unneces- 
sary repression. 

O. Recognition and prevention of causes of 
fatigue and nervousness. 

P. Recognition of fact that inability, inattention, 
restlessness, apathy, or dullness may be due to 
some physical defect or other physical cause 
which can be remedied. 

Q. Cultivation of habits conductive to health. 
Manner of sitting, standing, walking, etc. 
Obedience, self-control, attention, and industry. 

III. The teacher. 

Health, poise, buoyancy, adaptability, are essen- 
tial for healthful reaction on children. 

— From report of the I. K. U. Committee on Hy- 
giene. 






THE PIONEER 
Frank Walcott Hutt, Myricks, Mass. 
Come Ted, and Bob and Joe, I say 
Let 's play we 're pioneers, today. 

The snowstorm came along just right, 
And drifted round the house all night; 
And that 's the wilderness so new 
That we shall break the first path through. 
Come on, boys, here 's the place to rally — 
This hill we '11 level to a valley, 
And through that bigger snowy mass 
We '11 dig a high-walled mountain-pass; 
The deepest drift we '11 call a crag, 
And there suppose we place the Flag. 
And so we '11 form in line, to meet 
The snow-plow turning up the street; 
And pretty soon, when people find 



Clear paths, they '11 follow on behind, 
And then we '11 give three rousing cheers, 
For we shall be the pioneers, 



THE KlNDERGARTEtt-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



181 



THE HYGIENE OF THE HEALTHY, NORMAL 
CHILD IN KINDERGARTEN 

The average height of child of five years is between 
36 and 41 inches. The average weight, boys: 40% 
lbs. The average weight, girls: 37% lbs. In some 
instances (the Mexicans to be found in the kinder- 
gartens of San Antonio and foreigners in the settle- 
ment kindergartens), the children are under size and 
weight, due to lack of or improper nourishment. 

Diet varies with condition of child, climate con- 
ditions and seasons of year. Food should be simple 
and at regular times. It would be well for the mother 
to understand the uses of the food in the body to the 
growing child, the foods best suited to meet the re- 
quirements of the growing child, best method for pre- 
paring food, amount of food required, and when to 
administer food. 

Children between two and five years, of normal size, 
development, and activity require per day about 1200 
to 1500 calories; children same age over or under 
size can be figured from 40 to 35 calories per pound. 
The calorie measures only the amount of food and it 
is necessary that the needed number of calories be ob- 
tained from a mixed diet containing protein, fats, 
sugars, starches, and minerals. A dietary planned on 
the basis of 100 calarie portions might be given 
mothers who do not know food properties or values of 
different foods to the child. 

That the child of five years has only limited facili- 
ties for caring for his foods and that his digestive 
organs are in an undeveloped, immature condition 
should be understood by his mother. 
Recommendations. 

1. Great emphasis should be laid in dealing with 
healthy, normal children, upon personal hygiene. 
Habits of cleanliness, caring for teeth, hair, nails, 
should be formed during the years of attendance in 
kindergarten. 

2. Greater use should be made of the parks, pro- 
viding play apparatus for the small children, and 
having in charge a trained person to supervise games 
and give instruction in folk dancing. 

3. Kindergarten and mothers should hold meetings 
once during each school month and the individual 
teacher and mother should confer whenever the wel- 
fare of the child demands it. Visits to the home by 
the teachers and visits to the school by the mother 
will do much to promote the health of the child. 

4. A very urgent plea should be made against the 
indiscriminate taking of healthy children to moving 
picture and vaudeville plays. 

5. Pressure and influence should be brought to bear 
upon more simple dress for children. (Note — 
Especial care should be taken that the clothing does 
not in any way restrict free movement or assist in 
distorting the growing organism of the child. Tight 
bands about the waist, stocking supporters which drag 
down the shoulders, should find substitutes which 
will allow free bodily growth.) 

6. Every kindergarten should have its garden plot, 
planted and cared for by the children. 



7. Schoolhouses should be provided wjth a roof gar- 
dens, part of these to be utilized for kindergarten 
work. 

8. School boards should not be allowed to make 
use of basement rooms for kindergartens. School 
boards should employ a physician or physicians to 
make a thorough physical examination of all chil- 
dren attending school. The kindergarten children 
should be included in these examinations; many 
things can be prevented here that in the higher 
grades will be difficult to cure. 

9. A trained nurse should be employed to have her 
office in the school building. 

10. All elementary public school buildings should 
be provided with a well equipped kindergarten room 
and a trained kindergartner. 

11. Every state should have a compulsory school 
law. 

12. Formation and not information should be the 
watchword of today. 

13. More use should be made of those materials 
which lend themselves best to the child's self-expres- 
sion — clay, sand, crayola, etc. 

14. We should remember that the kindergarten is 
for the child and it is his right to be joyous through 
perfect bodily health. 

— From report of the I. E. U. Committee on Hy- 
giene. 



SALT BEADS AND WAYS TO USE THEM 
Blanch A. Justice. 

Always on the lookout for new ways of busy work 
to occupy the little fingers, I chanced upon the follow- 
ing receipt: 

Take one-half cup of cornstarch and dissolve in one- 
half cup water. Then stir salt into the solution and 
beat. You will have a mass of creamy dough which 
you can color any desired shade with ink, stencil 
color, or dye. Then mold small portions of it into 
beads. String on coarse straws or hatpins, and in an 
hour you will have several hundred beads which will 
be very durable and a delight to your little ones to use 
in number work. 

Give a handful to each child and let them string in 
groups of 2's, 3's, etc. 

Let the children place them on the desk in geo- 
metrical forms. 

Let them form the Roman numerals with them. 

Have a wire across one corner of the room. On it 
string the beads. Let the little ones stand and count 
them and find answers to little examples by their aid. 

I have also used the same dough (which will keep 
moist if covered with a damp cloth) for molding in 
the same way that I would use clay. — Normal In- 
structor. 



Now let the New Year be the best year of all your 
life in the school room. A little more study of edu- 
cational books and periodicals than ever before. A 
little more thought and attention to the individual 
child. A little more progress all along the line. 



HERR PESSUMEHR'S RETURN HOME 
Susan Plessnee Pollock, Gotha, Germany. 

On the last night of the old year, the day before 
New Year, Herr Pessumehr had taken a holiday fare- 
well, from all the village children; he had given each 
a gift and held a farewell speech; it seemed as if he 
were going to remain away in a foreign land, for a 
long, long time. The Lerum castle had stood since 
his departure, quite as if it were deserted, the chil- 
dren from the little house in the wood, had seen how 
lonely it looked inside. All the people in the village 
loved the master of the castle. He was missed by 
everybody, he was their friend and advisor and in 
need their support. 

"What can he have to do in a foreign land?" asked 
the people, one of another. "It must be better to live 
in one's native land and on one's own property." 

Mr. Pessumehr was still a young man, not very long 
in possession of the estate. A few years before, his 
father had been called from earth and only since his 
death, had the castle and the garden, the wood and 
the fields, belonged to the young man. Here with his 
dear mother, he had done much, for the good of the 
peasants. The mother had also been a loving, 
friendly, woman and a comfort to the poor people in 
Lerum. Now, later, when his mother had also died, 
the young master had felt very lonely in the great 
castle and as much as he loved his peasant people, he 
was not contented any more in Lerum; that was why 
it happened that the thought came to him, to leave 
his home and move into a large city, far, far away, 
from Lerum, there lived friends, whom he loved and 
he wished to be with them, — but what rejoicing there 
was, throughout the whole village, — as suddenly the 
news came, that Herr Pessumehr would return. 

"Our good gentleman comes," the people called 
gladly to one another and the Lerum children re- 
gularly hurrahed for joy. It was as if a stroke of 
magic had transformed the town; one saw every- 
where, happy faces and the village schoolmaster for 
joy, took his scholars all for a grand walking trip. 
Now began in earnest, house cleaning in the castle. 
The easy chairs all took off their cloaks and the pic- 
tures and mirrors could again show themselves with- 
out veils. Every window was opened and from every 
corner the dust was brushed and swept and must fly 
out of the windows. There was a great scrubbing and 
dusting and polishing. Mrs. Inspector ran hither and 
thither, putting the rooms in order; but many things 
were changed from the way they had formerly been 
arranged. Many rooms which Herr Master Pes- 
sumehr had never used, were unlocked, beautiful 
things arrived, that were carried in to the rooms and 
the gardner adorned them splendidly with flowers. 
You see, Mr. Pessumehr was not coming back alone 



to Lerum, no, the Heavenly Father had led a lady to 
the lonely one, who accompanied him home, she was 
now Mrs. Pessumehr; that was the cause of new re- 
joicing among the villagers, when they received this 
news, because now they were sure that their good 
friend would not wish to travel away again: now his 
life in the castle, would not seem lonely to him any 
more. When in the little garden of the god-mother 
Kranz, — the apples had turned red — then was Herr 
Pessumehr awaited. Yes! exactly for these festive 
days, the apples had put on their prettiest dresses, 
just as had the children from the little house in the 
wood. The red apples, must indeed remain hanging 
on the tree; for in spite of the pretty red dresses they 
wore, they could not go to meet Herr Pessumehr! 
But Herman and Gertrude, they not only had their 
best clothes on, they had also feet and could march, 
and march they did, in rank and file with the school- 
children and their school teacher, a long distance out 
from the village; there they came to a halt, like 
soldiers; they had no swords and guns, but every 
child carried a flag, or a wreath of flowers, it looked 
magnificent! The little Reinhard, Wenderlin, 
Balthasar, who was the godchild of Mr. Pessumehr, 
was held in the arms of his mother, he could not yet 
stand steadily on his own small feet; he carried also 
a splendid wreath, the very largest; Grandmother 
had wound it of oak foliage and dahlias and on one 
side fluttered a crimson bow. The wreath, hung over 
the shoulder of Reinhard, Wenderlin, Balthasar and 
the leaves and flowers almost entirely hid his little 
head. The carriage came rolling by, with Mr. and 
Mrs. Pessumehr sitting inside, bowing to right and 
left; just then the schoolmaster started a song, and 
all the children sang with him. The carriage stopped 
and Mr. and Mrs. Pessumehr got out and then they 
greeted every single one of the country people: also 
the children from the little house in the wood, re- 
ceived their individual handshake. The little Rein- 
hard though, the namesake of Mr. Pessumehr, Mrs. 
Pessumehr took in his arms and kissed him. 

"Good fortune and blessings on our good Mr. Pes- 
sumehr and his wife," called out many of the old 
people rejoicingly and "Vivat-hoch"; shouted all the 
country people, the old and the young, and Reinhard 
struggled so for joy, with his arms and legs, that Mrs. 
Pessumehr could hardly hold him tightly. 

"My dear wife, will take the place of my mother 
with you," said Herr Pessumehr. "Those of you who 
are in need, or sorrowful, they may come to her and 
receive comfort. The children, however, shall be 
under our special protection, for they must be edu- 
cated. We shall very often visit the school and watch 
carefully every single scholar and require information 
from the teacher. Also the little ones from the house 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



183 



in the wood, shall be under our protection, and we 
shall beg the parents always to tell us if they are 
obedient and industrious. We love all children, but 
those who love a child, wish it to be brought up, 
under earnest discipline, that it may be an upright, 
God-fearing citizen." 

"Vivat-hoch," cheered the country people again 
and Herman and Gertrude shouted with them, as 
loudly as they could. 

End. 

The next story will tell how Reinhard Wendelin 
Balthaser received his name. 



and tomorrow you may build another house and see 
if we can find another picture in the fire." 



THE COB-FIRE STORIES 
Bektha I. C. Pitman. 

Out in the barn w?.s a large pile of corn cobs. The 
corn had all been taken off to feed the horses and 
chickens, and these lovely clean cobs were left 
to be burned in the kitchen stove. 

One day Charles went out in the barn to get a 
basket full for Hannah, and he thought what a lovely 
fire they would make in the fireplace. When he went 
into the house, he asked his mother if he might 
have some and put them in the fireplace for their 
twilight fire, and she told him he might. 

He got another basket of cobs, and placed them 
criss-cross in the fireplace until he had built quite a 
high house. 

When twilight came, his mother lighted the paper 
and sticks under the cobs, and they watched the fire 
creep up around the cob house. It made such a 
pretty picture. 

After Charles had watched it for some time, he 
turned to his mother and said, "Mother, do you know 
what I see in the fire?" 

"No, dear, what do you see?" 

"It does not seem to be a fire, but all the little 
flames are fairies and elves and butterflies, and they 
are dancing and flying all around and having such a 
nice time. 

"The little fairies are dressed in such beautiful 
colors — red, orange yellow, blue, green and violet, and 
the little elves are gray, while the butterflies are 
golden. 

"See the little elves climbing up to the top of our 
cob house just like little carpenters, and the little 
fairies are having such a nice dance in and out of the 
rooms of the house, and the butterflies are chasing 
each other all around. 

"You can see the little elves peeking out of the 
windows at the fairies, for the fairy queen has called 
all the fairies to come to her so she can take them 
home and put them to bed. 

"There goes the last fairy waving a good-by to the 
elves. Now see the little gray elves, they too are 
coming down and going to their homes in the woods, 
for the light is gone and night has come, and our 
house of cobs is just beautiful red coals, just like the 
sunset. 

"Did you like my story, mother?" 

"Yes, dear, and now that the fairies and elves have 
gone to bed, I think it is time for Charles to go too, 



THE CRUEL BOY 

Robert was a cruel boy. He liked to injure his 
little pets just to hear them cry. 

One day Robert walked out into the field to shoot 
some birds with his new gun. He soon found a 
pretty little robin sitting on a limb, singing a song to 
the other birds. 

"There is a bird that I can shoot," thought Robert. 

He took careful aim, and when he shot, the little 
bird fell to the ground and Robert ran to pick it up. 

When he picked up the bird, it began to cry, for the 
bullet had only broken its wing. 

What fun Robert had with this little bird! He 
would throw it up in the air and watch it try to fly. 
He played with it for a long time, then he took the 
bird and started for home. 

When he was almost to the house he stepped on a 
sharp nail and ran it into his foot. He was much 
frightened when he saw the blood on his foot, and it 
hurt him, so bad that he could hardly get to the house. 

It was two or three days before he could walk on 
his foot again. 

One day his mamma said to him, "Now, Robert, 
you see how it hurts your little pets when you injure 
them." 

"Does it hurt them as bad as my foot hurt me?" 
asked Robert. 

"Yes," said his mamma, "it hurts them just s bad." 

"Then," said Robert, "I'll never hurt them any 
more." 

After that, when he played with his little pets, he 
remembered his sore foot and always tried to be kind 
to them. — School Century. 



Temper in children may have its origin in, or be a 
perverted expression of, any of the following desirable 
qualities: self-dependence, will-power, high spirits, 
a desire for mental or physical activity, curiosity, 
initiative, concentration and persistency, imagination, 
personality, emotional strength. We must get the 
fact into our heads, and get it there to stay, that the 
child who can cry hard and long for the fulfillment of 
a desire, keeping all the time to the point of his 
desire, the child who can go through a violent fit of 
temper without bodily injury to himself, has physical 
energy, emotional strength, will-power and the power 
of concentration. That same child can use his 
emotional strength just as well for expressing happi- 
ness as he can for expressing anger or disappoint- 
ment; furthermore, that child can use his physical 
strength, and will, and persistence, in doing useful, 
constructive, helpful, positive things instead of using 
such magnificent forces in purely negative unhappy 
or destructive ways. Our great problem is so to 
handle the child as to prevent useful forces from 
going to waste in temper. — Good Housekeeping. 



Drive thy business; let not that drive thee.- 
Franklin. 



184 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



KEEPING A RECORD. 
Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

During the Summer School at Columbia University, 
Mr. Reeder, well known as one of the most successful 
superintendents of an orphanage, was invited by Dr. 
Frank McMurry to address a large audience of super- 
intendents gathered from all sections of the United 
States. 

Dr. Reeder has charge of about two hundred boys 
and girls of all ages at Hastings-on-the-Hudson. 

Dr. Reeder's suggestions were invaluable not only 
for institutional workers but for all teachers and 
parents. 

He considered the three "Ls" of child life, viz., 
Letters, Labor, Leisure, or Books, Work, Play, 

For fifty years we have made too much of "letters." 
We are beginning to recognize the educational value 
of "leisure" introducing play into all grades of school, 
but we do not yet provide sufficient healthy respon- 
sible manual work for our boys and girls. The third 
"L," labor, is also the child's birthright. We must 
plan for it more fully than we have. 

In his "homes," for the children live in cottage 
homes, each child keeps a record of work done. Dr. 
Reeder read several of these records. 

They included all forms of house and garden work, 
repairing and making useful articles. Some of the 
girls reported a long list of foods they could cook. 

Superintendent Reeder told an instance of a few 
boys and girls who had been allowed to enter High 
School, becoming rather elated as students and show- 
ing a tendency to neglect manual work. So impor- 
tant did he believe some form of industrial work at 
this age as a balance that he decided tht the boys and 
girls could only attend High School half a day, spend- 
ing the afternoon in working. He believes this best 
even tho the High School period should be prolonged 
to six years. But it was not. After the first year 
the boys and girls found plenty of time for both 
books and toork. 

Dr. Reeder spoke of the interest of the boys in 
learning to swim and stated that in the last 12 years 
they had had thirty thousand "swims" in the Hudson 
River. 

Motives for progress have been given by arranging 
progressive feats in swimming, thus keeping up the 
interest, as, "using the spring board, going outside 
the crib, " etc. Boys were proud of their records. 

Dr. Reeder gave instances of tactful discipline in 
appealing to cottage pride. For example, too many 
cnina dishes were being broken, when a plan was de- 
vised to limit the breakage to two pieces weekly. 
Soon several cottages reported no breakages. It 
was suggested that if the breakage was excessive, the 
cottage should use tin dishes for a period. These 
simple, good natured, tactful suggestions presented a 
motive for carefulness and breakages were reduced 
50 per cent in a short time. 

These successes were recorded and read from the 
platform and honored as much as records of progress 
in book studies. 



A story was told of a little boy who stumbled and 
fell but succeeded in holding up the china dish, so 
anxious was he for his cottage to have a good record. 

Dr. Reeder said he had been surprised to find how 
much children care for written records. 

For special offenses, as stealing, a child's first 
offense was recorded in a special book in lead-pencil, 
the child being told if the offense was not repeated in 
a given time, he would be permitted to erase the re- 
cord. The child was present and saw the record made 
but it was seen by no one else. 

A second offense was recorded in ink and a longer 
trial given. This record could also be erased but 
with much more difficulty. 

The children also receive a good record for 
courtesies extended to each other and for social 
graces. Very slight variations in methods of disci- 
pline often work wonders. For example, a habit of 
impertinance to elders was treated at first with fines 
but no improvement followed. 

The older girls were called together and told that 
hereafter the fines would not be collected, but only 
recorded, and by abstaining from impudent replies for 
so many days, the fine could be washed off. This plan 
hit the mark and the habit yielded to this simple 
tactful plan. 

Each child keeps a record of what he earns, what 
he spends, what he gives and what he saves. As the 
children advance in years, and earn more, the re- 
sponsibility of paying for little things as ribbons is 
placed upon them, gradually hose, gloves and shoes 
are added, all tending to encourage care and good 
management, so preparing for real life. 

Dr. Reeder spoke of the fact that the children were 
often hard to govern after visiting relatives at Easter 
or Christmas or during vacation. 

To meet this, it was decided that the children must 
earn the right to visit by reaching a given mark dur- 
ing the previous term. 

Relatives became interested in the children's re- 
cords, and encouraged them to do their best on re- 
turn. This plan was a success. 

Children are naturally care free and irresponsible. 
The record tends to "arrest thought" and to arouse to 
a sense of responsibility. It saves scolding and 
punishment. 

It creates a personal dignity to which the child 
responds almost invariably with better conduct. But 
much depends upon the judicial temper displayed by 
the parent or guardian. 

The secret is to keep yourself in the background. 
Thus the child is led gradually to feel the force of his 
own deeds, and the "return of the deed" upon himself. 

In adapting these suggestions to home discipline 
keeping the record a secret at first between mother 
and child might be a valuable expedient. Under 
certain circumstances when improvement follows the 
record might be shown to father or grandma or a 
favorite aunt or uncle, unless it is one that the child 
prefers to erase, althogether. 



Never buy what you do not want because it is 
cheap. 



tttiE KOffcEttGAftttEir.tfftltoAft* MAGAtfltffc 



18S 




Would it be safe for Mother Bunny to go away and 
leave her children out side the burrow? Do you sup- 
pose she ever does? Of course she does, and when she 
comes home they tell her all that's happened. If they 
have made mistakes while she was away, she will tell 
them how to do better next time they are left alone. 
When their lesson for this time is ended what do you 
think they'll do? Well, I guess they will go among 
the bushes and play; they love to play especially 
when their mother plays with them. She gives them 
a frolic in the fields and woods because they are 
such good bunnies and try hard to do as she tells 
them. 

Mr. S. J. Carter has not only given us a charming 
picture but the means of "bringing home" to children 
the necessity and desirability of being obedient, also 
the incentive to tell any of the many stories which 
may be created with the good times and dangers be- 
longing to these little creatures as the subject matter. 



PICTURE STUDY VI. 
Bx Mary E. Cotting. 
Is this an out-of-doors, or in-the-house picture? 
What family is it a picture of? Is "it the whole 
family? Can you count the young bunnies? If 
Father-Bunny were there, how many would there be 
in all? Where can he be? Hunting for more places 
to get food? What do bunnies eat? Do these wild 
ones eat the same things as younr tame ones? Ever 
notice their quivering noses and teeth as they eat? 
Are the wild and tame ones the same color? Have 
you noticed their feet and legs? What is there about 
their legs that helps them in making long jumps? 
Can they burrow any better because the front are 
shorter than the hind legs? Who makes the burrow? 
How big is it likely to be? Do the rabbits stay in it 
all winter? Is it winter in the picture? Why arn all 
the children out with the mother? She has been 
teaching how to do things which they must learn, 
and now they are practicing. Little sister is washing 
her face; thoughtful brother is smelling over the 
ground trying to find strange smells; fat sister beside 
him is thinking how to crouch close to the ground as 
she may be obliged to do when danger is near; big 
brother just beyond her is stiff and straight — sitting 
in "his form" as maybe he will sit some snowing day; 
and strongest brother over there by mother is trying 
the up-spring that bunnies make when they raise 
their ears to listen; he must learn to do this perfectly 
because some day when danger is near he will need to 
spring into a long leap and rush away at top-speed. 
They look as if they were good bunnies, don't they? 



THE COMIC SUPPLEMENTS 
Thoughtful parents and teachers are still pained by 
those parts of the comic supplements which are sup- 
posed to cater to the child's sense of humor. The 
coloring is atrocious in most of these pictures and the 
point of the joke and the drawings that elucidate it, 
are often equally reprehensible. Many of the daily 
papers, are, however, making appeals to the child's 
better feelings, and kindergartners and mothers' clubs 
should be quick to recognize and encourage such 
efforts. As an example, we call attention to the 
"Bedtime Stories Club" of the New York Globe, which 
every evening contains a little story about the Forest 
Folk, by Thornton W. Burgess, and illustrated by 
Harrison Cady. Here we learn entertainingly of the 
doings of Johnny Chuck, Peter Rabbit, Reddy Fox, 
Buster Bear, Paddy Beaver, and Danny Meadow 
Mouse, their interests, their habits, their adventures, 
their mistakes, their relations to each other. The 
short tales are told in a way to stimulate the child's 
observation of animal life, thus personified; the 
meaning of tracks in the snow, the various ways by 
which an animal detects the presence of an enemy 
and the like. Those who send ten cents to "The Bed- 
time Story Club" of The New York Globe rceeive a 
certificate acknowledging them as members of the 
club and showing that the holder "Is a friend of Old 
Mother Nature," etc. Accompanying this is an ap- 
propriate and fascinating badge bearing a picture of 
Peter Rabbit, so dear to the nearts of the children. 
In addition, quaint colored pictures are received, of 
four of the animals in human garb, delightfully 
drawn and well-colored by Mr. Cady. 

The protests made by kindergarten and parents' 
associations, are evidently bearing fruit. As rapidly 
as the tastes of parents can be trained to discriminate 
between that which insults and that which elevates 
the souls of their children, just so surely will the pub- 
lic press respond. 

It might be well at a mothers' meeting to show some 
of the vulgar pictures in contrast to these others. The 
"Christian Science Monitor" contributes some delight- 
ful semi-humorous rhymes for the children, in which 
plants and animals figure, 



186 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




THE JOINER OR CABINET-MAKER 
Translated from the German of Friedrich Froebel. 

SONG FOR THE CHILD. 

(Motto for the Mother.) 
That every object has a tongue, 
Does not escape the child so young; 
But, what is easy we little rate — 
To this, O parents, give due weight. 

Zisch, zisch, zisch! 

Hear the joiner's plane! 
Zisch, zisch, zisch! 

No knots or holes remain. 
What a funny little song — ■ 
Now it's short and now its long — 
Zisch, zisch, zisch — 
Zisch, sh, sh, sh sch! 

Zisch, zisch, zisch! 

Hear the plane's queer song! 

Plane the long board smooth and white, 

Till we make it quite light-tight — 

Long, long, long, 

Hear the plane's queer song. 

Sh sh sh! 

A song, too, sings the saw — 

Sh sh sh! 

It works without a flaw! 
To make a short shelf 
I'll saw it myself — 
Push, draw, push, draw — 
Hark to the song of the 
Bright little saw! 

Note — To see if a surface is "light-tight," place 
against it a T square, hold up to the light, and if per- 
fectly plane, no light should be visible between the 
two surfaces. 

Commentary for the mother. 

The clenched fists, held perpendicularly, glide over 
a level surface, (that of a table, for example,) first 
in short, then in long strokes, to represent the move- 
ment of the plane that removes all irregularities. 

What is the significance, the inner meaning of this 
simple little play? What relation has it to life? 

By means of the "Finger Piano" (See Kindergarten 
Primary Magazine for ) the child was 

led to see how tone was linked with number and 
movement; but tone sound, is intimately associated 
not alone with number, with time and movement, no; 
but also with quiscent, space-filling form. Yes, 
here again, tone stands intimately related even to 
matter. Deep sounds the tone of substances that are 
elongated, and those tone of substances that are 
elongated, and those that are short and drawn out 



thin are high in tone. Long and short — which may be 
called the middle, the connecting term between 
space and time — (for both may be both long and 
short) — is of the utmost importance when we are con- 
sidering child-life. "You may remain awhile out- 
side, but not too long; You must exercise, but not 
too short a time. 

The little song and picture, will give you oppor- 
tunity, dear mother, to lead your child to observe the 
various significations of "long" and "short;" the 
many ways in which both terms are used. Thus 
doing for the later life of your darling, what an 
earlier picture and play did in leading him to an 
observation of crooked and straight and their various 
significations, and applications. As there we found 
illustrations of crooked and straight alone, so here, 
the entire picture illustrates for your child, the ex- 
pressions "long" and "short." Give him the pleasure 
of discovering for himself, resemblances and con- 
trasts. And the little picture will early lead your 
child to see that external size by no means always 
presupposes inner greatness, and vice versa. The 
child will be early led to this conclusion by the giant 
Goliath, who in the Childworld plays such a laugh- 
ably important role with the dear little David who 
appeals so to children. You will surely bethink you 
here, of your childhood's song, written by the kindly, 
benevolent Asmusppen — name of Matthias Claudius, 
late editor of the "Wandsbecker Boten." 

"There was once a giant Goliath 

A very dangerous man." 
His youthful feelings and perceptions seem also to 
have been thronging in upon the artist. 

Shall we clarify all of these in our children and 
through them in ourselves. 

Happiness and peace on them to bestow; 

Friends, then will it soon be here better, below. 

ADDITIONAL NOTES FOE THE GRADE TEACHER 

It is perhaps unnecessary to call the attention of 
the teacher to the numerous illustrations of long and 
short depicted here. We see the birds, with necks, 
beaks and tails and wings of different lengths, the 
columns, one with horizontal stones, and one with the 
vertical flutings; the two vases; the various tools, the 
musical horns, the stringed harp. 

As Froebel suggests, the child will enjoy finding 
for himself examples of the long and the short. He 
will note the substantial material objects that express 
those measures, and then the teacher can carry his 
attention on to the musical instruments, which repre- 
sent long and short in sound, and then to the two 
human figures which carry thought on into the 
spiritual world, the world in which a giant soul may 
be housed in a short physical frame and a low brutish 
spirit in a huge body. 

The sawing, planing, hammering, motions in long 
and in short strokes, afford excellent physical exer- 
cise, and the charming little marching, skipping song, 
"We'll play we are giants tall" with its second stanza, 
dramatizing the short dwarfs, is appropriate here, as 
are stories of giants and dwarfs. 






THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



187 



Imitation of some of the horns and trumpets is de- 
veloping for the lungs and the children may be 
called upon to imitate the sounds of sawing, planing, 
and the like. Also the calls of various animals. 
Which animals have short calls? which long ones? 
The baying and the barking and yelping of a dog; 
the lowing of the cow, the crowing of the rooster, and 
the songs of different birds. 

What relation has the length of a horn to its tone? 
The difference between the long and short strings of 
an harp? Let the children experiment with a narrow 
oblong cardboard box, stretching around it lengthwise 
an ordinary rubber band, and then twanging it and 
listening to the sound; then place the same band 
around the width of the box; it will be considerably 
shorter; and the difference in sound can be detected, 
depending upon the difference in the length and thin- 
ness of the band. 

Have the children illustrate the long and the short 
vowel sounds; explain long and short meter in 
hymnology; and long and short syllables in poetry. 
Ask the children to think over who is the most valu- 
able man in civilization, he who takes a long look 
ahead and works for the future or he who lives merely 
from day to day? What is meant by "short-sighted" 
in optics and how is the term figuratively employed? 
Meaning of "art is long and time is short." 

What effect has climate in regulating the size of 
plant life and animal life? 

Returning to the cabinet-maker, help the children to 
feel the wonderful skill and muscular control achieved 
by those who can measure so accurately each small 
piece of wood in joinery and then saw and plane it so 
perfectly that each part dovetails and fits exactly into 
the other. Bring examples if possible of such work, in 
inlaid boxes or chess-boards. Tell of the wonderful 
mechanism of the violin, made of many, many tiny 
pieces of wood, each well-seasoned, exactly fitted to- 
gether, with a special kind of varnish, to all bring 
out the beautiful tones of the master, upon the four 
strings, of varying length and fineness. Some tones 
high, some low, some long, some short. Music con- 
sists of their perfect relation to each other and their 
control by the master. 

We append a few verses that may please the chil- 
dren and also exercise their observation and com- 
parison of, the things around them. 

GUESSING GAME. ' 

His leg, his neck, his tail is short, 
And curved his back; 
And very short, too, is his song, 
Quack, quack! 



Ah, very very long his nose, 

But rather short his dark gray hose. 

(Elephant.) 



His legs are long, his bill is long, 

He's found in Deutschland, not New York; 

He takes long flights when comes the fall; 
The much-loved stork. 



Short are his horns, but long his legs, 

And eke his neck; 
A giant beast; and large dark spots 

His soft coat deck. (Giraffe.) 



A long horn and a short one, 

One queer rhinoceros wears. 
The cow, goat, deer have two horns each; 

Of equal length are theirs. 



Short are the ears of the horse, cat and bear; 
But long those of donkey, of spaniel and hare. 



A long stroke, a short stroke, tho bad be the 

weather, 
Will bring us to port if we all row together. 



When the pendulum is long, solemn, slow the 

hall clock's song; 
Short the pendulum, then quick, and short the 

parlor clock's tick-tick. 



Among suitable stories is the fable of the visits of 
the fox and the crane, the fox offering the crane re- 
freshment in a shallow dish from which it cannot 
eat, and the crane retaliating by offering the fox 
drink from a long-necked vase. 

Also, Jack-the-giant-killer; also the old story of the 
long nose that was wished upon a foolish woman. 




The United States Bureau of Education has issued 
a pamphlet on "The Kindergarten in Benevolent In- 
stitutions." Following are two testimonials from 
Brooklyn, N. Y.: 
Gardner Day Nursery says: 

"Previous to the time we were able to secure a 
kindergartner the little ones were like so many stray 
sheep. Their material welfare was well looked after, 
but we were unable to pay for someone to amuse 
them. Now we get the services of the undergraduates 
of an institute, and it is hard to express the in- 
estimable benefit the training has been for the little 
ones. The work the children do is not enough to tax 
their young minds, but is a start in concentration 
very necessary for children, especially for children in 
their condition of life." 
From the House of St. Giles: 

"The kindergarten has proven most valuable in a 
threefold sense. Not only do our children learn to 
forget their deformities through pleasant occupation, 
but they are brought to a realization of their useful- 
ness. They come like other children, playing the 
same games, singing the very same songs and making 
exactly the same kind of things in their school work. 
The result of this is a household of bright, happy 
children, keenly alive with interest in all their sur- 
roundings, gaining physically, and growing in mind 
and spirit." 



More than 70 per cent of the United State's area is 
"dry" and 52 per cent of our population is in "dry" 
territory, 




THE COMMITTEE ofTHE WHOLE 

CONDUCTED BY BERTHA JOHNSTON 

THIS COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE, of which all Subscribers to the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine are members, 'will consider those various prob- 
lems which meet the practicing Kindergartner— problems relating to the 
School-room proper. Ventilation, Heating, and the like; the Aesthetics of 
School-room Decoration: Problems of the Physical Welfare of the Child, in- 
cluding the Normal, the Defective, and the Precocious; questions suggest- 
ed by the use of Kindergarten Material, the Gifts, Occupations, Games, Toys. 
Pits; Mothers-meetings; School Government; Child Psychology; the relation 
of Home to School and the Kindergarten to the Grades; and problems re- 
garding the Moral Development of the Child and their relation to Froebel's 
Philosophy and Methods All questions -will be -welcomed and also any 
suggestions of ways in which Kindergartners have successfully met the 
problems incidental to kindergarten and primary practice. All replies to 
queries will be made through this department, and not by correspondence. 
Address all inquiries to 

MISS BERTHA JOHNSTON, EDITOR, 

389 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y- 



To the Chairman of the Committee of the Whole: 

You have called our attention to the interesting- and 
helpful study of a sensitive child nature in "Jean Gilles, 
Schoolboy." In the current Cosmopolitan Magazine 
there is now running a series of studies of boy nature 
by Booth Tarkington that are certainly delightful and 
altho Pen rod is a natural, normal, healthy American 
boy, the very fact that he represents the average boy, 
enables us in a measure to see life, and to view people 
and events from his standpoint and should help the 
parents to better understand and sympathize with their 
boys. I am not at all sure, however, that I would re- 
commend my hoy to read the series. I think a great 
many books describing child life are better for the 
parents to read than for the children who usually are 
up to enough mischief without new ideas being put in 
their heads. S. M. F. 



The Bulletin of the American Medical Association 
cites the instance given below to illustrate the close 
connection between eye-strain and crime. This may 
be an extreme case, but any teacher who has a seem- 
ingly incorrigible child in her class may well investigate 
the condition of his eyes and his teeth before giving 
him up as hopeless. Undoubtedly the reason why 
many children do not "take to books" is because of 
defective vision which makes reading a strain and a 
weariness. 

"A San Francisco school teacher, who had suffered 
much from eye troubles herself, described an incorrigi- 
ble child in her school who appeared to have some de- 
fect of sight. This suspicion'had been repeatedly report- 
ed to his parents, but as they were poor as well as 
ignorant, nothing had been accomplished so far. She 
decided, therefore, to make an independent effort in 
the boy's behalf and solicited the assistance other ocu- 
list's aid. 

"His teacher said that at the age of 11 years he wa.3 
the worst child in her experience of many years in 
school work. He frequently played 'hookey,' associat- 
ed with the worst boys o( all ages, smoked cigarettes, 
swore like a trooper and lied outrageously; besides, he 
seemed to take a stupid pride in learning nothing and 
thwarting all her efforts. The only physical defect no- 
ticed was that he held print unusually close to his eyes 

Examination showed one eye had two-sevenths and 
the other one-fifth of normal vision. 



"More than a year afterward the doctor saw the 
teacher again and inquiries were made with misgiv- 
ings. She said that after she procured the glasses and 
had gained consent for his wearing them, the child's 
transformation was rapid and complete. He had be- 
come the willing slave of the the teacher, where before 
he seemed to resist her every interest in him; he never 
missed a day in school, where formerly playing truant 
was chronic with him. He was the head of his class 
now, where previously he was too dull to be classed at 
all; he had voluntarily stopped his numerous bad hab- 
its and had become the marvel of the neighborhood as 
well as the joy of his parents, and so on. 

" The explanation of this metamorphosis is simple 
and natural. The child was more than three-fourths 
blind and no one had known it. He could not learn 
because he could not see, and his eyes and head un- 
doubtedly pained him when straining to see. His in- 
correct aud absurd answers made the other pupils 
laugh at and guy him, so he hated everything connect- 
ed with the school, and in playing truant he met the 
worst possible associates and learned from them his nota- 
ble array of vicious habits. 

" When he put on his glasses he saw the world for 
the first time clearly and in comfort. He therefore 
was able to learn and his ambition was aroused. 

Hence he loved schooling and the opportunity to 
show his real capability, and by regular attendance at 
school lost the bad companionship which was really re- 
sponsible for his show of criminal tendencies. After 
the boy became the pride of the school, his parents took 
an interest and aided him, where before they ignored 
so unlovable a child. A boy who at the age of 11 was 
the worst child in the school and neighborhood and 
was absolutely callous to all moral suasion, would prob- 
ably have developed into a criminal. It is no exagger- 
ation, therefore, to say that the development of a dan- 
gerous breaker of law and order of an extreme type 
was prevented by a pair of glasses." 



In order to show what can be done with the Christmas 
tree, after it has served it's purpose as a thing of beauty 
and joy, the editor sawed from a' small tree the smaller 
branches and twigs, and made a wee rustic seat about 
four inches in length; after it was finished she found 
her respect for the Joiner, his skill and patience, im- 
mensely increased. The measuring and cutting of the 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



189 



pieces so that the legs rested on the ground, or table, and 
so that the lengthwise sticks exactly met the crosswise 
pieces, required a good deal of effort and continual test- 
ing, on the part of one not used to such work. Our fin- 
al conclusion is, that such work i: within the power of 
older boys and girls and is doubtless good for a begin- 
ning, as being rustic, it does not require precise fitting 




together of parts, that is essential in real joinery; i. e. 
in the work with planed and rectangular surfaces. As 
seen in the picture, our first attempt was not of pleas- 
ing proportions -the back is too high for the size of 
the seat. Will not some of our readers tell of their ex- 
periments with Christmas-trees. 



RURAL SCHOOLS AND HOOKWORM DISEASE 
That hookworm disease is responsible for lack of 
progress in many country schools; that it can be 
eradicated, and that the rural schools are now taking 
the lead in the movement to destroy this and other 
handicaps to good health, are some of the conclusions 
of a bulletin by Dr. John A. Ferrell on "Rural School 
and Hookworm Disease," just issued for free dis- 
tribution by the United States Bureau of Education. 

"Hookworm disease is one of the most prevalent, 
most insidiously harmful, and most completely pre- 
ventable diseases known to man," declares Dr. Fer- 
rell. "It causes human suffering and economic waste 
altogether out of proportion to its apparent death 
rate. Many ills that have been attributed to mental 
and moral weakness of wmole bodies of people are now 
definitely known to be due to this infection, and 
curable with its cure. Its eradication is one of the 
most important and pressing problems before the peo- 
ple of the southern half of the United States and of 
other semitropical lands. 

"In combating hookworm disease it has been found 
that the rural school is the greatest medium for the 
spread of the infection and the most important pro- 
tective agency against it. In some schools invest- 
igated the infection has been found to be 100 per 
cent — the teacher and every pupil a victim of the 
disease. Records of the International Health Com- 
mission show an average infection among rural chil- 
dren of school age for whole counties running as 



high as 70 to 90 per cent, while in some sections of 
Virginia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, 
Arkansas, and other states the disease is less wide- 
spread, with 10 per cent or less of the school popula- 
tion infected with hookworm. The general average 
for all the children examined to date is 40 per cent of 
infection. 

"It is through the rural school, whence the in- 
fection comes, that the remedy must also come. The 
measures necessary for permanent control of hook- 
worm disease are health supervision, health in- 
struction, and perfect sanitation. The rural school 
can aid in health supervision; it can supplement and 
drive home health instruction, and above all it can 
teach good health and clean living by being itself a 
model of sanitation for the community. No matter 
how energetic a National or State campaign for 
eradication may be; no matter how many cases of 
hookworm disease are cured for the time being, un- 
less the school and the community maintain a con- 
stant vigilance in behalf of positive measures for good 
health, permanent control of hookworm or any other 
disease transmitted by soil pollution will be impos- 
sible. 

"Hook worm disease, like typhoid fever, is due to 
careless disposal of human excreta. Once schools and 
dwellings in country districts are provided with sani- 
tary privies of one type or another, there will be 
little danger from hookworm. 

"A study of the hookworm problem has shown not 
only the need for sanitary privies, but the need for 
more adequate sanitary supervision by competent 
medical officers. There should be in every community 
a capable superintendent of health, devoting his whole 
time to public health work. 

"Frequent and systematic instruction by the public 
schools in the elements of personal and community 
hygiene is necessary for permanent control of disease. 
When the citizens of a community are taught from 
early childhood the necessity for the care of health, 
they will need no urging to provide expert health 
supervision and sanitary privies in every community. 

"The campaign against hookworm disease is a 
campaign of education, and it is right that it should 
be waged in the public schools." 



QUESTIONS ON THE TEACHER'S ATTITUDE 

Is the smile on my face frozen on, or does it show 
because I am cheerful? 

Do I paralyze my pupils' minds by filling them with 
fear? 

Do I consider the pupil's weakness, or do I indulge 
him to save myself trouble? 

Do I class the slow response with wanton reticence? 
Or with stupidity? 

Do I think a pupil stupid because he can not meet 
the school tasks? 

Do I encourage selfishness and egotism by constant 
censure? Or do I merely alienate the pupils from me? 

Dp I abuse my pupils to improve their characters? 
Or just to relieve my feelings? 

Do I use sarcasm and ridicule for cheering my 
pupils? Or what do I use them for? 

Do I successfully use suspicion and cynicism to 
arouse the confidence of my pupils — in me? Or in 
themselves? Or in human nature? — Exchange. 



HINTS^nhSUGGESTIONS FOR RURAL TEACHERS 

CONDUCTED BY GRACE DOW 
1~)EAR RURAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
*-' rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children. and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
t o use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc. , will be discussed from month to month in these columns 



FEBRUARY— 1915 

Warmer sunshine, melting snow, 

Longer days come on, 
February's here, you know, 

Winter's almost gone. — Selected. 

What is the name of the new month? How many 
days has it regularly? How often does it have 
another day and why? To what season does February 
belong? 

What birthdays of great men occur during the 
month? 

Make a February calendar, using the flag, or the 
colors red, white, and blue in decorating same. In- 
dicate all special birthdays by using the color red 
for the figures. Place stars to indicate the national 
holidays. 

PATKIOTISM. 

The story is told of an immigrant who landed in 
our country when a great political campaign was in 
progress, on being asked which side he favored, re- 
plied "I am agin the government." 

This is in many cases the attitude of foreigners to- 
ward their own home government, but in very few in- 
stances do we find this true of a native American. 
One can not be a loyal citizen without being true to 
his country. 

It should be the duty of every teacher to teach 
patriotism, and there is no better month in which this 
may be taught, as it is naturally taught in connection 
with the birthdays of the noted men during the 
month. 

Celebrating the birthday of Lincoln, Washington, 
Longfellow, Edison, St. Valentine, and others; and by 
portraying the true character of these men, and by 
having the children take part cannot fail to give 
pleasure, and be of lasting benefit. 

Younger children, especially, picture for themselves 
an ideal world. See that they are furnished the 
highest ideal characters possible for this work of 
imagination. 

FACTS TO REMEMBER. 

George Washington was always truthful. He was 
kind to his mother, and gave up his own pleasures 
rather than displease her. He was painstaking in all 
that he did. He was brave and fearless, but trusted 
in God. 

Lincoln was honest and kindhearted. He sacrificed 
his own comfort and happiness to relieve suffering 
even of animals. No task was too difficult in the 
cause of right. 

Longfellow was the friend of children. He wrote 
many poems of special interest to children. He was 
just, gentle, and kind. 



Edison is the greatest inventor living. He is 
always trying new electrical experiments, with the 
desire to find more inventions to make work easier, 
and give people more pleasure. 

St. Valentine loved to help everyone, and when he 
could no longer visit them he sent them messages of 
cheer. We follow his example on his birthday. 
"Heroes are not all six feet tall; 
Large souls may dwell in bodies small." 

PICTURE STUDY. 

Washington — Gilbert Stuart. 

Lincoln statue — St. Gaudens. 

During the month of February the school rooms 
should be decorated with flags, and the colors red, 
white and blue, also as many pictures as possible to 
represent any incidents in the lives of the heroes 
mentioned. 

Gilbert Stuart, an American artist, ranks with the 
greatest English painters of portraits. His chief 
talent lay in painting heads. 

He painted many portraits of men and women 
prominent during the Revolutionary period. His 
greatest ambition was to paint a portrait of Washing- 
ton for whom he had the greatest respect. This is 
the one usually studied. The style of dress of the 
time is shown by the high stock, and the carefully 
dressed hair. 

The original now hangs in the Boston Athenaeum. 

Augustus St. Gaudens stands first among American 
sculptors. He was born in Dublin, but brought to 
America soon after his birth. 

His especial talent was shown in the expression of 
heroic ideas and characters. 

The artist was but a boy at the time of the Civil 
War, and he learned to love Lincoln for his kindness 
of heart and great wisdom- His statue is placed upon 
a broad foundation at one of the entrances of Lincoln 
Park, Chicago. 

Have this picture before the children if possible 
when giving incidents in the life of Lincoln, as the 
slightly bowed head, thoughtful and kindly expres- 
sion and style of dress are nowhere more correctly 
portrayed. 

BUSY WORK. 

The children will enjoy the third and fourth gift 
blocks during the month. They will enjoy construct- 
ing bridges, forts, a monument, log cabins, fire 
places, etc. 

Paper cutting may be swords, soldiers, caps, horses, 
guns, hatchets, valentines in various shapes, envelopes, 
cherries, bells. A February poster representing the 
home of Lincoln may be made. It should contain a 



THE KINDERGAftTEtt-PMMAlfcY MAGAZINE 



m 



rude log cabin, a few bare trees, low shrubs, and rail 
fences. 

Have each child make a booklet, either Washington 
or Lincoln. If Washington is chosen the cover may 
be decorated with hatchet or cherries, and for Lincoln 
his early home, the log cabin. If but a folder the 
inside may contain a few events in their lives, and 
each should be tied with red, white, and blue ribbon. 

PRACTICAL NUMBER. 

At two cents each how many valentines can you 
buy for ten cents? 

How many one-cent postage stamps can you buy 
for 8 cents? How many two-cent stamps for 10 cents? 

If oranges cost 5 cents each, how many can you 
buy for 10 cents? 

If you have 8 sticks of candy, and you wish to 
divide it evenly among four friends how many sticks 
wil each have? 

If a pair of shoes cost $3, how many pairs will $6 
buy? 

If you hand the clerk 5 cents to pay for pencils at 
2 cents each, how many pencils will you have, and 
how much left? 

Boxes of number cards should be in the hands of 
the children for busy work. They will soon learn to 
make their own problems, and for oral work have the 
children give examples about the problems they have 
made similar to the ones suggested. 

WORD GAME. 

Give the children a talk upon the use of the tele- 
phone and telegraph. 

Place a list of words upon the board for review. 
With two cans attached to strings construct a tele- 
phone. They are to use words only. One pupil takes 
the receiver and names a word the other pupil spells 
the word correctly through the phone. If he fails, 
another takes his place. They may vary it by spelling 
a word, and asking the other child to name the word. 

The children will enjoy playing the "telephone 
game" themselves. Say to some pupil, Mary, you may 
telephone a word, and name the child you wish to 
have receive your message. They may be divided 
into two groups, one group sending the messages, and 
pupils from the other group receiving them. 



A LANGUAGE AND COLOR LESSON 
M. Evelyn Carroll, New York. 

The following is a practical combination of langu- 
age and art work for first grade children. 

On a sunshiny morning the children observe the 
standard colors shown through a glass prism. The 
teacher asks, "John, what color do you see?" She in- 
sists on a complete story in reply. 

John — "I see red. I see yellow. I see blue," etc., 
until all the colors are mentioned and all the children 
have recited. 

After the children have had a pleasant time with 
the prism it is put away and the following game is 
played. 

Teacher — "I see a pretty hair ribbon. Can you 
guess which one, Jane?" 



Jane — "Are you thinking of Helen's blue hair rib- 
bon?" 

Teacher — "No." (The child whose name is men- 
tioned has the next turn.) 

Helen — ''Are you thinking of Ethel's red ribbon?" 

Teacher — "Yes. (She continues.) I see a pretty 
necktie." 

"The game goes on indefinitely, the teacher think- 
ing of flowers, dresses, etc., the children guessing 
and each time giving a complete sentence in response. 
The game works especially well with shy backward 
children because of their love for color. — Normal In- 
structor. 



JOYOUS WORK 
And what more joyous work could one ask than 
that of the teacher! To no one else comes the oppor- 
tunity for constructive and productive work that 
comes to the teacher. No one else, except perhaps the 
parent, touches the young lives in such a way, or has 
such an influence upon them for good as has the 
teacher. And what more precious thing can we give 
to a boy or girl who is growing into manhood or 
womanhood than a healthy, happy, clean-minded 
outlook on life and its duties, pleasures and responsi- 
bilities. — Harold 0. Cullen, Educational Exchange. 



She's very sweet, my mother dear, 
I want to tell her so right here; 

And give to her this heart of mine, 
And sign myself her Valentine. 

We send you this sweet valentine, 
Your good, true heart to cheer, 

And may the happiness it brings, 
Be with you all the year. 



Here is February, 

Such a tiny thing; 
She's the shortest daughter 

Mother Year can bring. 

Whenever a snowflake leaves the sky, 
It turns, and turns to say, "Goodby, 

Goodby, dear clouds, so cool and gray," 
Then lightly travels on its way. 



February sunbeams 

Brighter grow each day, 
Telling that the winter 

Soon will pass away. 



In the January St. Nicholas is an excellent repro- 
duction of a wax tablet of the second century A. D. 
containing a schoolboy's exercise in number work. It 
will interest educators and high school students. The 
descriptive sketch is by one of the editors of the 
Kindergarten Primary Magazine who saw it in the 
British Museum a year ago. 



Difficulties are meant to rouse, not discourage.- 
Charming, 



■ Ml* M<W II ■!■ .IH.IM— ■'■■ll.^i.lWl.l HIM .III ■■■■ I—! I II MllWflfgTlil 




Blackboard Suggestions for February, by Laura Rountree Smith 



CARRIER PIGEON SERVICE 
An interesting feature of the United States and 
Dominion Company's steamers plying between 
Duluth and Port Arthur and Isle Royal is the carrier 
pigeon service inaugurated some years ago, and now 
carried on successfully as a means of communication 
between the steamers and the Duluth agency. The 
wise little birds are released from the steamer 
carrying messages of commercial importance as well 
as communications from passengers to their friends. 
A small charge only is made for such service to cover 
cost of re-mailing, etc. 



CURING THE DRINK HABIT 
A business man formed the habit of leaving his 
office each morning about eleven o'clock to get a drink 
at a nearby bar. One morning, when he was in a 
great hurry, be dashed into a nearer drug store and 
bought an ice cream soda. 

Much to his surprise, he found the drink quite as 
satisfying. As a result, he has changed his cocktail 
habit into an ice cream soda habit. He has been on 



the new drink now for over six months and feels 
safe enough, and so gratified that he no longer hesi- 
tates to tell about what he considers to have been a 
narrow escape. — Western Teacher. 



MAKE YOUR OWN DRINKING CUPS 

If drinking cups are not at hand you can make 
them. 

Material. — 8x8 inch square of any smooth tough 
paper. 

Fold on one diagonal. Place on desk with fold at 
bottom. 

On the left hand edge measure up from lower cor- 
ner 4% inches and place a dot. 

Fold lower right corner to touch dot on the left 
side and crease. 

Turn paper over. Fold lower right corner to touch 
angle of fold on left side. Fold down the tri-angles 
left at the top, one on each side and tuck into the 
openings of lower folds. 

These may prove more expensive than the regular 
manufactured cups if time of pupils in making them 
is considered, but the hand work experience will 
make up for it. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



193 



AIMS IN TEACHING 

In a recent address to principals, on the subject of 
elementary history, Dr. Maxwell, city superintendent 
of New York, emphasized the following fundamentals, 
we quote a part of his address from School: 

CAUSE AND EFFECT 

"In a word, inquiry into causality should be the 
chief means used in the study of history. Schopen- 
hauer maintained that the idea of cause and effect 
was the one innate idea of the human mind. How- 
ever this may be, of one thing we are sure — the desire 
to determine causes is the most fundamental power 
of the human mind. It is easy for the mind to pass 
from a preceding event to a consequent event when 
they stand in the relation of cause and effect. "When 
two events are presented in any other way, they re- 
quire an arbitrary act of memory, which is always 
distasteful and never produces an enduring effect. 
The inquiry as to cause and effect, on the other hand, 
carries the young mind irresistably along, and makes 
study a pleasure. What is arbitrarily memorized 
and painfully acquired is distasteful and the mind 
casts it out, just as the body refuses to assimilate un- 
wholesome food. On the other hand, the pleasure of 
following up a logical chain of carefully connected 
events is keen and permanent. Which method, the 
nation method or the selective event method, lends 
itself most readily to the determination of cause and 
effect in history, is the criterion that will finally 
develop a method that will endure. 

"I wish to place this idea of causality side by side 
with three great aims of the teacher in the school, 
which I have emphasized during the last three or four 
years. 

THE THREE GREAT AIMS. 

"The first of these aims, as you will remember, is 
to give special help to the slow and backward child. 

"The second is to cultivate in both teachers and 
pupils the habit of concentration, giving the whole 
mind and energy to the task immediately at hand. 

"The third is to cultivate the habit of systematic 
reflection — that is, going over carefully in one's mind 
the conduct of each task or of each day, in order to 
discover and correct mistakes or to lay up good 
precepts for future conduct. 

"Besides these three fundamental principles of 
school administration, I place, as of equal importance, 
the habit of tracing, wherever possible, cause and 
effect in all phenomena considered. If teachers would 
regulate their teaching by this procedure, it would 
improve all teaching very greatly in a brief period." 



Barracks are a horrible invention of modern times. 
They originated in the seventeenth century. Form- 
erly there was nothing but the guard-house, where 
veterans played cards and told fairy stories. Louis 
XIV is the precursor of the Convention and of Bona- 
parte. But the evil has come to a head in the mon- 
strous institution of military service. To have forced 
men to kill each other is the disgrace of emperors and 



republics, the crime of crimes. In the so called bar- 
barous ages, cities and princes entrusted their defense 
to mercenaries, who made war deliberately and 
prudently; in some great battles there were only five 
or six slain. And when the knights engaged in war 
they were not forced to it; they were killed of their 
own free will. It is true they were good for nothing 
else. In the days of Saint Louis no one would have 
dreamt of sending a man of learning and intelligence 
into battle. Neither was the laborer dragged from his 
plough and forced to join the army. Now it is con- 
sidered the duty of a poor peasant to serve as a 
soldier. Now he is driven from his home with its 
chimneys smoking in the golden evening light, from 
the fat meadows where his oxen are grazing, from his 
cornfields and ancestral woods. In the courtyard of 
some miserable barracks he is taught how to kill men 
methodically; he is threatened, insulted, imprisoned; 
he is told that it is an honor, and if he desires no 
such honor, he is shot. — Anatole France in The Con- 
servator. 



"I consider every public schoolhouse a sacred 
temple of education. Within its friendly walls a 
message of hope and inspiration has been brought to 
the American boy. There he has learned that no task 
is too hard for him to attempt, no height too lofty for 
him to scale. There he has found the universal key 
that unlocks all the mysteries of science and art, the 
magic key of study. And beyond all the reading, all 
the writing, all the arithmetic that have taxed his 
patience through snowy winter mornings and sultry 
summer afternoons, the American boy has learned 
something else in the public school. He has learned 
the American's first lesson, the lesson of equality and 
equal opportunity. 

"There are no favorites in 'the little red school- 
house.' The son of the banker and the son of the 
mechanic meet there upon a common footing. Each 
school is a miniature republic where industry and 
ability are the only roads to favor and success. As 
everyone of Napoleon's soldiers carried in his knap- 
sack a field marshal's baton, so each American boy 
carries in his school bag a title to the presidency of 
the United States. Whatever else they do the schools 
of America produce real Americans, fit for the duties 
and the responsibilities of American citizenship." — 
Gov. Glynn, New York. 



A PATTERN BOOK 
For years I have gathered patterns and placed them 
in envelopes only to become defaced and rather use- 
less. Now I gather them all in a blank book. This 
book is made by tying together full-sized sheets of 
commercial note which can be bought at any 
stationers. Into this book I trace any pattern and 
with a sheet of transfer paper always at hand can 
transfer any pattern easily. Thus all patterns are in 
a neat compact form where they may be easily re- 
produced by placing transfer paper between the pat- 
tern and the paper to be used. s. e. b. 

— School Arts Magazine. 



194 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



POINTS IN STORY TELLING 

Susan M. Kane. 

The ability to tell a story is a gift, and a teacher 
who has it is to be congratulated. But even when one 
has very little in that line it is an art that can be ac- 
quired. 

One reason that so many teachers read stories to 
their children instead of telling them is that they want 
to tell a story as they heard some one else tell it and 
not .in their own way. They feel they have not the 
ability to give it dramatic effect. 

Gesture and dramatic posts are not necesary in tell- 
ing a story. Neither is it necessary to express the 
varied emotions with fetching facial expression. One 
can readily recall stories that made a lasting impres- 
sion on one's mind and they were told when nestling 
in the crook of some one's arm when neither hand nor 
face of the story-teller were seen. The best story- 
tellers I have ever listened to have been seated about 
the dim light of a dying peat fire, the person only 
faintly seen. The stories were told as though talking 
to an intimate friend, simple, sincerely, allowing the 
voice and expression to take care of the dramatic 
effect. 

A beginner in story-telling should choose a story 
she likes and she should tell it first to some one 
whose criticism will be given frankly. An honest 
friend's criticism is always enlightening and none is 
more so than when the friend is a child. Tell the 
story over and over again. Children will not object if 
the story is a good one, for, when you are telling it 
aloud, he is telling it to himself, and feels he is as 
good a story-teller as you are, which is part of the 
charm of the story to him. 

The telling of the story many times is good prac- 
tice in gaining self-confidence and ease and it is the 
very best way to break one's self of the beginner's 
great fault in story-telling — talking too fast. Chil- 
dren love the deep pauses in a story when the telling 
points have time to sink in. "A rattling good story- 
teller" is often low of speech. If you talk too fast 
the children cannot keep up with" you and lose in- 
terest. 

Nothing in a story so confuses a child as elabora- 
tion. Adults may like it, but a child wants the plain, 
simple facts. 

A story should never be discussed during the tell- 
ing. Its completeness is spoiled. Most Sunday school 
story-tellers have this fault. They are so anxious to 
rub the moral of the story in that they are constantly 
interrupting the story with their own questions and 
not infrequently the unexpected results. 

The story should be told so well that all uncon- 
sciously the moral sinks in. Often a well-told story 
falls flat because the story-teller moralizes or adds a 
preachment which becomes meaningless words to the 
child. 

If the story is known perfectly, and it is loved and 
there is a desire to tell it, one does not have to be a 
professional story-teller to do it well. — Pimary Edu- 
cation. \ 



WASHINGTON'S BIRTHDAY. 
Dr. Mary E. Law, Toledo, O. 

The children have had their introduction into the 
history of their country by the celebration of Colum- 
bus day and Thanksgiving day. Now they come to 
the beginnings of our government or the idea of 
liberty for which their ancestors fought and bled. An 
idea which was crystalized in the form of a constitu- 
tion, which guarantees to one and all the right to life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness. 

Washington should be presented to the children as 
the first president of this nation, a man of truth and 
honor and not as a great soldier. Let that side of his 
character be reserved for the children in the higher 
grades. We can only give a vignette of Washington 
in the kindergarten, not a portrait. The story of the 
cherry tree with a fable or not should be told the 
children to bring out that side of his character which 
made him famous. That little story of Washington 
has done more to inculcate truth-telling among Amer- 
ican children than all the sermons that ever were 
preached. He was too brave and courageous to tell a 
lie. Only cowards tell falsehoods. 

The story of the flag should be told and the oath 
of allegiance taken. "I give my head, my heart and 
my hand to my country; one country, one language, 
one flag." 

The toast, "Washington: — first in war, first in 
peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen," 
should be learned by every child. The colonial flag of 
thirteen stars and stripes should be made and the 
significance of the colors and stars explained. A flag 
of the present year should be exhibited. Hats and 
shields and other red, white and blue occupations 
made. 

His old home at Mt. Vernon should be made with 
the gifts as well as the capitol at Washington. 

Patriotic songs and marches and other suitable ex- 
ercises should signalize an event long to be remem- 
bered. 

Lincoln's birthday, which comes the same month, 
may be celebrated in alternate years. 



SEAT WORK FOR FEBRUARY 

Cut out a flag and color. 

Make a shield. 

Draw hatchets, color red. 

Cut out a house. Use brown crayon to make it a log 
house. 

Illustrate Lincoln chopping rails. 

Illustrate Washington marching with soldiers. 

Trace around hearts and make a valentine. Other 
valentines. 

Make up little rhymes for valentine verses. Give a 
list of rhyme words, as mine, thine, etc. 

Make dominoes. Use hearts instead of dots. 

Arrange hearts in groups of 3's. Then write by 3's. 

Illustrate child going to letter box to mail valen- 
tines. — Primary Educator. 



Hackensack, N. J. — The borough council has 
granted the Board of Education the use of the council 
chambers in the Municipal Building for kindergarten 
purposes. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



195 



PREPARATION OF WOMEN FOR 
TWENTIETH CENTURY LIFE 

Mary E. Wooixey, President Mount Holyoke College 

That education should prepare for life is not a new 
dictum, a recently discovered truth. But when we 
say that education should prepare for twentieth cen- 
tury life, we are looking at an old truth from a new 
angle. 

President Jordan of Leland Stanford Jr. University, 
in an address to his students near the opening of the 
century, said: — 

"Compared with the centuries that are past, the 
twentieth century, in its broad outlines, will be like 
the rest. It will be selfish, generous, careless, de- 
voted, fatuous, efficient. But three of its traits must 
stand out above all others, each raised to a higher 
degree than any other century has known. The 
twentieth century, above all others, will be strenuous, 
complex, and democratic." 

The characterization of the century applies not only 
to men; it is equally true for women. The mere 
statement that an age is strenuous, complex, and 
democratic, — interpreting democracy as that which 
"exalts the individual," values "men as men" and 
women as women, — gives an insight into the kind of 
preparation necessary in order to live its life strongly 
and well. Our grandmothers had "faculty," to use a 
good old New England expression.to a marked degree, 
but new conditions demand new training, and the 
preparation adequate for the comparatively simple 
life of their day is not adequate for the complexity of 
ours. In a certain sense, the consideration must be 
a restricted one, for, under our present social order, 
not every woman can have preparation for the life of 
the century in which she lives and that restriction in 
itself puts an added responsibility upon the shoulders 
of the women who do have the opportunity. Modern 
life has not outgrown the principle of noblesse oblige; 
it simply presents it in a new setting. The earnest 
woman of today does not look upon education as a 
personal acquisition, without bearing upon the com- 
mon welfare, or consider that schools and colleges 
exist in order that she may be "highly accomplished," 
stamped with the hall-mark of culture. 

Several years ago, a university president, whose 
views on general educational subjects are more dis- 
criminating than on the woman question, expressed 
the fear that "modern woman, at least in more ways 
and places than one, is in danger of declining from 
her orbit." Aside from the difficulty of defining afore- 
said "orbit," it is well to remember that the century 
calls for many kinds of service, from women as well 
as from men. It needs the service of the home maker, 
but for the woman of the twentieth century the ques- 
tion of home making must broaden into a conception 
not to be confined within the walls of her own dwell- 
ing. Her responsibility includes the home of the 
other woman, the woman who is living in a tenement, 
not differentiated by the word "model;" whose only 
"sleeping porch" is a fire escape, which must also 



serve as the family storeroom and the family coal 
bin; who has never heard lectures on sanitation — 
probably does not know the meaning of the word — 
and is so accustomed to inner rooms, where sun 
and air have never penetrated, to close hallways and 
foul odors, that light, airy, sunny rooms would seem 
like a bit of heaven brought down to earth, as indeed 
they are; whose children learn life not from the 
wholesome influences of the home but from the un- 
wholesome influences of the street; who ekes out an 
existence by an unending round of weary toil and 
never knows what it is to have a living wage. 

In other ways the "home maker" of the twentieth 
century has a very much wider responsibility than 
her grandmother, — a responsibility for the industries 
taken out of the home and intrusted to bakeries and 
restaurants, laundries and soap factories, canneries 
and dairies, mills and tailoring establishments; a re- 
sponsibility for pure food and clean streets, hygienic 
schoolrooms and wholesome amusements, for the 
prevention of contagious diseases of the body, and the 
elimination of drunkenness and the social evil, the 
contagious diseases of the soul. Above all, upon her 
rests the responsibility for the child life of the 
nation, that it may not be defrauded of the child's 
right to play and happiness, education and good in- 
fluence. 

From the home, as the center of the century's life, 
radiate lines of activity for women of which our 
grandmothers little dreamed. Upon the one which 
teachers represent so impressively, I should like to 
dwell for a moment because real teaching belongs in 
the category of the great enterprises which stir the 
imagination, excite the ambition, and stimulate the 
powers. 

All along the line, from kindergarten to university 
and professional school, there is a demand for men 
and women of originality and force, who will bring 
to educational problems the same degree of intellec- 
tual power that is blazing the way in the physical 
sciences, in discovery and invention. Teaching de- 
mands also the comprehensive mind, the mind that 
can master details and not be mastered by them, 
that can see a subject in the large. The more ele- 
mentary the course, the more necessary are breadth 
of vision, mental grasp, and power of selection, for 
the immature student must have blazed for him the 
trail which the more advanced can discover for them- 
selves. 

The promotion of a great enterprise demands the 
qualities of initiative, comprehension, and insight; if 
the enterprise concerns the development of human 
beings instead of things, it must define insight in 
terms of sympathy. The investment of one's self in 
others, which is really what the cultivation of this 
power of sympathetic insight means, pays big divi- 
dends. What those dividends are, the teacher never 
fully knows, and he m!ust be willing both not to know 
and not to expect them to be paid to him in recogni- 
tion and appreciation. As Professor Palmer says in 

(continued on Page 198) 





yvvvvvv 




> rEBRUfiHY <f 

SQUARED UNITS FOR FEBRUARY— F. G. Sanders. (See following page.) 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



196 



SQUARED UNITS FOR FEBRUARY 
F. G. Sanders, Toronto. 

(see illustration on following page.) 

These simple squared drawings can be copied by 
the children. 

First— Solid. 

Second — In outline, and colored with paints or 
crayon. 

Third — In wool, or silk on canvas. 



DRAWINGS 

Love birds. 

'Tis said the birds choose their mates in February, 
and so they started the idea of sending love messages 
in that month. 

Children with valentine. 

George Washington and the cherry tree. 

Lincoln's cabin. 

Girl posting valentine 

Heart. 

Snow-flakes. 



"February next in line 

Brings lovers true their valentine." 



HEW TO THE LINE 
did 



you get that 8. 



Teacher — Now, Willie, where 
chewing gum? I want the truth. 

Willie — You don't want the truth teacher, an' I'd 
ruther not tell a lie. 

Teacher — How dare you say I don't want the truth. 
Tell me at once where you got that chewing gum. 

Willie — Under your desk. 



TEN LECTURES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL VALUES 
FORWARD 

The bearings of psychology on every human in- 
terest under the sun are daily becoming more evident. 
The author, the lawyer, the physician, the actor, the 
artist, the business man are learning what the teacher 
has long known, the value of psychology in its appli- 
cation to their work. This course will deal with some 
of the more recent psychological literature. It will 
aim to show how psychology may aid in interpreting 
and solving some vexing problems of the day. 

Wednesday, 4 P. M. Hunter College Room, 101 

1. Psychology of Today and Yesterday Jan. 13 

"The Classical Psychologists" — Benjamin Rand. 

2. Laboratory Psychology Jan. 20 

"Founders of Modern Psychology" — G. Staley Hall. 

3. The Relation of Psychology to Present-day 

Problems Jan. 27 

"Psychology of Advertising" — Scott. 
"Human Nature Club" — Thorndike. 

4. Tests and Training of Feeling Feb. 3 

"Psychology of Emotions" — Ribot. 

5. Attention as a Criterion of Intellect Feb. 24 

"Psychology of Attention" — Pillsbury. 

6. How to Rest Mentally Mar. 3 

Summer Schools vs. Rest-Cure and Travel. 

7. Stages in Human Instinct Mar. 10 

"Fundamentals of Child Study" — Kirkpatrick. 

"Outline of Psychology" — Titchener. 
The Power of Transcending Actual Exper- 
ience Mar. 17 

"Fact and Fable in Psychology" — Jasrow. 

9. Dreams Mar. 24 

"World of Dreams" — Havelock Ellis 

10. Human Progress Mar. 31 

"Race Improvement through Eugenics" — Davenport 








Suggestion For February Calendar 



198 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY -MAGAZINE 



PREPARATION OF WOMEN FOR 
TWENTIETH CENTURY LIFE 

(Continued from Page 195) 
his Ideal Teacher, "One root of success or character- 
istic which every teacher must possess is a readiness 
to be forgotten. If praise and recognition are dear to 
him, he may as well stop work." 

To have a part in the world's work is not simply 
or chiefly to discover new applications of natural 
forces, to promote industry, to develop material re- 
sources; it is concerned also with the discovery of 
intellectual and spiritual forces and their application 
to daily living, with the promotion of earnest pur- 
poses and high ideals, with the development of the 
resources of the mind and of the heart. The really 
vital things come within this province. Society can 
exist without great wealth, enlarged industries, in- 
vention, discovery; it cannot long stand without in- 
tegrity, honor, truth, purity, idealism. 

Preparation for service naturally suggests voca- 
tional training, hut it is apparent that in a general 
discussion no hard and fast rule can be laid down. 
For many girls the vocational idea must be in mind 
very early for various reasons: the necessity for an 
immediate application of education to their work in 
life; the possession of strongly marked "aptitudes" 
for some particular line; the lack of aptitude for pro- 
longed application and the necessity of arousing and 
holding the interest, giving definiteness and purpose 
by directing toward a certain goal. It is manifestly 
impossible to lay out one program, one schedule of 
studies, that shall cover all cases; to say on the 
advent of a daughter: "This is a girl. She shall 
graduate from the course in domestic science at the 
University of Minnesota in the year — ." for the un- 
expected may happen and the aforesaid maiden be 
graduated in the year — not from the University of 
Minnesota domestic science course, but from John 
Hopkins University medical course. 

In considering the subject of work for women, one 
truth is very often overlooked and that is, that they 
must be considered as individuals and not exclusively 
as members of a sex. A man would more naturally 
be a carpenter or a machinist or a merchant than a 
cook or a dressmaker or a milliner, but the fact re- 
mains that many of our cooks and some of our dress- 
makers and milliners are men and we are not greatly 
shocked thereby. In other words, we consider that the 
individual man has a right to determine the career, 
the manner of life, for which he is best fitted and 
which circumstances make most feasible for him. 
Perhaps the greatest change which the education of 
women has brought about is the extension of this 
principle to them. The opponents of higher education 
are right in their fear that it means something more 
than the opportunity to study Calculus or to read the 
Greek dramatists in the original. It has introduced 
into many a household the startling and novel ques- 
tion, "If John Jones has a right to become a dress- 
maker because he prefers it, why should not Jane 
Jones become a doctor, if she prefers that?" 



In the light of the pronounced interest in vocational 
training, it is perhaps not amiss to remind ourselves 
that the first essential to efficiency in any vocation 
is that which is essential to the stability of a building 
— namely, a good foundation. The man about to 
build a house would be thought insane if he insisted 
that bricks, stone, concrete, should be discarded and 
clapboards and shingles substituted for the foun- 
dations, because, forsooth, the house itself was to be 
clapboarded and the roof shingled, or should demand 
that the foundations be omitted, that the house might 
go up the more quickly. The result would be a shack 
for fair weather, not a house to stand the strain and 
stress of all seasons. 

A strenuous, complex, and democratic century calls 
for a well-equipped human being. Fifty-four years 
ago, before the outbreak of the Civil War, our New 
England Seer said, in his essay on "Power": — 

"For performance of great mark, it needs extraor- 
dinary health. If Erie is in robust health, and has 
slept well, and is at the top of his condition, and thirty 
years old, at his departure from Greenland he will 
steer west, and his ship will reach Newfoundland. 
But take out Eric and put in a stronger and bolder 
man, — Biorn, or Thorfin, — and the ships will, with 
just as much ease, sail six hundred, one thousand, 
fifteen hundred miles further, and reach Labrador 
and New England. There is no chance in results. 
With adults, as with children, one class enter cordially 
into the game and whirl with the whirling world; 
the others have cold hands and remain bystanders; or 
are only dragged in by humor and vivacity of those 
who can carry a dead weight. The first wealth is 
health. Sickness is poor-spirited, and cannot serve 
any one; it must husband its resources to live. But 
health or fullness answers its own ends and has to 
spare, runs over, and inundates the neighborhoods 
and cracks of other men's necessities." 

What was apparent the middle of the nineteenth 
century is even more apparent this first quarter of the 
twentieth. A century strenuous and complex, — how 
can one hope to meet its demands adequately, without 
this "first wealth"? It is true that some fine tasks 
have been performed for the world by those who were 
physically handicapped, but that does not invalidate 
the statement that physical unfitness is a handicap. 
Many a woman — and man — of earnest purpose and 
marked ability have seen their ambitions and aims in 
life come to nothing because the body failed at the 
critical moment, or because there was no physical 
reserve to carry through that which was so well 
planned. The day is past when the sensible woman 
"enjoys poor health" or considers illness a "dispen- 
sation of Providence." She realizes that health is an 
essential factor in her life work. If a teacher, she 
must have buoyancy, vitality, a cheerful disposition, 
the power of inspiring others, qualities largely de- 
pendent upon physical condition. The mother in the 
home needs the same qualities and has as an added 
reason for health, the thought of the priceless legacy 
which it means for future generations. For the 
physician, nurse, or woman engaged in other pro- 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



199 



fessions, making an enormous draft upon physical 
endurance, the value of a robust constitution and a 
consequently clear brain and level head, needs no 
emphasis, and in the distinctive literary or scholarly 
pursuits, its influence in promoting imagination and 
creative power, is not less marked. "It is always a 
misfortune to be ill, frequently it is a disgrace," said 
a wise teacher. A sane, wholesome, clean life, free 
from stimulants, nourished by pure food, strengthened 
by exercise, sleep, water, fresh air, — and, may I add 
cheerfulness, — this is not too much to expect from a 
rational human being in this hygienically enlightened 
age. 

I should like to add, as one of the values that come 
naturally from physical vitality, although fortunately 
not absolutely dependent upon that, a certain joyous- 
ness in living, the ability to "take the old world by 
the hand and frolic with it," to quote from Stevenson; 
"to keep the eyes open, the heart warm and the 
pulses swift, as we move across the field of life," 
finding that things taken on the run" — in Dr. Jordan's 
suggestive words. To live earnestly but not take 
one's self too seriously, is a lesson that is well worth 
the learning. 

"Take a dash of water cold 

And a little leaven of prayer, 
A little bit of sunshine gold 

Dissolved in the morning air; 
Add to your meal some merriment 

And a thought for kith and kin; 
And then as a prime ingredient 

A plenty of work thrown in; 
But piece it all with the essence of love 

And a little whiff of play; 
Let a wise old book and a glance above 

Complete a well spent day." 

It may not be out of place to suggest the training 
of the intellect as a preparation for effective living 
even in the twentieth century. In our institutions of 
learning we fall into a rather apologetic attitude in 
these days, when we can think of no reason why a 
subject is retained in the curriculum except that it 
is useful in training the mind. And yet since the 
world began there has never been a time when pro- 
gress was not dependent primarily upon the mind 
directing the work, upon the thinker behind he thing 
accomplished. In a commencement address the Dis- 
trict Attorney of New York said: — 

"Can there be any question that for practically 
every advance or gain in the physical and material 
things of life, in the improvement of conditions 
under which men and women live and work and play, 
in the vast changes of the century past, which have 
made better homes for all, better food for all, better 
clothing for all, preservation of health, facilities for 
fighting disease, safe and speedy transportation and 
communication, we are indebted to the silent men at 
work in our colleges and universities, and to the vast 
army of men and women who have been trained in 
them to correct thinking and accurate work, and who 
are inspired as well to the highest endeavor of which 
the human mind is capable?" 

No one can stand on the Gatum Locks or at the 
Culebra Cut on the Isthmus of Panama, without being 



impressed, not alone or chiefly by the manual labor 
which that great achievement represents, but by the 
thinking power behind that made it possible. The 
keen mind, the mind that has power of discrimin- 
ation, quickness of perception, ready observation; 
the habit of clear, accurate thinking, of seeing re- 
lations, of eliminating non-essentials, of blazing a 
trail through a forest of perplexities, — one can con- 
ceive of no condition of life today in which that 
power is not only desirable, but absolutely essential 
to progress. And the demand comes home to women 
certainly as directly as to men. 

The alert mind is not the only desideratum. An 
illuminating article entitled To Virtue Knowledge, 
written by an alumna of Smith College, reminds us 
that although it is important to act promptly and 
accurately, it is still more important to be able to re- 
strain action, to see things as they are in themselves, 
apart from utilitarian interest; that the former 
furnishes the brain with useful paths of habit, the 
latter develops its deepest resources. We often com- 
plain of the superficiality of the manual work of 
today, but that criticism cannot be confined to the 
work of the hands. To develop the deepest resources 
of the brain, — is that not a function of education? 
Such development does not come along the lines of 
least resistance; it is akin to the moral and spiritual 
wrestling which is the price paid for character, as 
this is the price paid for mentality. The acquirement 
of information or knowledge and this power are not 
necessarily synonymous. There are many subjects 
valuable in their content, which do not develop it. 
"There are certain studies," says Dr. Abraham Flex- 
ner, "in respect to which American society leaves the 
boy no option. It is impossible to substitute some- 
thing else for them, whether taught with equal effi- 
ciency or greater. There are other subjects, the 
value of which to the individual depends almost 
wholly on what follows." 

There is no waste time spent in work which de- 
mands and develops this power of gripping a subject, 
grappling with difficulties, and so strengthening the 
mental muscle, the muscle that the modern world 
needs for the solving of its problems. I hope we 
shall never weaken the influence of the college by 
eliminating from our curricula the studies which call 
for the severest concentration, and progress only 
along the lines of least resistance. 



O. OH 

In direct address use O with a noun, as: O John, 
come here. No punctuation follows O. 

In expressions of joy, pain, surprise, etc., use oh, 
as: Oh, how beautiful the mountain is! 

When the sentence as a whole is exclamatory a 
comma follows oh, and an exclamation point is used 
at the end; otherwise this is the correct punctuation: 
Oh! I have forgotten my camera. 

O is always a capital, but oh is capitalized only at 
the beginning of a sentence. 

Examples: We made the trip; and, oh, how en- 
joyable it was! 

Oh! Have I hurt you? 

Come, O men of iron will. 

0, yes, I understand you, — Western Teacher. 



200 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PEIMARY MAGAZINE 




OUR FLAG 
Blue says, "Be true." 
White says, "Be pure." 
Red says, "Be brave." 



TRUTH 
Speak the truth bravely, 

Cost what it may; 
Hiding a wrong act 

Is never the way. 



Hearts like doors can ope with ease, 

To very, very little keys; 
And ne'er forget that they are these: 

"I thank you, sir," and "If you please.' 



GOLDEN RULE 

There are no fairy folk, 
Who ride about the world at night, 

And bring you rings and other things 
To pay for doing right. 

But if you'll do to others 
As you'd have them do to you, 

You'll be as blest as if the best 
Of story books are true. 

— Alice Gary. 



I think that every mother's son 

And every father's daughter 

Should drink at least till twenty-one 

Just nothing but cold water. 



Whoever you are, be noble; 

Whatever you do, do well; 
Whenever you speak, speak kindly; 

Give joy wherever you dwell. 



My heart is God's little garden, 
And the fruit I shall bear each day 

Are the things He shall see me doing 
And the words He shall hear me say. 



Be kind and be gentle 
To those who are old, 

For dearer, is kindness 
And better, than gold. 

Work while you work, 
Play while you play; 

That is the way 
To be cheerful and gay. 



When icicles hang by the wall 
And Dick the sheperd blows his nael, 

And Tom bears logs into the hall, 
And milk comes frozen home in pail, 

When blood is nipt and ways be foul, 
Then nightly sings the staring owl 
Tuwhoo! 



SUGGESTIVE LIST OF STORIES FOR SUB-PRI- 
MARY AND FIRST GRADE 
Miriam E. Tobet. 

SUB-PEIMAKY LIST. 

The Three Billy Goats Gruff. 
The Old Woman and Her Pig. 
The Three Bears. 
The Pancake. 
The Gingerbread Boy. 
The House That Jack Built. 
Chicken Little. 
The Pig Brother. 

The Little Red Hen That Found the Grain of 
Wheat. 

The Ant and the Grasshopper. 

The Dog and His Shadow. 

The Fox and the Little Red Hen. 

Town Mouse and City Mouse. 

The Town Musicians. 

The Hill and the Little Boy. 

Five Peas in a Pod. 

The Lion and the Mouse. 

Billy Boy. 

The Cat Learns to Dance. 

Belling the Cat. 

Little Red Riding Hood. 

The Little Plant. 

The Straw, the Coal, and the Bean. 

The Three Little Pigs. 

Titty Mouse and Tatty Mouse. 

FIRST GRADE STORIES. 

Little Mouse Pie. 

Poplar Tree. 

The Anxious Leaf. 

The Little Jackal and the Alligator. 

The Crane Express. 

The Elves and the Shoemaker. 

The Boy Who Cried "Wolf, Wolf." 

Epaminondas and His Auntie. 

The Foolish Weathervane. 

The Goose and the Golden Eggs. 

Little Half-Chick. 

The Fox and the Grapes. 

How the Chipmunk Got His Stripes. 

The Discontented Pine Tree. 

Briar Rose. 

One Good Trick. 

The Blind Man and the Lame Man. 

The Lion and the Jackals. 

Johnny Cake. 

The Sleeping Apple. 

The Thrifty Squirrel. 

Lambikin. 

The Hare and the Tortoise. 

Jack and the Beanstalk. 

Timothy's Shoes. 

The Brownies. 

Little Black Sambo. 

— Atlantic Educational Journal. 



One scabbed sheep can mar a whole flock. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



201 



SUGGESTIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION 
WORK 

Miss Susan R. Frazier. 

WINTER SCENES. 

Material: Pure white drawing paper, green 
crayola, soft lead pencil, soft crayon, smoke gray royal 
melton cover paper, for mounts; and good library 
paste. 

Eskimo Girl and Dog: First trace around patterns, 
then cut to line. Paste girl and dog in position. 
Draw lines for dog's harness, with pencil. Take one 
half stick of crayon. Hold in an upright position, 
and with flat, broken end draw wide, heavy lines 
across lower part of mount. Go from left to right in 
straight, even strokes, the same as handling a brush 
in water colors. With the ends of first two fingers, 
rub and blend crayon marks, in a rolling movement. 
Touch end of crayon, lightly, in making snowflakes. 

Eskimo in Boat: First cut and mount picture. 
Next draw in the outline for icebergs, then fill in 
with crayon. Rub and roll with finger movement 
same as above. With crayon, draw the wave marks 
to represent water. Add snowflakes. 

Reindeer and Polar Bears: Same as Eskimo in boat. 
The drawing for icebergs and cake of ice made after 
pasting bear in position. 

Snow Man: Make the snow on ground first, then 
draw in the snow man with heavy marks. Use pencil 
to draw and color hat, and to mark eyes, nose, and 
mouth. 

Eskimo Hut: Work out in same manner as snow 
man. Scene is first made on small mount. Paste this 
mount on black paper cut in any size desired for 
border. Next paste on larger mount. — Nebraska 
Teacher. 



There is a quaint description in the Book of Judges 
concerning one of the Tribes of Israel. "For the 
divisions of Reuben there were great searchings of 
heart." In the twentieth century there will be, there 
already are, "great searchings of heart," new ethical 
standards, higher business and political and personal 
morality, a purer civic life. 



"Crime is not necessarily incident to crowded cen- 
ters of population," is Mr. Whitman's statement. 
"Drunkenness is not an unavoidable element in 
civilization, and the evil that is so prevalent, so 
horribly degrading, and so awful in its social evil, 
the human race, — commonly known as the social evil, 
— is no more necessarily incident to the life of our 
American people than are the plagues known in 
history and now checked by scientific pioneers. The 
time is going to come in this land when the evils 
which are so prevalent today, the temptations to 
which young men and young women are subjected, 
will be regarded with incredulity and with horror. 
The world is not waiting for the college-bred man 
and woman as such, but the great field of human en- 
deavor is open to any and to all who are willing and 
able to make an honest contribution to the sum of 
human knowledge." 

This great field of human endeavor is not the 



exclusive responsibility of either men or women — it 
belongs to both, one of the unanswerable arguments 
for equal suffrage. Revelations of political corruption 
come as a shock to the high-minded woman as to the 
high-minded man, revelations of civic corruption ex- 
pressed in the social evil seem to her to touch the 
very depths of degradation. The supreme need of 
the century is for clean hands and pure heart and 
our schools and colleges must recognize and attempt 
to meet this need, not only for the sake of the indivi- 
duals who are directly affected but for the sake of the 
common welfare. The strength which is as the 
strength of ten because the heart is pure, was never 
more needed than in this modern day of ours with its 
insistent demands, its perplexing problems, and 
heavy responsibilities. 

On Copley Square in Boston, at the side of Trinity 
Church, there is the bronze figure of a bishop who 
was in a peculiar sense the Bishop of New England, a 
personality too great and inspiring to be limited to 
any church. One of his messages to the men of the 
nineteenth century we may well take as a message 
to the women of the twentieth: — 

"Oh, do not pray for easy lives. Pray to be stronger 
women! Do not pray for tasks equal to your powers. 
Pray for powers equal to your tasks! Then the doing 
of your work shall be no miracle. But you shall be a 
miracle. Every day you shall wonder at yourself, at 
the richness of life, which has come in you by the 
grace of God." 



KINDERGARTEN FOR THE BLIND 

Kindergarten training for blind children is not 
new; but the plan heretofore tried has been to sim- 
ply enter the tiny sightless ones in regular work 
with "seein" children, and let the less fortunate ones 
take their chances of understanding and absorbing. 
It has never been wholly successful. 

R. B. Irwin, superintendent of classes for the blind, 
has now brought to a realization his dream for 
giving the right sort of help to blind children, and 
last week organized at Goodrich House a regular kin- 
dergarten class. 

The enrollment is small as yet, only three are 
listed; but in this particular branch, it is Mr. Irwin's 
purpose to keep the class small. 

Said Irwin: "Blind children suffer their greatest 
disadvantage when small. At home, realizing their 
affliction, the mother usually waits on such a child to 
the extent that it is much under developed physically. 
Guarded from the danger of physical hurt or accident 
such a child does not learn to play. 

"When entered in kindergartens, it is usually six 
or seven years old. A blind child that has not 
mingled with other children up to this age is self-con- 
scious and appears dull. The purpose of the new kin- 
dergarten for blind children is principally to teach 
them to play seeing children's games, to forget, as far 
as possible, that there is a difference. To learn to 
play normally and naturally is the child's first instinct, 
and in the blind child this instinct is stifled." — Jack- 
sonville {Fla.) Times-Union. 



202 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



FEBRUARY DRAWING 
Olive Wills, Manistee, Mich. 

This is the month of romance so full of sweet senti- 
ment, also the month for stories of heroic deeds of 
great soldiers and stateman, for the birthdays of Lin- 
coln and Washington bring to mind the two great 
epoches in our country's history as well as the lives 
of two noble men. Lincoln was a man with tender 
love and sympathy for humanity so we may weave in 
with our valentine work stories of good little 
Brownies who bring love and great deeds into the 
home. 

To mother, father and playmates, and may thereby 



the child pencil or crayons or scissors, tell or read a 
story, when possible have them act some parts, calling 
attention to action and proportion. They rarely need 
further help. Directions for cutting in the January 
number of this magazine. 

For Washington's birthday study and draw the U. 
S. flag. Note the blue field is an oblong, the lower 
edge comes to the lower edge of the fourth red stripe. 
In these grades do not attempt to place the stars, but 
have correct number of stripes and placed correctly. 

Make a tent or perhaps a fort, a cock hat, shield or 
badge. One badge we make is of three two inch 
circles of drawing paper, one white, then color one 
blue, the other red. Place all together and cut up to 



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bring to them a truer, higher sentiment regarding 
the valentine and the use of the valentine. 

Lincoln's birthday comes first, so we will tell stories 
of his life, work and kindly deeds and draw and cut 
pictures of these stories. Picture making is one of 
the best ways of impressing a lesson on the child 
mind. Of course some of their pictures will be crude 
and quite impossible for the teacher to understand but 
you will find the child from "1-4 grades" full of un- 
bounded confidence, sure that his picture is very clear 
and very beautiful. I once heard of a child who was 
working very earnestly. Teacher asked "Johnny, 
what are you making." Answer — "A picture of God." 
"Why, Johnny, don't you know no one knows how God 
looks." Johnny — "Well, they will when I get thru 
with this." 

After the fourth grade the pupil is more conscious 
of his failures, more reticent in attempting an 
imaginative picture. But in the lower grades give 



the center, Fig. I, separate and fit one into the other, 
Fig. II, then turn and slip around until you have the 
colors equally divided, Fig. III. A bent pin thru the 
center will hold it together and fasten it to the coat. 

A fort — take a drawing paper Zy-ixZy*, working 
drawing given, Fig. IV. You can make the circles for 
canon holes by tracing around a rather large pencil 
then cut out. For cannons cut slips of paper a 
trifle larger at one end, roll these, place in the holes 
small end out. Cut a tiny flag-staff and all of paper, 
color and paste to top of fort. 

The older pupils will enjoy a study of the flags of 
various nations at this time particularly of the waring 
nations. 

Draw and paint the flag then on another paper, 
write some few notes concerning the history of the 
flag, fasten these all together in a booklet. Decorate 
the cover in some conventional way, Fig. V an ex- 
ample. Print in capital letters the word "Flags." 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



203 



Neatness and care in spacing is the all important 
problem in this part of the work. 

No doubt all teachers will have many ideas for the 
valentines. Here, too, neatness and simplicity are the 
notes to emphasize. On these do all lettering in 
capitals, it is easier, but notice that they do not 
sometimes put in a small letter with the capitals. 
Print first on strong ruled writing paper, blacken the 
back with soft pencil then trace into the valentine. 
The decoration might be a flower, violet, pansy, rose, 
or forget-me-not. Red is for love; violet, faithfulness; 
blue, true. Or perhaps use a symbol such as a heart, 
for love; the circle, faithfulness; the cross for ser- 
vice; and the clover for luck. A bird or butterfly 
might be for message, but I would urge symplicity. 
Do not combine flowers, symbol, birds and butterflies 
all on one valentine, use but one motif. It is often 
well to cut of stiff paper the flower, heart, clover leaf, j 
etc., then trace these on the card in desired arrange- 
ment and color. 

For many of the following suggestions, Figs. VI, cut 
a pattern first by folding so that the two sides will 
be symmetrical. 

"Roses red, violets blue, 
Candy's sweet and so are you." 



BOOK NOTES 



SIXTY MUSICAL GAMES AND RECREATIONS, By 

Laura Rountree Smith. Cloth, 153 pages, price 75c. 

Published by Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston, Mass. 

This book was written in response to the inquiry. 

"How can I make my pupils' Recitals Interesting?" 

"How shall I present the facts of music to children." 

It contains 30 games and 30 recitals relating to child 

interests, and is a most valuable book for kindergar- 

tners and primary teachers. 

LIPPINCOTT'S NEW PICTURE COMPOSITION 
BOOK. By J. Berg Esenwein, with. 45 full-page 
illustrations, many of them in color, by well-known 
illustrators. Cloth, 110 pages. J. B. Lippincott Co., 
Philadelphia and London. Price 50 cents net. 
Accompanying each of the 45 pictures are questions 
to help the child to study it intelligently and thus 
train his powers of observation and description. 
There is a short foreword explaining the purpose of 
the book and the method of using it, and there are 
short talks to the pupils, one telling "What we are 
going to do;" one upon "Seeing things clearly," and 
still another, giving suggestions bout how to tell a 
story when you have one in mind. The little volume 
should be very helpful to the teacher of English com- 
position to the little child and to older ones as well, 
in securing good results in language work, botn 
spoken and written. 

ROBIN HOOD, by Maude Redford Warren, formerly 

instructor in English in the University of Chicago. 

Author of King Arthur and his Knights. Cloth, 

12mo, 290 pages. Price, 50 cents. Rand McNally 

& Company, Chicago and New York. 

Intrinsically a book for children. Few reading 

books which attempt to adapt so-called standard 

literature to the comprehension of young minds have 

been so completely successful in avoiding manners 

of thought and style comprehensible to mature minds 

only. 

Robin Hood, Maid Marian, Little John, and all the 
merry men live and move again in the bright green- 
wood. The blows of quarterstaves resound, some- 
times arrows fly and green-clad men lurk in the 
forest, but more often amid the fragrance of the 
woods is laughter and singing and merry play to the 
sound of chirping birds and the soft gurgle of cool 
springs. 



STRAIGHT LINE CUTTING 

Carrie L. Wagner. 

The children are busy during the month of 
February making soldier caps, flags, forts, and tents. 
Perhaps they would like a poster which may easily be 
made from a square folded into sixteen little squares. 
Cut straight through on the center line, making two 
oblongs of eight squares each. From one of these 
oblongs make the fort. Divide the piece into eight 




equal parts by folding the two ends together, then 
fold the right and left sides of this double piece to its 
center line; open the whole piece, and there are eight 
divisions. Cut away one of these at the right end 
on a straight line. Now fold the upper oblong edge to 
the center horizontal line; open and cut out the 
second, fourth, and fifth small squares formed at the 
top by these folds. Draw or cut some port holes, and 
you have a nice fort. 

Cut the other oblong piece of eight squares through 
the center vertical line, making two squares of four 
squares each. Fold one of these squares on both 
diagonals, open and cut on the lines into four trian- 
gular pieces. These are the tents. Cut soldiers free 
hand from the other square of four little squares left 
from making the tent. 



STORY TELLING 



Miss Mabel C. Bragg, of Bragville, Mass., in an 
address before the kindergarten section of the Mich- 
igan State Teachers' meeting gave the following 
suggestions relative to acquiring the art of story 
telling: 

1. Read the story in the best literary form in 
which it may be found. Read it several times for the 
sake of forming mental images. 

2. Make an outline: 

(a) Write out the first sentence as you wish to 
begin it. 

(b) Compare your outline with the book, and 
choose telling words and phrases, which you wish to 
give in the author's own words. 

(c) Write out the sentence which is to be your 
climax. 

(d) Write out your concluding sentence. As a 
warning, Miss Bragg said never to write the entire 
story and commit it. 

3. Self examination: 

(a) Try telling it before a mirror to study facial 
peculiarities and overcome them. 

(b) Put meaning into the words. Make the final 
consonants clear and the vowels round. Final 1-m-n- 
and ng- may be made beautiful and resonant by pro- 
longing them. 

4. Practice on somebody, preferably a member of 
the family. Try it on a few children. 

5. Then tell it to your room. If you hold their at- 
tention you will know that you are telling it as well 
as you can and it will be easier and better each time 
you try. 



Annual meeting of the Department of Superinten- 
dence, N. E. A, at Cincinnati, Feb. 22-28. 




NEW GAMES, PLAYS AND PIECES FOR LITTLE PEOPLE 





WRITTEN FOR THE KINDERGARTEN 
PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




ST. VALENTINE AND THE FAIRIES. 
Tune— Comin' Thro' the Rye. 

All. 
We are happy little fairies, 

Dancing as we go, 
For Saint Valentine is bringing 

Gifts for us, we know. 
Do the children wish to please him? 

This shall be the sign: 
Those who really love each other 

Send a valentine. 

First Fairy. 
St. Valentine so good and true 
Brings what message now to you? 

All. 

We are not only to remember a friend, 
But a message true to a lonely one send. 

First Fairy. 
Who will you remember? 

First Pupil. 

This heart so blue and true, 
Sick Johnnie, I send to you. 

Second Pupil. 

Lame little Mary, so gentle and kind, 
A token of love from me you will find. 

Third Pupil. 

Toor Newsboy Willie, who is out in the cold, 
With this tinseled heart I also send gold. 

A VALENTINE PLAY. 

By Latjka Rountree Smith. 

Book Rights Reserved. 

Saint Valentine. — "I have so many valentines to 
make I do not know what to do." 

(Enter February with a flag.) — "I am little Febru- 
ary, let me help you, let me help you!" 

Saint Valentine. — "Are you sure you have time to 
help me?" 

February. — "I am busy to be sure, I have to keep 
Longfellow's birthday and Lincoln's birthday, and 
Washington's birthday, but still I will help you all I 
can." 

Saint Valentine. — "Suppose we ask the school chil- 
dren to help us?" 

February. — "That is the best idea of all!" 

Saint Valentine.— "Here they come, here they 
come!" 

(Children enter carrying hearts made of wall-paper, 
pasted on card-board.) 



Song. — Tune "Little Brown Jug." 
Oh we are merry little hearts, 
We have escaped young cupid's darts, 
Who will accept this heart of mine, 
And be my little valentine? 
Chorus. 

Ha! ha! ha! don't you see 

You are the valentine for me, 
Ha! ha! ha! don't you see 
You are the valentine for me, 
(Hold hearts up, down, right, left, on heads. Face 
in two and two, hold hearts touching, separate in the 
center, couples march right and left, pass, meet again, 
hold hearts up while the others march through. 
Stand in two lines facing each other, march forward 
and back several times repeating chorus of song, 
march right and left, meet in one line, and take posi- 
tion indicated by the picture, and recite) : 
1st. 

Please accept this heart of mine, 
And be my little valentine. 



2nd. 



3rd. 



4th. 



5th. 



6th. 



Hearts, like doors have little keys, 
As "Pardon me," and "If you please." 

A heart-shaped valentine we'll send, 
To every little waiting friend. 

On each heart we'll write a line, 
Will you be my valentine? 

Then we'll write pretty verses too, 
Today we send our love to you! 



Happy hearts, soon in their places, 
You'll see little smiling faces! 
(Hold hearts over faces and lower them, repeat 
chorus to song, all rising, and march out.) 



AN OLD STORY. 

Did you ever hear the story of the hatchet and the 

tree? 
Tis told so very often that 'tis old as old can be : 

Long years ago there lived a boy, and George was 

his name — 
To him was given a hatchet — here's a picture of the 

same. 

As forth he went to chop with it, a cherry tree he 

spied, 
And down he cut it. — chop, chop chop, though 'twas 

his father's pride. 

And later when his father saw what mischief had 
been done, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



205 



He called to George and said to him, "Did you do 
this, my son?" 

And then, brave George, with saddest air, replied in 

answer true, 
"I did it with my hatchet, sir; I'll tell the truth to 

you." 

A FLAG PLAY. 

(The children may wave right arm over head or 
carry real flag as preferred. They go round in a circle.) 
Wave the pretty flag on high, 
Like soldiers we go marching by, 
Waving, waving to and fro, 
It is our banner as you know, 
We will bow our heads to you, 
(Pause, face center of circle.) 

Dear old red and white and blue. 
(Repeat first four lines, sing verse of song while 
marching in a circle, sing the chorus marching to- 
ward center of circle and back.) 

THE WREN 
By Mary E. Cotting 
Music; — Old Ball-Bird Song: "I'm a Robin." 
I'm a wren, 
I'm a wren, 
So shy and so brown; 
A very small bird 
That lives in bird-town; 
I'm busy, so busy 
With my birdies seven, — 
But if you'll just listen 
You'll hear us all sing: — 
O, love us! O, love us! 
That's what we say, 
O, love us! O, love us! 
O, love us alway! 

THE CROW 
I'm a crow, 
I'm a crow, 

I suppose you all know; 
I'm big and I'm black 
And as wise as I'm big. 
And though not a beauty 
I'm sleek and fat, 
My nest's not fine, 
But it suits Mother Crow 
So what could be better, 
I'd like to know! 

SLEEP, BABY, SLEEP! 

Sleep, baby, sleep! 
Thy father is watching the sheep, 
Thy mother is shaking the dreamland tree, 
And down drops a little dream for thee. 

Sleep, baby, sleep! 

Sleep, baby, sleep! 
The great stars are the sheep, 
The little stars are the lambs, I guess, 
The bright moon is the shepherdess. 

Sleep, baby, sleep! 



SONG. 
Tune "Yankee Doodle." 

We wave the bonnie banners high, 

With lovely colors glowing, 
We're soldier boys and girls at play, 

And to the war we're going. 
Chorus. 

Wave the banners overhead, 

Skipping then so lightly, 
Wave the banners overhead, 

We will bow politely 



LADY MOON. 



Child. 

Lady Moon, Lady Moon, 
Lady Moon, Lady Moon, 
You are large and bright, 
May I ride tonight? 
Lady Moon. 

If you are good I'll call by and by, 
And you may ride with me up in the sky. 
Child. 

Lady Moon, Lady Moon, 
May I ride and float, 
Lady Moon, Lady Moon, 
In your little boat? 
Lady Moon. 

If you are good as a child should be 
You may ride to the land of dreams with me! 
Children (waving arms up, and down,) 
Lady Moon, Lady Moon, 

We all are good you know, 
Lady Moon, Lady Moon, 
Riding we will go. 



SNOW PATHS 
Frank Walcott Hutt, Myricks, Mass. 
A thousand paths in the winter snow 

All the world is bravely making; 
Through town and valley, and to and fro, 

Journeys wonderful they 're taking 
The way that leads to the school and shop 

In the snow leaves many traces — 
From city street to the mountain top, 

And a score of busy places. 

But have you been to the woods, to see 

How the snow paths there are running? 
By stone wall gray, and 'neath mossy tree 

There are footprints queer and cunning. 
The rabbit, chipmunk and wary quail 

Make their roads through dale and hollow; 
Go, look today for the wood folk's trail, — 

Though you '11 find it hard to follow. 



HOW IT HAPPENED 
"How's your brother, Jimmy?" 
"Ill in bed, miss. He's hurt himself." 
"How did he do that?" 

"We were seeing who could lean farthest out of the 
window, and he won!" 




MOTHER PLAY PICTURE "THE JOINER" 

NOTE— This picture can be detached and placed on the wall or used otherwise in the Kindergarten. 



Learn Ic! 




Easily learned — Pleasant work — 
Short hours — Big- Salaries — Posi- 
tions assured. 1500 graduates 
working'. Can earn board. Write 
for free catalogue. 

Barry's Telegraph Institute 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 



When answering this adv. say that 
you saw it in the Kind. -Prim. Mag'. 



SEAT 



BOOK NOTES 

THE FOREST RING, By William 
C. de Mille, founded on the play 
written by Mr. de Mille, in col- 
laboration with Charles Barnard. 
Charmingly illustrated in color 
and in ink drawings by Harold 
Sichel. Cloth, 180 pages. $2.00 
net. George H. Doran Co. 38 W. 
32 St., N. Y. City. 

A surprising number of authors 
and artists have taken trips to 
Fairyland this year, and none have 
returned with more interesting 
facts concerning that remote place 
than those who have made this 
I book. It is truly a fairy fantasy, 
The Latest and Best Busy Work gay w jth tender humor, and with 
Series - „ 'surprising information about that 

By Elizabeth Merrick Ivnipp, B. 

50 LANGUAGE SHEETS 
50 ARITHMETIC SHEETS 
50 GEOGRAPHY SHEETS 
50 MISCELLANEOUS SHEETS 
50 DRAWING SHEETS 



S. 



mysterious region. We are told the 
adventures of little Jane Adams, 
who is privileged to be taken inside 
the Forest Ring because she truly 
believes in fairies and is able there- 
Size of sheet, 3y 2 x5 — Colored, Illus-] f f j , j returning her cubs 
trated with full directions for using*,™ , p ln returning ner cuds 
each set, and adapted to all grades i to Mother-bear Ursa. Dear little 
of school work. I fairy Moss Bud is very young, being 
Prices, 25 cts. per set of 50-5 sets $i onl seve ral hundred thousand 
Keep your pupils busy and they will J 



JUST WHAT YOU ARE LOOKING 
FOR. 



give you no trouble. 

SPECIAL OFFER 

To introduce this 'work we will 
send the five complete sets, postpaid, 
upon receipt of 50 cents in stamps. 
One From Many. 



years old, and so, in her first experi- 
ments with the magic wand and 
book of fairy instructions, she 
makes several very serious mis- 
takes. And actually, naughty little 
fairy Quicksilver forgets his lesson 



"The Busy Work Series are just J and fails in telling where Ali Baba's 
what people want. Send me 500 cave is located; and he cannot say 
sets, 100 of a kind The series arej who flrst used the expression "Fee, 
just excellent and I shall do some:. ,, „ , „ _, r „, , ,. ' 

splendid work for you selling them A, to, film! Tommy Watson, his 
in Iowa." Prin. O. A. Collins, Stuart, I mother, and Hank Struble, all learn 
™™„ redress, \V. HAZLETONj tnr0Ugll pain f u i experience that 

SMITH, 117 Seneca St., Buffalo, N. Y. , . . - » • .-', /. , 

' ! I j hunting for fun is against the rules 

When answering this adv. say that of tne forest and thanks to little 
vou saw it in the Kind— Prim. Mag. T , ,, ... -, . -, .. 

i. „_ mTOm _ _ | Jane s faith, courage and quick wit, 

the human mother, and the bear 
mother eventually have their chil- 
dren restored, and sympathy and 




Volume 1. By Felix Arnold, Ph. D. 

Model Lessons in Arithmetic, 



Reading, Phonics, Spelling, Die- i make nn 
tation, Language Forms, Grammar, nidite-uy. 

History 



good will are brought about be- 
tween the humans and the animals. 
A very beautiful book in spirit and 



Composition, Geography, 
and Study of Nature. 

PUBLISHED BY 
S. MANDEL, 27 St. Nicholas Place 

NEW YORK CIITY. 

8 vo. Bound in cloth 416 Pages 

Price $1.65 Post. 6 cts. 



p"*««w ' ■' "■"■" "■nmiiwwiii^KWgTW 

BUY ENTERTAINMENTS 

From "The Bouse That Helps" 

A live concern which handles this 
material as a BUSINESS, not- a 
side-line. 

Our new free catalog is ready for 
you, listing the best in Plays, 
Drills, Action Songs, Speakers, 
Operettas and Material for Special 
Days. Send today. 

Eldridge Entertainment Mouse, 
Franklin, Ohio. 



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you saw it in the Kind—Prim. Mag. 



SUNBONNBTS AND OVERALLS, 
A dramatic reader and an 
operetta by Etta Craven Hogate 
and Eulaie Osgood Grover. Illus- 
trations in color by Bertha Cor- 
bett Melcher. Cloth, 8vo, 84 
pages. Price, 40 cents. Rand 
McNally & Company, Chicago. 

The little children play their way 
through the lessons; they march 
and dance and sing. They do the 
things they like to do, play the 
games every child loves; they are 
given opportunity for movement 
and rhythm, acting out their im- 
pulses, imitating, and with every 
movement and every acted thought 
they are learning. 

A little operetta is included which 
meets another childhood instinct, 
that of singing. The operetta is a 
simple little proceeding, as simple 
as the child itself, with many 
melodious songs. 



By Laura Rountree Smith. 

Teaches the use of sharps and 
Hats and other facts of music by 
games. 

Contains thirty musical entertain- 
ments for months of the school year. 

Endorsed by leading educators. 

No kindergarten teacher should 
be "without it. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO. 

150 Tremont Street, BOSTON 



When answering this adv. say that 
you saw it in the Kind— Prim. Mag. 



Sight-Reading lelodies 



FOR PRIMARY GRADES. 

By Laura Rountree Smith and P. F. 

Churchill, are intended for "First 

Steps" in Sight-Reading. 

The book contains 39 beautiful 
Rote Songs, and 250 Melodies with 
words. 

The underlying principle is to 
eliminate syllable reading to an ex- 
tent and require children to sing at 
sight. 

Each exercise was written with 
this end in view. 

The authors have succeeded in 
working out problems without 
sacrificing melody, and the words 
appeal to children. 

With this combination the book 
should appeal to every kindergarten 
and primary teacher. 

CLAYTON F. SLMMY CO., 
64 East Van Buren Street, Chicago. 



When answering this adv. say that 
you saw it in the Kind— Prim. Mag. 




BY S. C. PEABODY. 

A collection of poems for use in 
the first three years of school life. 

Soine point or moral is embodied 
in each poem. They have been tried 
in the classroom and their useful- 
ness proved. 

A valuable book for primary 
teachers to have in hand. 

Paper. Price 25 cents postpaid. 

New England Publishing Co. 

6 BEACON STREET, BOSTON. 



When answering this adv. say that 
you saw it in the Kind— Prim; Mag. 







KINDERGARTEN FURNITURE 

AND SUPPLIES 

Construction Materials of all Kinds, also Montessori Goods 

THOMAS CHARLES COMPANY 



North- Western Agents of Milton Bradley Co. 



207 North Michigan Ave., Chicago. 



Headquarters for Temperance Supplies 

Books 

Song Books 

Leaflets on Scientific Temperance Teaching 

Story Leaflets 

The Young Crusader— Temperance paper for boys and girls; profusely illustrated; and aside 
from stories it contains splendid ideas for entertainments and selections for recitations — help- 
ful alike to teacher and pupil. Published monthly, 25 cents per year. 

Toots — An illustrated book of stories by Anna A. Gordon. Price 60 cents postpaid. Send for 
latest bulletin. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION 



Literature Building 



Evanston. Illinois 



The Childrens' Home Society of Ohio 

One of a Federation of 29 State Societies 

We invite applications from 
suitable private families for 
children of both sexes and ail 
ages, but especially boys from 
one month to ten years old. 

For literature, blanks, etc., 
call or address, 

Dr. F. H. DARBY, 

State Superintendent 




Help a Child 
Find a Home 



Both phones Columbus,, O. 
34 West First Avenue 



THE SCHOOL CENTURY 

Of OAK PARK, III., a most helpful educa- 
tional monthly, $1.25 per annum, and the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine, both one year, pre- 
paid anywhere in United States and possessions 



American Primary Teacher 



Edited by A. E. WINSHIP 

Published Monthly Except July and A', gust 

An up-to-date, wide awake paper for the grades. Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography. New Work in the Grades, 
Drawing, Fables in Silhouette and other school room work. 

Send for specimen copy. 

Subscription, $1.00 a Year 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING CO. 

6 BEACON STREET. BOSTON 



AMERICAN EDUCATION 



Of Albany, one of New York's leading educa- 
tional papers, $1.00 per annum, and the Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine, both one year, post- 
age prepaid in United States and possessions 



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AMERICAN KINDERGARTEN SUPPLY HOUSE 

276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 



KINDERGARTEN SUPPLIES 

Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Construction 

Material 

WE ARE HEADQUARERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE. Send for catalogue. 

THOS. CHARLES CO. 207 N. Michigan Avenue., Chicago, 111. 




Headquarters for Temperance Supplies 

Books 

Song Books 

Leaflets on Scientific Temperance Teaching 

Story Leaflets 

The Young Crusader — Temperance paper for boys and girls; profusely illustrated; and aside 
from stories it contains splendid ideas for entertainments and selections for recitations — help- 
ful alike to teacher and pupil. Published monthly, 25 cents per year. 

Toots — An illustrated book of stories by Anna A. Gordon. Price 60 cents postpaid. Send for 
latest bulletin. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION 



Literature Building 



Evanston, Illinois 



lie Childrens' Home Society of Ohio 

One of a Federation of 29 State Societies 

We invite applications from 
suitable private families for 
children of both sexes and all 
ages, but especially boys from 
one month to ten years old. 

For literature, blanks, etc., 
call or address, 

Dr. F. H. DARBY, 

Help a Child State Superintendent 

Find a Home Both phones Columbus,, O. 




34 West First Avenue 



THE SCHOOL CENTURY 



Of OAK PARK, III., a most helpful educa- 
tional monthly, $1.25 per annum, and the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine, both one year, pre- 
paid anywhere in United States and possessions 



$1.60 



inary 



Edited by A. E. WINSHIP 

Published Monthly Except July and A', gust 

An up-to-date, wide awake paper for the grades. Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography. New Work in the Grades, 
Drawing. Fables in Silhouette and other school room work. 

Send for specimen copy. 

Subscription, $1.00 a Year 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING CO. 

6 BEACON STREET. BOSTON 



AMERICAN EDUCATION 

Of Albany, one of New York's leading educa- 
tional papers, $1.00 per annum, and the Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine, both one year, post- 
age prepaid in United States and possessions 





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)ERGARTEN SUPPLY HOUSE 

276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 






NEW BLACKBOARD STENCILS 

We can supply any Blackboard Stencil made at low- 
est prices. The following are all Sc each. S or more at 
4c each, unless the price of loc is given after the name 
of the stencil. In such case the price Is loc or any 3, 8c. 

ANIMALS. We can supply stencils 
for illustrating all domestic ani- 
mals, wild animals, and animals 
of the field. Send to us for what- 
ever is wanted in stencils. 

BIRDS. Stencils to illustrate all 
birds of every clime. Also fowls. 
State your wants and will supply 
it promptly. 

INSECTS. All ordinary in- 
sects, including silkworm 
and cocoon will be supplied. 
FISH. Sword fish. Shark, 
Jelly fish, Star Fish, etc. 
FRUITS. All kinds, also plants, trees, etc. 
FlXWKRS. Many different kinds. 
MAPS. Hemispheres, Continents, countries 
and states. Each 10c. Any three 8c. each. 
1 WRITING CHARTS. Complete set. Vertical or 
Slant. State which is wanted. Per set, ^Oc. 

PHYSIOLOGY. 1. Skeleton; 2. Lungs: 3. Heart; 
4, Intestines; 5, Brain; 6, Nervous System; 7, 
Eye; 8, Ear. Price, 10c. Three or more, 8c. 

CALENDAR. An appropriate design for each 
month, illustrating principal holiday and birth- 
days which occur. 10c. ; three or more, 8c. each. 
AMERICAN HISTORY CHARTS. Illustrating 
all important historical events. Send for list. 
We can supply any stencil made at lowest prices. 
Christmas STENCILS. A complete list will be found else- 
where in this price list. Also Hallowe'en, Thanksgiving, New 
Years, Washington's Birthday, Easter. Arbor Day, Flag Day, 
Memorial Day, and birthdays'of Longfellow, at. al. See index. 
PATRIOTIC. U. S. Shield, Statue of Liberty, Coat of Arms, 
V. S., Liberty Bell, Bunker Hill Monument, Mavllower, U. S. 
Flag, 24x36, Landing of Pilgrims, Goddess of Liberty. 

DECORATIVE. Roll of Honor, Welcome, Program, Good 
Morning, Good Night, Memorial Day, Queen of May. 
CHRISTMAS STENCILS. Merry Christmas, Same, 24xn,3,10c. ; 
Santa Clans Border. Holly Border, Christ- 
mas Tree, New Santa Claus, Santa Claus, 
Sled and Reindeer. Santa and Stocking, 
Happy New Year, Christmas Morning, 10c. 

Thanksgiving Stencils. Landing of Pilgrims. Home 
for Thanksgiving, Mayflower, Pilgrims Going to Church, 
John Alden and Priscilla, Corn. Pumpkin. Horn of Plenty, 
Sheaf of Wheat. Motto, "O, give thanks unto the Lord, for He 
is food ; for His mercy endureth forever," 10c. 

Many other stencils are Hated under Special Day 
goods. 

SPECIAL BRILLIANT CRAYON 

To be used with these stencils. Two sticks each red, 
yellow, orange, green, blue and violet, 12 In all. The 
colors are most beautiful. Per box, 2oe. 

New Busy Work Stencils 

Designed to be used by children at 
their desks on paper or other material 
and most excellent for teaching draw- 
ing, coloring, literature, language, &c. 
Ten stencils in an envelope, at 10c. per 
set. Sold in sets only, never singly. 
Set 1, Large Animals, Horse, 

Elephant, etc. 
Set 2. Small Animals, Cat, 

Dog, etc. 
Set 3. Flowers, Rose, Lily, 

Tulip, etc 
Set 4. Birds, Robin, Eagle, 

etc. 
Set P. 
Set 10. 
Set 11. 
etc. 
Set'12. Washington Stencils. 
Set 13. 



THE SCHOOL BULLETIN 

Of SYRACUSE, the old established State edu- rffr f AA 

cational paper of New York, and the Kindergar- \ I nil 

ten-Primary Magazine, both one year, pos:age (D I • UU 

paid anywhere in United States and possessions 1— _^^_ 

SCHOOL AND HOME 

Of Atlanta, Ga., one of the live, progressive educational 
papers of the South, and the Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine, both one full year, for only $1.15. 



•the™ 



MISSOURI SCHOOL JOURNAL 

Of JEFFERSON CITY, Mo., one of the best /f»| AAi 

State educational papers in the West, and the \ I nil 

Kindergarten-Primary Magazine, both one year, <D1 tUU I 

postage paid in United States and possessions, — mmm ^_ 

THE OHIO TEACHER: 

$1,601 



A vigorous, efficient, state educational paper, 
and THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMA- 
RY MAGAZINE, both one year for 



TEACHERS MAGAZINE 

$1,801 



Of NEW YORK, one of the great educational 
periodicals of America, and the Kindergar- 
ten-Primary Magazine, both one year postage 
paid in United States and possessions for only 




EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS 

$1.80 



Of NEW YORK, an educational publication of 
great merit ($1.25 per annum) and the Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine, both one year, 
postage paid in United States and possessions, 





Fishes from the Sea. 
Language Stencils. 
Maps of Continents, 




Set 23. Vegetables. 

Set 2*. Borders. 

Set 59. Patriotic. 

Set 2S. Snowflake. 

Set 22. Fruits, 
Lincoln Stencil=. 
Set l."i. Thanksgiving Stencils. 
Set 16. Christmas Stencils. 
Set 17. Valentine Stencils. 
Set is. Hollowe'en Stencils. 
Set lit, Hiawatha Stencils. 
Set 20. Eskimo Stencils. 
Set 21. Indian Stencils, 



OHIO EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY 

$1.00 



Of COLUMBUS, one of the best state educa- 
tional journals in Ohio, and the Kindergarten- 
Primary Magazine, both one year, postage paid 
anywhere in United States or possessions, only 



Note — Above busy work stencils come ten to the 
sheet. To be used on paper, not blackboard, and can 
only be used with powder, costing: loe for >4 lb. pack- 
age, postage le. 



THE PROGRESSIVE TEACHER 

$1.20 



Of NASHVILLE, Tenn., one of the very best 
educational papers in the South, and the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine, both one year, 
postage paid in United States and possessions, 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course (two years), 

and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for 

Home-making Course, non-professional (one year). 



Cla99 Rooni9 and 
Students' Residence 



GERTRUDE HOUSE, 

M Scott St., Chicago. 



Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 
Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

Directors: Mrs. Lthel Roe Lindgren, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, M Scott St. 



NATIONAL 

KINDERGARTEN 

COLLEGE— - 

ELIZABETH HARRISON, President. 

SUMMER SCHDOLJunc 1 4 to Aug. 6 

Kindergarten and Primary Methods. 
Playground Work. Model Demon- 
stration Seliools. Credits Applied 
on Regular Courses. Resident 
Dormitory on College Grounds. 

Come to a seliool where instruc- 
tion reeeived will have practical 
value in your fall work. 

For full information address 

Box GOO. 2944 Michigan Boulevard, 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, V«. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building. 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training in Theory and 
Prartlee of Froebelian Ideals. Vost- 
fJraduate Connie, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LCCT 8. COLEMAN. Director. 
MRS W. W ARCHER. Sec. and Trea* 

Grand Rapids Kindergarten 
Training School 



Kl NDERG ART EN 


COLLEGIATE 


INSTITUTE 



Organized in 1SS1 as Chicago 
Free Kindergarten Association. 

Oldest kindergarten training 
school in Chicago. Located in Fine 
Arts Building, overlooking Lake 
Michigan. Regular two years' dip- 
loma course. Special courses open 
to teachers and mothers. Universi- 
ty instructors. University credits. 
Address 

EVA B. WHITMORE, Registrar. 

Room 700, 410 S. Michigan Avenue, 

CHICAGO 




CLARA WHEELER, Princip al 

EVERY KINDERGARTNER 

Who can read and play simple music 

correctly, can add to her usefulness 

and income. 

For particulars write to 

KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL MRS. ANNA HEMANN HAMILTON 



:PESIALOZZi-FROEBEL: 



616-622 So. Mich. Boul. Chicago 
(New Location Ovclooking Lake Michigan.) 
DIPLOMA COURSE 2 YEARS 
Post-Graduate, Primary and Play- 
ground Workers courses. Special 
courses by University Professors. In- 
cludes opi>orUinity to become familiar 
with Social Settlement Movement at 

Chicago Commons. 

For circulars and information address, 

BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER. Supt. 

Box 51. 616-622 South Michigan 

Boulevard, Chicago. III. 



FULTON, MISSOURI 
Author of First Piano Lessons at Home 



MISS HARRIET NIEL 

Successor to Miss LAURA FISHER 

Training School for Kindergartners 

Normal Course two years. Graduate 

Htid Special Courses. 
10 Marlborough st. Boston. Mass. 



SUMMER SCHOOL 

SEW YORK UNIVERSITY, TJNI- 
A ERSITY HEIGHTS, New York City 

JULY 1 TO AUG. 11, 1915 

DR. JAMES E. LOUGH, DIRECTOR. 

KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENT 

Courses offered: Kindergarten- 
Primary Supervision; Mother-Play; 
Program Making and Method; 
Stories; Songs; Games; Gifts. 

For information address 
MISS HARRIETTS MELISSA MILLS 

Principal of Kindergarten Dept. 

New York University, .Washington 

Square, New York City. 

THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

Two vears normal course accredited 
by State Board of Regents. 

SUMMER COURSES 

Pay be taken for Kindergarten Train- 
ing School and University credit. 
New York University, 
University Heights 

July 1, August 11 
For information address 

MISS H AR.RIETTE M.MILLS. Principal 

New York University 
Washington Square, New York City. 

Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

Ex-supervisor New York Kinder- 
gartens, and special lecturer on edu- 
cational topics, can be secured for a 
limited number of addresses to tea- 
chers or mothers, at points not too 
remote from New York City. Her 
subjects are the following: 

"What is meant by a Problem Pro- 
gram in the Kindergarten." 

"A Study of Children's Drawings." 

"Primitive Knowledge, or the A 
B C of things." 

"The School of Infancy," "Montes- 
sori Methods for Day Nurseries." 
Address 
500 Manhattan Ave., NEW YORK. 



The Monlcssori Method in Rome i 8 74t-Kindertfarten Normal Institutions-191 4 



aLi'°lmlVo"Vi!.'^(!NT['ssOKYMET a HOb 
IN ROME, anil my practical adaptation ol 
the Method to the American School lor little 

children I will be glad to send lllustratedpam 
nhlet on request. Mrs 3 Scott Andereoi 
Dlrectresa. Torresdale House Training course- 
begins October 1st. 
American MonteBsorl Teacher-Training School 
Torresdale, Philadelphia. Pa 



1516 Columbia Road, N. W. WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollock, Principal 

Teachers' Training- Course — Two Yeara 

Summer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua Mountain Lake Park - 
Garrett Co., Maryland 



ER SCI 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, UNI- 
YERSITY HEIGHTS, New York City 

JULY 5 TO AUG. 18, L9L5 

DR. JAMES E. LOUGH, DIRECTOR. 

KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENT 

Courses offered: Ivindergarten- 
Primary Supervision; Mother-Play; 
Program Making and Method; 
Stories; Songs; Ganies; Gifts. 

For information address 
MISS HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 

Principal of Kindergarten Dept. 

New York University, .Washington 

Square, New York City. 



Montessori Summer Course 

Montessori Teaeher-training School 

Instruction in the theory and use 
of the Montessori materials. Resi- 
dent and day students. $.'50,000 
building adjoining All Saints Epis- 
copal Church. Elementary and col- 
lege preparatory courses. 4th year 
teacher-training course begins Oc- 
tober 1, 1915. For illustrated folder 
address 

Mrs. J. SCOTT ANDERSON, Direct- 
ress Torresdale House, 
Torresdale, Philadelphia, Pa. . . 



When answering this adv. say that 
you saw it in the Kind.-Prim. Mag. 



K 



INDERGARftN TRAINING SChCCL 

Two years course. State accredited 
List. Address. 

Miss GRACE SMITH BARNARD 
Hotel Shattuck, Berkeley, Cal. 



SESSION 



June 17 to August 28 

GEORGE PEABODY 

COLLEGE FOR 

TEACHERS 

The summer school will consist 

practically of a double ordinal y 

summer school. 

Special emphasis will be placed upon 
courses in manual training, home 
economics, rural life, rural supervi- 
sion, sanitation, and health, as well 
as upon the more commonly given 
courses dealing with the kindergar- 
ten, primary school, grammar 

school, etc. 
First term of summer school, June 
17 to July 23, second term July 24 to 
August 28. A total of 18 hours credit 
may be obtained, or a third of a col- 
lege year's work accomplished. 
For information, address, 

BRUCE R. PAYNE, Fres. 

George Peabody College for Teachers. 
NASHVILLE, TENjSL 



When answering this adv. say that 
you saw it in the Kind.-Prim. Mag. 



NOTES 

Although California has had for 
more than ten years a law author- 
izing consolidation of schools, con- 
solidation is not looked upon with 
favor according to J. C. Muerman, 
on official of the Bureau, who is 
now stationed in the southwest. 
Two of the schools visited by Mr. 
Muerman had only six pupils en- 
rolled. The teachers received sev- 
enty dollars a month. Both schools 
had good libraries. 

In spite of its encouragement and 
endorsement of "simplified spell- 
ing," the National Education As- 
sociation will not have its proceed- 
ings printed in that style. To a 
lar^e majority of those who read 
these proceedings the simplified 
from would be confusing, and no 
matter how much the Association 
officially may desire the change, it 
realizes that it would be a draw- 
back to have this important volume 
co printed. 

Close observation of six hundred 
school boys through a period of 
seven years to discover the effects of 
the tobacco habit demonstrated to 
Superintendent Davis of Menom- 
inee, Mich., that the non-smokers 
averaged from two to ten per cent 
higher in scholarship and were at 
still greater advantage in the ath- 
letics of the school. Idleness and 
poor conditions of home life were 
the almost invariable accompani- 
ments of all cases of smoking and 
::11 cases of failure which he ob- 
served. 

County play day is an established 
annual affair in Barnes county, 
North Dakota. Inaugurated prim- 
arily for the purpose of promoting 
the play idea among the schools of 
the rural communities and small 
towns, the ieda was taken up en- 
thusiastically by the people of the 
larger twons. The day is observed 
at a number centers within the 
county so as to bring the benefits 
within the reach of every pupil. 
A definite schedule of contests is 
planned for the day, and conducted 
by physical education teachers from 
the State Normal School. 

I Resolve: To keep my health, to 
do my work; to live; to see to it that 
I grow and gain and give; never to 
look behind me for an hour; to wait 
in weakness and to walk in power; 
but always fronting onward to the 
light; always and always facing to- 
ward the right. Robbed, starved, 
defeated, fallen, wide-astray — On 
with what strength I have. Back 
to the way. — Charlotte Perkins 
Stetson. 

Some folks call an unsightly pile 
of riff-raff a library and others call 
a pile of junk a laboratory. 



"Off agin', on agin', gone agin'. 
Flanagin," was the laconic report 
attributed to a freight train con- 
ductor. Here is another: Pat Don- 
ahue, the conductor, reported an 
accident to Mr. Straight, the train 
dispatcher, thus: 

"Twenty-two has a busted flue. 
What shall I do? Donahue." 

The answer came: "Wait. Two 
twenty-eight will take your freight. 
Dispatcher Straight." 



The Winona College Summer 
School is now one of the greatest 
in the country. Every summer it 
draws students from all parts of 
our own state and from other states. 

The strength of its faculty, range 
of work offered, healthful and beau- 
tiful location, Christian influences, 
educational value of Winona Chau- 
tauqua — taking- into consideration 
all of these things, the Winona Sum- 
mer School is second to none in the 
United States. 

During the Summer Term a stu- 
dent may carry a program made up 
of college studies, college-prepara- 
tory studies, a teachers' professional 
course, public school music, voice, 
violin, piano, history or theory of 
music, elocution, Public Speaking, 
German, French, Latin, Elementary 
or Advanced Mathematics, History, 
English, Literature, Science, Public 
School Drawing' and Art, Psycho- 
logy, Methods and Observation, Pri- 
mary and Kindergarten Work, and 
any other subject one is likely to be 
interested in. 

Don't foget the date, May 31 to 
August 20, 1915. 

This is the preliminary announce- 
ment of the Regular Summer Term 
beginning May 31. Our First Sum- 
mer Term begins April 19. In this 
First Summer Term we do not offer 
quite so many classes, but enough to 
meet the want? of nearly all stu- 
dents. 

WINONA COLLEGE 



JONATHAN RIGDOIV, President 

WINONA LAKE, INDIANA 



Syracuse University 




scnoo 



Jul. 5, Aug. 15 

Graduate Courses for a Master's Degree 
College Courses in al! Departments 
Elementary Courses in Languages and Sci- 
ences to make up College Entrance 

Deficiencies 
Courses in Painting, Drawing. Normal Art. 
Hernial Training, Stenography and Type- 
writing 
Courses in Gymnastics, and in Training 

Athletic Coaches 
Tuilion. 525. CO Board and Room, $5.00 to 

$6.50 a week 
For further information write to 

EDGAR C. MORRIS 

In writing for information, please mention 
this magazine 




"THE WHEELRIGHT" 

MOTHER PLAY PICTURE 



(See Page 213) NOTE— This picture can.be detached and placed on the wan or used otherwise in the Kindergarten 




THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY- 



MAGAZINE 



Published on the first op each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 




MARCH, 1915. 



VOL. XXVII— No. 7 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 

Page. 
General Suggestions for March 

Program Jenny B. Merrill 208 

Practical Suggestions on the 

Program by Weeks Jenny B. Merrill